A device for determining soil moisture

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: agriculture, irrigation, can be used to determine soil moisture, saline irrigation with saline water. The invention: the invention improves the accuracy of humidity measurement of saline soils. This is achieved by a device for determining soil moisture contains block 1 sensors comprising sensors 2, 3, 4, respectively, osmotic pressure, capillary pressure and temperature of the soil solution, the blocks 5, 6 links, blocks 7, 8, 9 conversion signals, respectively, osmotic pressure, temperature, and capillary pressure blocks 10, 11 temperature correction, block 12 compensation osmotic pressure and the block 15 registration signals. Sensor 2 osmotic pressure consists of a body 14 made in the form of a fitting of a dielectric material mounted on a ceramic casing 16. One end of the fitting inside the capsule 16 is closed shape osmotic membrane 15, permeable to water and impermeable to ions of salts from the soil solution. The second end of the fitting through the communication unit 5 is connected to the unit 7 conversion of signals. In to the using ceramic capsule 16, and the other using the connection block 6 is connected with the block 9 conversion of signals. In the cavity of the ceramic capsule 16 posted by sensor 3 temperature representing thermistor 17. The connection block 6 contains the bellows 18. The device allows to separately obtain information about the temperature of the soil solution, the full pressure of the soil moisture, and capillary and osmotic pressure. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill., table 1.

The invention relates to agriculture, land reclamation, and can be used to determine soil moisture, saline irrigation with saline water.

The known device for determining soil moisture, based on measuring the electrical resistance of the soil. In these devices as humidity sensors use small blocks of gypsum, nylon or glass fiber. The magnitude of the measured electrical resistance using a calibration curve to determine soil moisture.

The disadvantages of these devices are relatively large error in the determination of humidity; high sensitivity sensors to the presence of dissolved substances in soil moisture.

The closest in technical essence of avsu deep the corresponding measured soil moisture. The sensor is connected with a mercury manometer, which measured the total water potential of the soil. Soil moisture is determined by the calibration curve. However, determination of moisture the device in the case of irrigation with saline water or saline soils leads to distorted readings of moisture content due to the occurrence of osmotic potential, the value of which changes the readings of the mercury manometer.

The purpose of the invention is to improve the accuracy of determining the moisture content of saline soils.

This objective is achieved in that the device for determining soil moisture containing block sensors connected through the measuring circuit to the recording unit, the sensor unit is equipped with sensors osmotic and capillary pressure and temperature of the soil solution and the measuring circuit has two blocks of communication, three blocks conversion, two blocks temperature correction and compensation unit of osmotic pressure, while the output of the temperature sensor of the soil solution through the first conversion unit is connected with the first inputs of the registration unit and the first and second units of temperature correction, stoletnij through, accordingly, the first and second communication units are connected to the outputs of the sensor osmotic and capillary pressure, and the outputs of the first and second temperature correction blocks are connected to the inputs of the compensation unit of osmotic pressure and the second and third inputs of the registration unit, the fourth input of which is connected with the output of the compensation unit of osmotic pressure the osmotic pressure sensor is made in the form fitting, tightly connected to the sensor capillary pressure, the lower end of which is closed palanimanickam osmotic membrane and is made inclined.

The invention consists in the following: in the scheme of arrangement entered the osmotic pressure sensor that allows to determine only the component of the osmotic potential of moisture.

Hollow potential moisture consists of 3 components

t=d+o+pwheret- the full potential of humidity;

d- gravitational potential humidity;

o- osmotic potential humidity;

p- tenzometricheskie moisture potential.

The osmotic potential of humidity caused by the presence of salts in irrigation water determines the capabilities of the full potential of humidity, we get tenzometricheskie moisture potential, corresponding to the true moisture content in the soil

p=t+o.

Thus, a distinctive feature - block sensors with sensors osmotic pressure, hermetically United with the capillary pressure sensor, a communication device and a power conversion signals of the pressure sensor, through which temperature correction blocks associated with the block compensation osmotic pressure is significant.

In Fig.1 presents a diagram of the device for determining soil moisture; Fig. 2 - the design of the sensor unit of Fig.3 is a view of the calibration curve Rto= f(w).

A device for determining soil moisture contains sensor unit 1, consisting of sensors 2, 3, 4, respectively, osmotic pressure, temperature, soil solution and the capillary pressure, the blocks 5, 6, and blocks 7, 8, 9, respectively, convert the signals osmotic pressure, temperature, and capillary pressure blocks 10, 11 temperature correction, block 12 compensation osmotic pressure and the block 13 reception of signals.

