Device for coupling tractor and trailer

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: for connecting tractors with trailers. The inventive device for coupling the tractor and trailer contains the drawbar, the ends of which are pivotally connected with the plugs. Fork mounted on the trailer and hitch cross bar of the tractor. In the guides set rod that can selectively block the rotation of the drawbar relative to one of the forks. 4 C.p. f-crystals, 5 Il.

The invention relates to coupling devices for connection tractors with trailers.

The control of the tractor and the implement maneuvers with such semi-trailers, which sometimes have the body of a very large capacity, coupled with the difficulties arising from crowded areas in which they are used.

The hitch system allows you to make a more comfortable driving a vehicle of this type, in particular by facilitating maneuvers in buildings, which are sometimes narrow and passages in which there are dead-end. It allows you to improve control when maneuvering forward and mainly when maneuvering in reverse.

The device of the hitch allows for normal is orota linked complex is reduced and vehicles are more maneuverable in tight spaces.

In Fig. 1 shows a tractor and semi-trailer, side view; Fig.2 - same, ventral view; Fig.3 - system coupling, bottom view, and Fig.4 - the same, lateral view; Fig.5 - option controls the latch.

In the hitch to the tractor 1 is the semi-trailer 2, downloadable from behind by a shovel 3 installed on the levers articulated joints. The trailer 2 is the axis of the pair of wheels 4 located under the rear half of the body. The hitch system includes the drawbar 5, located along the axis 6. This the drawbar 5 is located between the hitch cross member 7 of the tractor and the front part 8 of the trailer. Coupling the cross member 7 is fixed on the lifting levers 9 of the tractor (used for attachments). This cross member 7 can rotate around a horizontal axis 10, which is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis 6 of the tractor.

At each end of the draw bar 5 has a hinge axis of articulation (vertical), which forms the axis of rotation 11. The axis of rotation 11 is located in the center of the front part 8 of the trailer 2, and the axis of rotation 12 is located on the hitch cross member 7. These two hinge joints allow the trailer to rotate about one or the other of the axes 11, 12 depending on the desired maneuver.

The drawbar 5 shows epnoe cross member 7 and the lever 9 of the lifting system of the tractor to form a joint, which allows between the semitrailer and the tractor sufficient freedom of relative movement.

The drawbar 5 is presented in the form of a segment square tube or, for example, a frame, welded from metal sheets. The beam 5 has at its ends to front and rear vertical sleeve 14, which interacts with the axis 15, held appropriately in the system forks 16, one of which is rigidly fastened to the front part 8 of the trailer 2, and the other with coupling crossmember.

When performed in the version that is shown in Fig.3 and 4, the front end of the drawbar 5 from the side of the tractor has a system of forks 16 with axis 17, which rotates around the axis of the lateral oscillations of 13. This axis 17 intersects the coupling cross-member 7 and is installed in the sleeve 18, is rigidly connected with the said wheel strut. The front end of the axis 17 is equipped with locking devices in the form of a ring (coupling) 19 fixed pin so rigidly connecting beam 5 with the cross member 7.

Coupling the cross member 7 is presented in the form of a tube or elongated frame almost square cross-section, formed of welded metal plates. In its middle part, this frame has a sleeve 18, the si 13, which is perpendicular to the axis 10.

The cross member 7 mounted on the arms of the lifting system 9 (for attachments) tractor.

The length of the cross member 7 may be different from 0.5 m to about 1.5 m, This length must be compatible with the height and size of the vehicles used, and shall keep a sufficient turning radius for educated so hitch of the tractor and semitrailer. Similar devices provided at both ends of the drawbar 5, provide the specified beam two possible rotation around the previously mentioned vertical axes 11 and 12. Using an alternative each of the hinge joints 11 and 12, and you can optionally use one of them. Thus, the device in accordance with the invention has a locking (blocking) means for each of the axes.

The locking means consists of a rod 20, moving on to the draw bar 5 in two of the guides 21. The rod 20 is installed between the two axes of rotation 11 and 12, when the slide he can enter the slot 22 formed in the forks 16, which are located at both ends of the drawbar 5.

