A device for determining soil moisture
(57) Abstract:Usage: agriculture, irrigation, can be used to determine soil moisture, saline irrigation with saline water. The invention: the invention improves the accuracy of humidity measurement of saline soils. This is achieved by a device for determining soil moisture contains block 1 sensors comprising sensors 2, 3, 4, respectively, osmotic pressure, capillary pressure and temperature of the soil solution, the blocks 5, 6 links, blocks 7, 8, 9 conversion signals, respectively, osmotic pressure, temperature, and capillary pressure blocks 10, 11 temperature correction, block 12 compensation osmotic pressure and the block 15 registration signals. Sensor 2 osmotic pressure consists of a body 14 made in the form of a fitting of a dielectric material mounted on a ceramic casing 16. One end of the fitting inside the capsule 16 is closed shape osmotic membrane 15, permeable to water and impermeable to ions of salts from the soil solution. The second end of the fitting through the communication unit 5 is connected to the unit 7 conversion of signals. In to the using ceramic capsule 16, and the other using the connection block 6 is connected with the block 9 conversion of signals. In the cavity of the ceramic capsule 16 posted by sensor 3 temperature representing thermistor 17. The connection block 6 contains the bellows 18. The device allows to separately obtain information about the temperature of the soil solution, the full pressure of the soil moisture, and capillary and osmotic pressure. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill., table 1. The invention relates to agriculture, land reclamation, and can be used to determine soil moisture, saline irrigation with saline water.The known device for determining soil moisture, based on measuring the electrical resistance of the soil. In these devices as humidity sensors use small blocks of gypsum, nylon or glass fiber. The magnitude of the measured electrical resistance using a calibration curve to determine soil moisture.The disadvantages of these devices are relatively large error in the determination of humidity; high sensitivity sensors to the presence of dissolved substances in soil moisture.The closest in technical essence of avsu deep the corresponding measured soil moisture. The sensor is connected with a mercury manometer, which measured the total water potential of the soil. Soil moisture is determined by the calibration curve. However, determination of moisture the device in the case of irrigation with saline water or saline soils leads to distorted readings of moisture content due to the occurrence of osmotic potential, the value of which changes the readings of the mercury manometer.The purpose of the invention is to improve the accuracy of determining the moisture content of saline soils.This objective is achieved in that the device for determining soil moisture containing block sensors connected through the measuring circuit to the recording unit, the sensor unit is equipped with sensors osmotic and capillary pressure and temperature of the soil solution and the measuring circuit has two blocks of communication, three blocks conversion, two blocks temperature correction and compensation unit of osmotic pressure, while the output of the temperature sensor of the soil solution through the first conversion unit is connected with the first inputs of the registration unit and the first and second units of temperature correction, stoletnij through, accordingly, the first and second communication units are connected to the outputs of the sensor osmotic and capillary pressure, and the outputs of the first and second temperature correction blocks are connected to the inputs of the compensation unit of osmotic pressure and the second and third inputs of the registration unit, the fourth input of which is connected with the output of the compensation unit of osmotic pressure the osmotic pressure sensor is made in the form fitting, tightly connected to the sensor capillary pressure, the lower end of which is closed palanimanickam osmotic membrane and is made inclined.The invention consists in the following: in the scheme of arrangement entered the osmotic pressure sensor that allows to determine only the component of the osmotic potential of moisture.Hollow potential moisture consists of 3 components
t=d+o+pwheret- the full potential of humidity;
d- gravitational potential humidity;
o- osmotic potential humidity;
p- tenzometricheskie moisture potential.The osmotic potential of humidity caused by the presence of salts in irrigation water determines the capabilities of the full potential of humidity, we get tenzometricheskie moisture potential, corresponding to the true moisture content in the soil
p=t+o.Thus, a distinctive feature - block sensors with sensors osmotic pressure, hermetically United with the capillary pressure sensor, a communication device and a power conversion signals of the pressure sensor, through which temperature correction blocks associated with the block compensation osmotic pressure is significant.In Fig.1 presents a diagram of the device for determining soil moisture; Fig. 2 - the design of the sensor unit of Fig.3 is a view of the calibration curve Rto= f(w).A device for determining soil moisture contains sensor unit 1, consisting of sensors 2, 3, 4, respectively, osmotic pressure, temperature, soil solution and the capillary pressure, the blocks 5, 6, and blocks 7, 8, 9, respectively, convert the signals osmotic pressure, temperature, and capillary pressure blocks 10, 11 temperature correction, block 12 compensation osmotic pressure and the block 13 reception of signals.The output of the sensor 2 osmotic pressure associated with the block 7 signal transformation the functions connected to the first input unit 12 compensation osmotic pressure and with a second input unit 13 reception signals. The output of the sensor 3 temperature of the soil solution associated with the block 8 conversion signals, the output of which is connected with the first inputs of the blocks 10, 11 temperature correction, and also to the first input unit 13 reception signals. The output of block 11 temperature correction is associated with the second input of the compensation unit of osmotic pressure and the fourth input unit 13 reception signals. The output of block 12 compensation osmotic pressure is connected with the third input 13 of the register signals. Sensor 2 osmotic pressure (Fig.2) consists of a body 14 made in the form of a fitting of a dielectric material mounted on supplied with the membrane 15 a ceramic casing 16, and serves as the sensor 4 capillary pressure. One end of the fitting inside the capsule 16 is closed shape osmotic membrane 15 (permeable to water and impermeable to ions of salts in soil solution), and the inner surface of the end fitting is made inclined to prevent the possibility of accumulation of air bubbles on the surface of the membrane 15. The second end of the fitting through the communication unit 5 is connected to the unit 7 conversion of signals. In the case 14 of the fitting is made lateral vertical oter connection associated with the block 9 conversion of signals. In the cavity of the ceramic capsule 16 posted by the temperature sensor representing thermistor 