Model of hydraulic machines
(57) Abstract:Usage: in equipment designed for experimental studies of work processes in hydraulic machines, in particular in installations that renders a picture of the flow in the impellers of hydraulic machines. The inventive model of hydraulic machines includes a housing 1 with a transparent cover 2 and the impeller 4 with the blades 5, the leading disk (VD) 6 and a transparent covering disc 7. To VD 6 adjacent capsules (To) 8 container filled with the dye granules. 8 communicated with interscapular channels 10 through holes 11 in VD 6. 8 its permeable walls facing the periphery of the wheel 4 and is provided adjacent to VD 6 visors. Visors with 8 in the zone of permeable walls formed channels for the coated liquid. When the machine is in operation new granules dyes move into the zone of permeable walls under the action of centrifugal force. 3 Il. The invention relates to the experimental equipment used for visual examination of the mixture flow in the working wheels of hydraulic machines.Well-known model of hydraulic machines, comprising a housing with a transparent lid and placed it on the shaft of the impeller with vanes, p perforated with an extra disc and doughnut baffles, moreover, the container is filled with granular dye and communicated with interscapular channels wheels through the holes in the master disk .The disadvantage of hydraulic machines is uneven feed-colored fluid in the interscapular channels, due to a decrease in the process of modeling the hydraulic resistance of the cavity of the container with dye.Well-known model of hydraulic machines (prototype), comprising a housing with a transparent lid and placed it on the shaft of the impeller with blades, transparent coating and host drives attached to the master drive sleeve (capsules) container for dye communicated with interscapular channels wheels through the holes in the master disk, and each sleeve (capsule) contains permeable wall and filled with a granular dye soluble in the fluid .The disadvantage of this hydraulic machine is uneven height of the respectively colored jets in interscapular channels. Granules filling the container, resist the flow of liquid to the through holes in the leading drive wheel. During operation of the hydraulic machine as dissolution of the dye layer of the granules becomes thinner, and the ka painted jets in interscapular channels is constantly increasing. As a result of the complexity of the interpretation of the obtained results. Reduces the scientific value driven research.The aim of the invention is to improve the accuracy of the height of the respectively colored jets in interscapular channels.This goal is achieved by the fact that in the model of hydraulic machines capsule its permeable walls facing in the direction of the periphery of the impeller and is provided adjacent to the master drive visors, forming with capsules in the area of the permeable walls of the flow channels for the coated liquid.The proposed hydraulic machines differs from the prototype in that capsule for its permeable walls facing in the direction of the periphery of the impeller and provided with visors, forming with capsules in the area of the permeable walls of the latter flow channels for the coated liquid. Thus, the claimed hydraulic machines meets the criterion of "novelty". A comparison of the claimed technical solution is not only the prototype, but also with other technical solutions in this area did not reveal to them the availability of significant new features: visor and a flow channel for colored fluid and a new set known significant presnogo decision criterion of "Significant differences".The essence of the proposed solution consists in the following. In the design of the capsules of the container changes, ensuring the separation cavity of each capsule into two parts: the bottom - dead for colored liquid and the upper running part located in the area of the permeable wall. Stagnant part, covering the greater part of the cavity of the capsule acts as a container - tanks for storage of the dye granules. The purpose of a flowing part of the process of dissolution of the granules and colouring of the fluid. During the entire operating time of the hydraulic path of the coated liquid in the flow part of the capsule is maintained of the number of granules, concentrated under permeable wall of the capsules. This property of the model hydraulic machines is ensured by the mechanism of supply of granules on the basis of centrifugal force casting a dye of the stagnant part of the capsules to the periphery of the flow part, on the location of undissolved dye. The application of this mechanism became possible as a result of the proposed orientation of the capsules permeable walls in the direction of the periphery of the impeller. In the area of the permeable walls of the capsules are mounted visors, before the>/P>In Fig. 1 shows a longitudinal section of the hydraulic machine; Fig. 2 - node I in Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is