The output of the sensor 2 osmotic pressure associated with the block 7 signal transformation the functions connected to the first input unit 12 compensation osmotic pressure and with a second input unit 13 reception signals. The output of the sensor 3 temperature of the soil solution associated with the block 8 conversion signals, the output of which is connected with the first inputs of the blocks 10, 11 temperature correction, and also to the first input unit 13 reception signals. The output of block 11 temperature correction is associated with the second input of the compensation unit of osmotic pressure and the fourth input unit 13 reception signals. The output of block 12 compensation osmotic pressure is connected with the third input 13 of the register signals. Sensor 2 osmotic pressure (Fig.2) consists of a body 14 made in the form of a fitting of a dielectric material mounted on supplied with the membrane 15 a ceramic casing 16, and serves as the sensor 4 capillary pressure. One end of the fitting inside the capsule 16 is closed shape osmotic membrane 15 (permeable to water and impermeable to ions of salts in soil solution), and the inner surface of the end fitting is made inclined to prevent the possibility of accumulation of air bubbles on the surface of the membrane 15. The second end of the fitting through the communication unit 5 is connected to the unit 7 conversion of signals. In the case 14 of the fitting is made lateral vertical oter connection associated with the block 9 conversion of signals. In the cavity of the ceramic capsule 16 posted by the temperature sensor representing thermistor 17. Block 6 contains links bellows 18.

A device for determining soil moisture works as follows.

Ceramic capsule 16, which is tightly connected with the blocks 5, 6 by fitting, filled with distilled water through the side of the vertical hole by immersing the capsules 16 in the vessel and creating a vacuum by means of the bellows 18. The space between the semi-permeable osmotic membrane 15, which is tightly connected to the communication unit 5, fill with distilled water. Then the ceramic capsule 16 with sensors installed in the soil to the desired depth. In field conditions it is carried by immersion in a pre-drilled hole or indentation in the wall of the pit. For more rapid achievement of full equilibrium between the liquid in the cavity of the ceramic capsule 16 and the soil solution, by means of the bellows 18 is sucked off the volume of liquid equal to the volume of the system: sensor 4 capillary pressure - unit 6 communication. When filling the cavity of the ceramic capsule 16 soil solution, representing a solution of salts, due to the occurrence of R is emeu membrane 15, you receive the osmotic pressure is registered by means of the communication unit 5 and converted by a block 7 in the signal, the adjustable unit 10 depending on the temperature of the soil solution is controlled by the sensor 3 signal from unit 10 enters the block 12 of the compensation is subtracted from the magnitude of a signal from the sensor 4 capillary pressure through the block 9 signal conversion unit 11 temperature correction. The output signal of the block 12 is passed to block 13 reception signals. Corrected unit 11, the signal from the sensor 4 capillary pressure entered in block 13 of the reception signals. Thus, depending on requirements, you can separately to obtain information about the temperature of the soil solution, the full pressure of the soil moisture, and capillary and osmotic pressure. Using the calibration curve for the magnitude of the capillary pressure determine the true soil moisture.

Was staged experience: samples of soil samples watered min realization of 4.8 g/HP Humidity were measured simultaneously by the tensiometer AM-20-11 and this unit. The results are shown in the table.

The table shows that the well-known tensiometer reduces moisture readings on the value of 4.5 to 10, is this deficiency.

1. A DEVICE FOR DETERMINING SOIL MOISTURE containing block sensors connected through the measuring circuit to the recording unit, wherein, to improve the accuracy of determination of the moisture content of saline soils, the sensor unit is equipped with sensors osmotic and capillary pressure and temperature of the soil solution and the measuring circuit has two blocks of communication, three blocks conversion, two blocks temperature correction and compensation unit of osmotic pressure, while the output of the temperature sensor of the soil solution through the first conversion unit is connected with the first inputs of the registration unit and the first and second units of temperature correction, the second inputs of which are connected to the outputs respectively of the second and third blocks of the transformation, and the inputs of the latter through respectively the first and second communication units are connected to the outputs of the sensors osmoticheskogo and capillary pressure, and the outputs of the first and second temperature correction blocks are connected to the inputs of the compensation unit of osmotic pressure and the second and third inputs of the registration unit, the fourth input of which is connected with the output of the compensation unit of osmotic pressure.

2. Eliminate the tion with the sensor capillary pressure, the lower end of which is closed by a semi-permeable osmotic membrane and is made inclined.

 

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