Jet hydraulic turbine
(57) Abstract:The inventive impeller are made in the form of a hub with covering the blades of the lower rim and tailrace channel. The wheel is provided with an additional lower rim and an additional outlet channels. In the flowing part of the stator is made reflectors, rims - through window. The flow-through portion of the stator is placed coaxially between the rims. Outflow channels are oriented output holes to the reflectors in the direction opposite to the direction of rotation of the turbine and connected in the horizontal plane of the ridges formed between the reflectors and the deaf part of the rims a closed system. 7 Il. The invention relates to hydromelioration and can be used in the design of turbines.Known radial-axial turbine is used for low heads, which consists of a stator made of upper and lower annular zones, the United pillars, guide vanes, made in the form of blades mounted between the rings can be rotated, the impeller comprising a conical hub, the lower rim and blades mounted between them.the wheel radial-axial hydraulic machines, contains upper and lower rims, which is placed between the blades, and in them is fulfilled the cavity corresponding to the profile contour of the peripheral part of the blade, and both wheels made grooves, to install them when the radial movement of the peripheral part of the blade.The disadvantage of this device is the low reliability of the movable structure.Most closely related to their design characteristics is the Francis turbine, containing volute, blade guide apparatus, the impeller with hub with the blades and the rim and rigidly connected with it, with the formation of the bypass channel lectopia and movable annular stopper with holes, indicating the spiral chamber with an overflow channel at the closed position of the shutter. The device is designed for emergency release of water flow past the vanes in the bypass channel, and during normal operation it is characterized by low cavitation properties of the low efficiency of energy use water, in particular, do not use the kinetic energy of the flow, increasing when falling under the influence of gravity the water.The aim of the invention is to increase effectivetime fact, in known hydraulic turbine blade containing a guiding apparatus, the stator, the impeller is made in the form of a hub with a channel, with the blades and the bottom rim, covering them, the impeller is provided with an additional lower rim, and the lower running portion of the stator-reflectors and coaxially placed between the lower rims that have pass-through window to exit the spent water, and overflow channels are made from each surface of the blade and oriented with its outlet to the reflectors of the stator in the opposite to the input direction and are associated with cavities between the reflectors, while the closed system consists of two parts: fixed-reflectors of the stator and the movable consisting of rims, horizontal jumper between channels.A comparison of the proposed device with the prototype allows to draw conclusions about compliance with a criterion of "novelty" because the proposed device is characterized by the presence of new elements - additional rim-through Windows and reflectors, closed top jumper and paired cavities between channels. The presence of new elements leads and new contacts.Comparison of the proposed technical solution is not the to provide a technical solution contains characteristics similar to the distinctive features of the claimed object. Therefore, we can conclude that compliance with a criterion of "significant differences".The essence of the solution lies in the fact that in the inventive solution, the flow of water with working blades enters the channel, changing the direction of movement of the channel opposite the entrance to the blades of the impeller, and creating pressure on them, from which there is a torque. When natakamani flow of water to the reflectors stator speed is reduced to zero, and the kinetic energy of the stream is converted to a reaction force, which is on the shaft of the impeller also forms a torque directed in the same direction as the first. From the effects of flow on the working blade and force the impeller channels comes in motion and moving at a speed equal to the velocity of flow within the channel, but in the opposite direction.In the process of movement of the impeller, the wheels move and the window in which are suitable to the blades between the reflectors of the stator, from the waste water, were in a closed system, comes from the turbine.In Fig.1 schematically shows a General view with sections along the axes of the channels of Fig. 2 is a view from above the stator; in Fig.5 - section of the stator and the rims of the Windows of Fig.6 - section stator and rims on deaf rims of the wheels; Fig.7 - variation of performance reflectors.Jet hydraulic turbine consists of a guide vane, made in the form of rotary blades 1 mounted between the rings 2, 3, impeller, made in the form of the hub 4 mounted on the shaft 5, with 6 blades that extend into the channels 7 from the holes 8 in the surface of the blades, stator with a flowing part 9, on which a radial reflectors 10, the cavity between which are associated with mobile channels 7 of the hub. Fixed reflectors 10 of the stator 9 is coaxially placed between the outer rim 11 and an additional (internal) rim 12, which is executed through the Windows 13 and in the horizontal plane of the rims 11, 12 are connected together by channels 7 jumpers 14, overlying the cavity between the reflector and forming together with the hollow part of the rim and with reflectors closed system, with elements of the stator is the stationary part of the system, and elements of the working wheels (rims, jumpers) - movable part of a closed system.Jet hydraulic turbine operates as follows.Water passing between the managing relative to the water inlet on the blade. Thus altering the direction of movement, the water in turn puts pressure on the working blade 6, from which there is a torque on the shaft 5. In the channels 7 under the influence of the residual pressure flow and gravity flow velocity increases, and with it increases the kinetic energy of the flow. At the exit of the channels 7 of the impeller, the flow encounters the reflector 10 of the stator 9, where the speed is reduced to zero and the kinetic energy is converted in a reaction force, which on the shaft 5 of the impeller produces more torque. During the rotation of the impeller movable part of a closed system is moved to the reflectors 10, were in the closed system suitable window 13 and the waste water exits from the turbine.Thus, through Windows in the rims communication channels between the reflectors in a closed system, with the atmosphere, providing a free exit working water from the turbine. The curved channels from each blade and their relationship with reflectors stator by means of a rim Windows allow more efficient to use the energy of water flow, it is possible to obtain the maximum amount of work, SSDI water velocity, converted on the reflectors of the stator in a closed system in a reaction force. At the same time, individual water flow from each blade, the exit water flow with less energy improve the cavitation properties of the turbine and its service life. JET HYDRAULIC TURBINE, containing blade machine, stator, impeller, made in the form of a hub with covering the blades of the lower rim, and a discharge channel, wherein, to improve the cavitation characteristics, the impeller is provided with an additional lower rim and an additional outlet channels in the flow part of the stator is made reflectors and rims - through window, with the flowing part of the stator is placed coaxially between the rims and the outlet channels are oriented output holes to the reflectors in the direction opposite to the direction of rotation of the turbine, and is connected in the horizontal plane jumpers, forming between the reflectors and the deaf part of the rims a closed system.