a view As in Fig. 2.Model of hydraulic machines includes a housing 1 with a transparent cover 2, is placed in the housing 1 on the shaft 3 impeller 4 with the blades 5, the lead 6 and the transparent coating 7 discs adjacent to the master disk 6 of 8 capsules container filled with granules 9 dye and communicated with interscapular channels 10 wheels 4 through the holes 11 in the master disk 6. Capsules 8 of their permeable wall 12 facing the periphery of the impeller 4 and is provided adjacent to the master drive 6 visors 13 forming with capsules 8 in the zone of permeable walls 12 flow channels 14 for the coated liquid.The hydraulic machines is as follows.The pumped fluid enters the impeller 4, passes through the interscapular channels 10 and fed into the discharge region. Part of the pumped liquid from the impeller exit 4 enters the gap between the housing 1 and the impeller 4 to the input of the capsule 8. Passing in the area of the permeable wall 12 through the capsule 8 and partially dissolving granules 9, concentrated under permeable wall 12, the liquid is colored and flow channel 14 and twidles on the background of the main fluid stream, forming a trajectory, a line current, which can be observed visually and recorded by photoconverters through the transparent covering disc 7 and the cover 2 of the housing 1. In the process of working fluid machines as dissolving granules 9 dye in the area bounded by permeable wall 12 of the capsule 8, using centrifugal force serves new granules 9 of stagnant located on a smaller radius capsules 8.The choice of configuration permeable wall 12 of the capsule 8 and visor 13, and also the option of their resistance to determine the hydraulic resistance of the container with dye. The particular constructive solution of these elements depends on the hydraulic and structural parameters of the model hydraulic machines.Treatment capsules 8 its permeable walls 12 in the direction of the periphery of the impeller 4 and the supply visors 13 forming the flow channels 14 for the coated liquid, eliminate uncontrolled and unplanned change the height of the visualization of the flow in the interscapular channels of the impeller. As a consequence, increases the scientific value of the results, you receive the possibility of orientation of the longitudinal axis of the capsules in the radial direction, and due to scoi and placed it on the shaft of the impeller with vanes, coating a transparent and host drives attached to the master drive capsule container for dye communicated with interscapular channels wheels through the holes in the master disk, and each capsule contains permeable wall and filled with a granular dye soluble in the fluid, characterized in that, to improve the accuracy of the height of the respectively colored jets in interscapular channels, capsules its permeable walls facing in the direction of the periphery of the impeller and provided with visors, adjacent to the master disk and forming with capsules, in the area of the permeable walls of the latter, the flow channels for the coated liquid.
FIELD: oil producing industry: testing facilities.
SUBSTANCE: proposed stand contains one fixed clamping device and at least two self-aligning clamping devices, all coupled with mounting bases. Self-aligning devices are made for mounting under weight of downhole hydraulic motor at angle equal to angle of deflection of moving section relative to spindle section of downhole hydraulic motor in deflector assembly. Self-aligning devices consist of three plates, namely main, intermediate and turnable ones. Main plate is coupled with mounting base of stand, being provided with at least three longitudinal slots on its surface. At least three bushings are installed in intermediate plate. Bushings are pressed on by flat springs by means of which intermediate plate is lifted over main plate for displacement on ball bearings along slots in main plane along main plate. Turnable plate is installed on axle secured in intermediate plate, being lifted over intermediate plate by means of spring installed on axle for free turning relative to intermediate plate.
EFFECT: enlarged testing capabilities of stand for downhole hydraulic motors including tests in deflector assembly.
FIELD: aircraft industry; gas-turbine engines.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to diagnosing condition of automatic control systems of aircraft gas-turbine engines, particularly, to diagnosing systems of fuel-feed plunger pumps. According to proposed method of diagnosing condition of plunger pump to rotor space of which drain main line is connected, values of leaks are determined. This is done by measuring fuel flow rate in drain main line under test conditions set by rate of fuel at pump outlet. Device for implementing the method is made in form of drain main line connected to rotor space of pump, said main line is furnished with calibrated restrictor and restrictor pressure differential sensor determining value of fuel passed along service line.