The contact rod 20 into the slot 22 allows to block the corresponding axle regards the LASS="ptx2">

Thus, depending on the maneuver the position of the rod 20 allows you to use the axis 11 or 12.

The rod 20 is moved in the case when the opposite slots 22 are one against the other in a straight line. Otherwise, a special form of forks 16 and they have the shape of arcs of the circle on both sides of the slots 22 prevents movement of the rod. These arcs of a circle centered on the respective axes of rotation 11, 12, they are on both sides of the slot 22.

Movement of the rod 20 may be implemented in various ways. In Fig.3 and 4 show one possible way this move by appropriate means. These tools consist of a handle of choice 23 by a hinge connected to the axle 24. The end of arm 23, which corresponds to the handle 25, is connected to the rod 20 by means of a return device type coil springs 26. Two limiting pin (stop) 27 allow you to restrict the sector maneuver the handle 23. They are arranged in such a way as to allow the device to automatically lock the position of the lever under the influence of spring 26, stretched between the rod 20 and the handle 25.

The fact that the handle 23 is rotated around its axis, allows sushestvitelnoe direction 27 of the movement of the rod 20, which is produced by movement of the handle 23 in the direction shown by the arrow 28. Under the influence of spring 26, the rod 20 quick movement, accompanied by a clicking sound, automatically rises in the assigned slot 22, as soon as the tractor and trailer are aligned in one line.

Movement of the rod 20 (Fig.5) along the guide rails 21 scenes produced by the command transmitted at a distance by means of the hydraulic Jack 29, preferably United with the battery 30. Can be provided by other methods of execution - mechanical type or by electromagnets.

In Fig. 2 tractor 1 is presented in the normal control thrust as in the straight position with the trailer and position of rotation. In this case, the front axle 12 is blocked by the rod 20, and a rear vertical axis 11 assumes the function of the axis of rotation. Thus, the drawbar 5 is constantly on the axis 6 of the tractor, it forms a strut 7 a T-shaped figure. In Fig.2 you can see that the axis of rotation 11 of the traction beam 5 in the front part of the trailer is in the plane 31, which cut nearly into two equal parts, the angle formed by the axis 32 of the rear tractor wheels and the axle is carried out almost in the footsteps of the rear wheels of the tractor, which greatly facilitates maneuvering of the machine of this kind. The ratio between the distance separating the axis 11 from the axis 32, on the one hand, and from the axis 32, on the other hand, is close to unity, ranging approximately from 0.75 to 1.25.

If there is a desire to facilitate reversing, and in particular to perform maneuvers in reverse, boom trailer can be extended, i.e., will increase the distance between the axis of rotation and the axis 33 of the wheels of the trailer. This is achieved by translation of the rod 20 in its rear position for blocking axis 11 and release the axis 12.

This is a very simple operation facilitates maneuvers when reversing and, in particular, the regulation of the position of the trailer in tight spaces and places.

1. DEVICE FOR COUPLING the TRACTOR AND TRAILER containing the drawbar, the ends of which are hinged to rotate about a vertical axis connected with the plugs installed on the trailer and hitch cross bar of the tractor and located on the draw bar locking mechanism rotation of the beam relative to the trailer, wherein the fork cross coupling of the tractor is made to rotate around prodol the and and management tools, made with a choice of one of two kinds of rotation lock drawbar.

2. The device under item 1, characterized in that the locking mechanism rotation of the drawbar is made in the form of a rod placed in the guide rails for movement along the drawbar and interaction one of its ends with one of the two slots located on each of the forks.

3. The device under item 1, characterized in that the shelves each plug is made from the side adjacent to another fork in the form of arcs of circles the center of which is located on the axis of rotation of the drawbar relative to this fork.

4. The device under item 1, characterized in that the control means made in the form of pivotally installed at one end on the draw bar arm of choice, the free end of which is spring-loaded relative to the rod and configured to interact with one of two stops placed on the draw bar and arranged symmetrically about the axis of rotation of the handle of choice.

5. The device under item 1, characterized in that the control means made in the form of a hydraulic cylinder placed inside the drawbar.

 

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