FIELD: mechanical engineering; turbines.
SUBSTANCE: turbine is designed for converting kinetic energy of liquid or gas into mechanical work. Proposed turbine contains cylindrical housing, tangential intake branch pipe arranged over periphery of housing and axial discharge branch pipe arranged in center, and rotor installed on shaft. Rotor is made in form of sup closed at one end. Tangential intake branch pipe is furnished with axial spiral guide member to provide tangential delivery of working medium to cup wall near its open end face. Axial discharge branch pipe is arranged with its inlet hole in cup space. Intake branch pipe is rectangular in section, and discharge branch pipe is round.
EFFECT: simplified design of turbine.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: hydroelectric stations.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method of restoration of serviceability of hydraulic unit can be used at repairs of hydroelectric stations. According to proposed method, air gap is measured over circumference between outer plane of rotor pole and iron core of stator of generator, air gap between blades of working wheel and outer wall of chamber of turbine, air gap between guide bearing of turbine and its shaft are measured and distance from turbine support ring to generating belt of turbine working wheel is measured and value of deflection of hydraulic unit shaft axis from vertical position and degree of bending of shaft axis are determined and value of deflection of housing of turbine working wheel from horizontal position is found and alignment of generator stator in plan is carried out to provide equal of air gap between generator rotor poles and stator iron core and centering of generator stator in height is carried out to align magnetic axis of stator with magnetic axis of rotor of generator and then hydraulic unit is demounted, fixed and position of center of new vertical axis of hydraulic set is held and cold chamber of working wheel is replaced by new one installing it relative to new axis of hydraulic unit, and lower and upper rings of turbine guide assembly are installed in horizontal position with subsequent alignment of rings relative to new vertical axis of hydraulic unit, and then hydraulic unit is mounted in housing. Proposed method provides 2.5-3 times reduction of time taken for restoration as compared with traditional process and 1.5-2 times increase of service life of hydraulic unit after restoration. Moreover, method improves operating characteristics of hydraulic unit as a whole and materially increases degree of its repairability and serviceability at time between overhauls.
EFFECT: increase life, improved operating characteristics.
FIELD: hydroelectric stations and hydraulic drives.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device has blades with cylindrical surfaces arranged between rims. Generatrix of cylindrical surfaces is parallel to axis of hydraulic turbine and rises to axis of hydraulic turbine. Shape of blade of wheel is formed by angle of tilting of skeleton line of blade profile passing from larger part of blade profile changing according to linear dependence to constant profile on the rest of part and selection of parameters of wheel from the following relations: change of β according to linear dependence from β1 to β2 on larger part of blade profile at distance from D1 to 1.01D2, β=const=β2 on the rest part from 1.01D2 to D2, range of rise of generatrix of blade surfaces from (0.08-0.20)D1 at liquid inlet to wheel to (0.15-0.30)D1 at outlet from wheel, D2/D1=(0.6-0.73) where D1 is outer diameter of wheel; D2 is inner diameter of wheel; D2/D1 is relative diameter of wheel; β is angle of tilting of skeleton line of blade profile; β1 is angle of tilting of inlet element of skeleton line of blade profile to circumferential direction; β2 is angle of tilting of outlet element of blade skeleton line.