EFFECT: possibility of diagnosing condition of plunger pump in service.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; hydraulic machines.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for use in sphere of condition monitoring of hydraulic machines. According to proposed method, failure of hydraulic pump in hydraulic machine is detected, and service life of pump till failure is estimated. Delivery pressure, oil temperature and pressure differential on drain filter are measured, and correlation relationship between pressure differential on filter is found and basing on said correlation relationship, characteristic pressure differential of filter is calculated. Using oil temperature-pressure differential correlation function, characteristic pressure differential is corrected to exclude variable component caused by oil temperature. Time increase of long-term trend and short-term trend of corrected pressure differential is calculated. Failure of pump is forced, or service life of pump is evaluated basing on degree of difference between long-term trend and short-term trend.
EFFECT: provision of possibility of revealing forecasting parameters of failure of pump to prevent pump failure by forecasting.
18 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: oil producing industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to complex testing of oil-well screw pumps. Proposed test set for screw pumps contains pump drive, frame, flow meter, pressure transmitters installed on taps and hydraulically coupled with each space of pump, suction line and delivery line on which delivery pressure regulator is installed. Set is furnished with header and control system made in form of shutoff members. Header is connected to suction and delivery lines and it communicates with taps having equal flow channels whose areas are not less than flow section of pump. Shutoff members are mounted on header between all taps. Drive is made with possibility of regulation of rotational speed.
EFFECT: provision of possibility of changing of effective length of pump at its constant design length.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: bench for testing of hydraulic down hole engines contains frame with fixtures for engine body, main tank of working liquid, pump to supply working liquid into an engine, the first and the second successive installed brake mechanisms connected to an engine shaft and a measuring system of an engine working characteristics. The bench is equipped with an additional tank of working liquid, with a case to receive working liquid drained from the engine, the said case is installed between the main and additional tanks; the bench is also equipped with a discharge pump and a step-up tooth gear assembled before brake mechanisms and providing two speed gear controls. In the gear control the first gear transfers torque from the engine via the step-up gear to the shaft of the first brake mechanism while the second gear transfers torque directly from the engine to the shaft of the first brake mechanism.
EFFECT: there is achieved a possibility to test a moment of force on a take off shaft in a minimum to maximum power mode of a complete range of gerotor engines and turbo drills.
2 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to experimental gas dynamics and can be used in analysing the working processes in positive-displacement machines. A tight working chamber houses a dual-action piston so as to form two working spaces communicating via a self-operating valve arranged on the piston. In short equal time intervals Δτ, momentary values of piston position H and height h of the valve plate uplift are measured to determine the momentary force of gas pressure Pg on the valve plate using a cited formula.
EFFECT: determination of the gas flow force acting on the positive-displacement compressor valve plate at varying valve inlet and outlet pressures.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building and can be used in petroleum industry for both testing the screw pumps, and assembly and running-in. The test bed incorporates an electric drive, a reduction gear, a frame, a hydraulic system, a pump parameter measurement and recording system, the test bed control system furnished with a thyristor-based frequency converter. The hydraulic system pressure section is arranged between the screw pump to be tested and the reduction gear to form a hydraulic space limited by a hollow shaft mounted inside the reduction gear output shaft inner space and the pressure section housing rigidly linked with the tested pump holder. A flexible shaft is arranged inside the hollow shaft and the pressure section housing to move axially relative to the hollow shaft and to transmit rotary motion. The flexible shaft links the tested pump screw with the reduction gear shaft.
EFFECT: expanded performances of the test bed, higher accuracy and reliability of measurements.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: method is designed to be used in oil production industry to control the quality of the oil bottom-hole sucker-rod pumps (BHSRP) steadiness. Diagnosing the BHSRP steadiness consists in measuring the electric-drive motor rotor rpm instantaneous values in operation, determining the minimum rpm instantaneous value magnitudes on lifting the rod v1(min) and downing it v2(min) and comparing the obtained magnitudes between themselves for one pumping cycle with the steadiness state satisfying the following condition, i.e. |v1(min) - v2(min)| < 0.1 · (v1(min) + v2(min)) / 2.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of balancing the bottom-hole sucker-rod pump drives.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of maintenance and repair of machines and equipment, in particular, to methods for testing of displacement rotary pumps. Method of pump testing consists in creation of test pressure at pump discharge and measurement of testing liquid flow rate at the pump suction, while pump shaft is fixed. Method reduces energy intensity of testing process, metal intensity and cost, and provides for universality of test bench.
EFFECT: reduction of testing process energy intensity, lower metal intensity, lower cost and universality of test bench.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to test bed firing and can be used for testing axial rotor adjustable hydraulic pumps and engines. Proposed test bed comprises drive shaft 1 with tested axial piston hydraulic pump 54, hydraulic pump 2 of hydrostatic drive (HSD) or gear pump 3 coupled therewith. It incorporates also braking lever 33 for shaft of tested adjusted axial piston hydraulic engine 55 or hydraulic engine 18 HSD. Hydraulic system comprises first 11 and second 12 hydraulic tanks, first suction line 4 with outlet communicating with suction chamber of hydraulic pump 54 or 3, and its inlet communicated with outlet of first hydraulic tank 11, said suction line comprising throttle 7. This system comprises also delivery-suction line 63 with its inlet communicating with pressure chamber of hydraulic pump 55, 2 or 3. Outlet communicates with the inlet of first hydraulic tank 12 via drain line 50, and, via feeder line 42, with feeder pump 43. The system includes line 60 to control governors of hydraulic pump 54 and hydraulic engine 55, which incorporates valve servo drive 56, pressure gage 57 and adjustable drain valve 58. High-pressure line 44 passes from outlet of hydraulic pump 54 through inlet and outlet of hydraulic engine 55 and communicates with delivery-suction line 63 upstream of its throttle 7. Inlet of drain line 50 communicates with drain hole of case of hydraulic pump 54 and case of hydraulic engine 55, while its outlet communicates with the inlet of first hydraulic tank 11. Inlet of feeder line 42 communicates with second hydraulic tank 12, while its outlet communicates selectively with inlet of first hydraulic tank 11 or inlet of control line 60. Outlets of the latter serve for connection to unions of governors of hydraulic pump 54 and hydraulic engine 55.
EFFECT: expanded performances due to increased number of tested hydraulic positive-displacement drives.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; testing facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for stand tests of pumps of any application. According to proposed method full pressure at pump input is maintained constant by means of reservoir with free surface of liquid exposed to constant (atmospheric) pressure installed in intake pipeline. Working liquid saturated vapor pressure at pump input is changed by heating. Periodical measurement of required parameters in process of liquid heating makes it possible to calculate sought for cavitation margin Δh. Method is implemented by test stand containing pump to be tested, output throttle, flow meter, heat exchanger, service tank, pipe fittings, all arranged in closed hydraulic circuit, and reservoir with free surface of working liquid in combination with capsule made of heat conducting material connected to circuit at pump input. Space of capsule is divided into two parts, one of which is partly filled with working liquid and sealed, and other communicates with circuit.
EFFECT: improved accuracy of measurements and simplified determination of pump cavitation characteristics.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in through portion of pipe with choking of through portion cavitation flow lock mode is set, and in zone of low density value of critical pressure of cavitation and liquid flow are determined, which flow is used to determined liquid speed in pipe neck. Received critical pressure value of cavitation is aligned with pressure of saturated steam of pumped liquid, after that to specially built calculation graph dependencies of relative value of critical pressure of critical speed of flow in channel neck are applied in the moment of setting of lock mode with different concentration of cores target concentration of cores of cavitation of pumped liquid is determined.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.