EFFECT: enlarged range of operation of Francis turbine.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for use on hydroelectric power stations with insignificant fluctuation of lower pond level at high head and water flow ranges. According to invention, vertical shaft of set rest through lower end with cone-shaped working surface of frame-step bearing. Pan is hermetically attached to shaft and working wheel, and suction pipes are attached tangentially to pan. Jets from suction pipes are directed to blades of active wheel freely rotating on shaft and transmitting to shaft rotation through speed-up and direction-change reduction gear, parts of which being parts of hydraulic set. Number of pipes is equal to number of blades. Jet are directed to working surfaces of blades under constant effective angle of action. Seals of reaction wheel are made by elastic box-shaped rings contacting through convex side surfaces from opposite sides exposed to pressure of water. Delivery of water to seal from bottom to top prevents getting of solid particles between friction surfaces.
EFFECT: increased speed and efficiency.
FIELD: turbine engineering.
SUBSTANCE: blade system comprises blades whose inlet and outlet edges are made so that the working section of the inlet blade edge adjacent to the hub prevents against cavitation.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and reliability.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed Francis turbine wheel comprises at least two wheel segments 12, 14 that can be jointed together along their opposed surface sections 16, 16a, 18, 18a to make composite wheel with top rim 28, bottom rim 30 and multiple vanes 32 running between said rims and secured thereto. Said opposed surface sections 16, 16a, 18, 18a are arranged solely along top and bottom rim segments. Note that opposed surface sections 16, 16a, 18, 18a of wheel segments 12, 14 are arranged between apart from adjacent vanes. Proposed wheel has central axis. Top rim has central round bore. Opposed surface sections 16, 16a of top rim, if seen from above, run from central bore, radially offset from central axis.
EFFECT: higher reliability and longer life.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: blade system of impeller of radial axial hydraulic turbine includes rim 1, hub 2 and blades 3, each of which is connected to rim 1 and hub 2 and provided with inlet and outlet edges 4 and 5 of bent shape and smoothly changing thickness in the direction from inlet edge to outlet edge and from hub 2 to rim 1. Blades 3 of blade system have thickened part near inlet edge 4. Maximum thickness of blade 3 in its section with hub 2 is more than maximum thickness of blade 3 in its section with rim 1. Optimum intervals of values of parameters are determined: maximum thickness of section of blade 3 with hub 2, maximum thickness of section of blade 3 with rim 1, as well as their location places along straightened middle line of the appropriate section.
EFFECT: preventing flow separation after inlet edges of blades at operation of hydraulic turbine in modes with increased heads and modes with partial loads in the whole range of working heads.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic machine comprises an inner and an outer separating circular hydrodynamic seals 8 and 9, arranged into each or one of cavities around an impeller 2 - between the impeller 2 and a cover 5 and between the impeller 2 and a foundation ring 6. The outer separating seal 8 is located in the area of the peripheral zone of the impeller 2, and the inner one 9 - between the outer separating seal 8 and a seal 7, which limits leaks into a suction pipe. Two rings 10 and 11, which form the inner separating seal 9, have a Z-shaped or an angular profile in the cross section and are installed so that free shelves of their cross sections cover each other. Each cavity, where separating seals 8 and 9 are installed, is separated into two chambers 12 and 14. The external chamber 14 is equipped with an input 17 for compressed gas supply.
EFFECT: invention provides for squeezing out water from the peripheral zone of the impeller during operation of the hydraulic machine in the turbine or pump mode and reduction of energy losses for disc friction.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: impeller of Francis type includes rim 1 with rotation symmetry about rotation axis Z of impeller and bent blades 21, 22, which are rigidly attached to rim 1, each of which includes external peripheral edge 212, 222 and internal central edge 211, 221. Connection points B21, B22 of rim 1 with internal central edges 211, 221 of blades 21, 22 are located on one and the same circle C20 centred relative to above mentioned axis Z. Connection points A21, A22 of rim 1 with external peripheral edges 212, 222 of blades 21, 22 are located at least on two different circles C21, C22 centred relative to axis Z.
EFFECT: reduction of the cost of composite elements of devices owing to limiting their dimensions by reducing the action on them of radial stresses under unsteady conditions.
11 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: proposed turbine comprises helical water intake case 1, mount ring 2 furnished with one row of guide vanes arranged in circle, impeller 12, straight convergent water discharge pipe 9 and lateral water discharge box 10. Said ring 2 is arranged at inner side of case 1. Ware outlet between guide vanes in ring 2 is communicated with water inlet formed between vanes 4 with curved surface. Water outlet formed between vanes 4 with curved surface is communicated with inlet of pipe 9. Outlet of said pipe is communicated with water inlet of box 10. seat 6 is arranged at impeller 12. Shaft 7 is fitted in seat 6. Blades of cooling fan are fitted directly on shaft 7. Unit designed rpm is defined by design equation and depends upon impeller water inlet diameter and water inlet pressure.
EFFECT: compact design, high efficiency and lower noise.
7 cl, 5 dwg