17. Block 6 contains links bellows 18.A device for determining soil moisture works as follows.Ceramic capsule 16, which is tightly connected with the blocks 5, 6 by fitting, filled with distilled water through the side of the vertical hole by immersing the capsules 16 in the vessel and creating a vacuum by means of the bellows 18. The space between the semi-permeable osmotic membrane 15, which is tightly connected to the communication unit 5, fill with distilled water. Then the ceramic capsule 16 with sensors installed in the soil to the desired depth. In field conditions it is carried by immersion in a pre-drilled hole or indentation in the wall of the pit. For more rapid achievement of full equilibrium between the liquid in the cavity of the ceramic capsule 16 and the soil solution, by means of the bellows 18 is sucked off the volume of liquid equal to the volume of the system: sensor 4 capillary pressure - unit 6 communication. When filling the cavity of the ceramic capsule 16 soil solution, representing a solution of salts, due to the occurrence of R is emeu membrane 15, you receive the osmotic pressure is registered by means of the communication unit 5 and converted by a block 7 in the signal, the adjustable unit 10 depending on the temperature of the soil solution is controlled by the sensor 3 signal from unit 10 enters the block 12 of the compensation is subtracted from the magnitude of a signal from the sensor 4 capillary pressure through the block 9 signal conversion unit 11 temperature correction. The output signal of the block 12 is passed to block 13 reception signals. Corrected unit 11, the signal from the sensor 4 capillary pressure entered in block 13 of the reception signals. Thus, depending on requirements, you can separately to obtain information about the temperature of the soil solution, the full pressure of the soil moisture, and capillary and osmotic pressure. Using the calibration curve for the magnitude of the capillary pressure determine the true soil moisture.Was staged experience: samples of soil samples watered min realization of 4.8 g/HP Humidity were measured simultaneously by the tensiometer AM-20-11 and this unit. The results are shown in the table.The table shows that the well-known tensiometer reduces moisture readings on the value of 4.5 to 10, is this deficiency. 1. A DEVICE FOR DETERMINING SOIL MOISTURE containing block sensors connected through the measuring circuit to the recording unit, wherein, to improve the accuracy of determination of the moisture content of saline soils, the sensor unit is equipped with sensors osmotic and capillary pressure and temperature of the soil solution and the measuring circuit has two blocks of communication, three blocks conversion, two blocks temperature correction and compensation unit of osmotic pressure, while the output of the temperature sensor of the soil solution through the first conversion unit is connected with the first inputs of the registration unit and the first and second units of temperature correction, the second inputs of which are connected to the outputs respectively of the second and third blocks of the transformation, and the inputs of the latter through respectively the first and second communication units are connected to the outputs of the sensors osmoticheskogo and capillary pressure, and the outputs of the first and second temperature correction blocks are connected to the inputs of the compensation unit of osmotic pressure and the second and third inputs of the registration unit, the fourth input of which is connected with the output of the compensation unit of osmotic pressure.2. Eliminate the tion with the sensor capillary pressure, the lower end of which is closed by a semi-permeable osmotic membrane and is made inclined.
FIELD: irrigation systems used for automatic watering of plants on restricted area plots.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has accumulating vessel with bottom opening closed with valve, auxiliary vessel, two float valves, one of float valves being adapted for supplying of water into accumulating vessel and other float valve being adapted for cutting-off water supply. Valve floats are arranged in auxiliary vessel disposed below accumulating vessel bottom and connected by means of flexible pipes with hermetically sealed vessels provided with porous bottoms deepened into soil. When water is sucked through porous bottoms into soil, water level in auxiliary vessel is lowered and float valves are opened, with water being delivered into accumulating vessel through one of float valves. When predetermined water level is reached, valve for discharge opening is opened, water is supplied into low-pressure irrigation system and is further delivered through second float valve into auxiliary vessel. As a result, water level in auxiliary vessel is increased to cut-off water supply into accumulating vessel.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and simplified construction.
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, system for automatic protection and controlling of self-propelled multi-tower sprinkling machines.
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic system has locking device equipped with hydraulic drive and positioned at entrance end of machine, controllable hydraulic relay connected to control pipe extending through each tower and connected to hydraulic relay control unit and through narrowing device to pressure pipeline, return valve, normally open locking valves and actuating devices with tower position sensors disposed on rods which are fixed on housing bars of synchronization mechanism for intermediate supporting carts, hydraulically controlled valve mounted in feeding line of hydraulic drive for terminating cart and hydraulically communicated with control pipe. Actuating devices are connected through inlet pipe unions with control pipe via normally open locking valve by means of T-pipe, and through outlet pipe union with atmosphere. Tower position sensors are formed from plates made of fluorinated plastic material and equipped with slot widening at its ends. Plates are fixed on rods of synchronization mechanism by means of bolt connection so that said plates are movable axially of rod. Silicone pipe positioned within slot is joined with inlet and outlet pipe unions rigidly fixed within housing of synchronization mechanism for intermediate towers. Hydraulic communication between narrowing device and pressure pipeline is provided through return valve.
EFFECT: simplified construction and enhanced reliability in operation.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, irrigation systems, more particular, controlling of water flows supplied into upstream of open irrigation system.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has upper, lower and minimum level sensors made in the form of hermetic contacts mounted on floats, in upstream water-intake construction, within hollow sleeves cooperating with magnets immovably fixed on sleeves. Hermetic contact of upper level sensor is connected to power unit through time delay relay, receiving-transmitting unit connected to unit for controlling of electric engine of downstream pump-and-power unit, control unit for main electric hydraulic relay and in parallel with end switch mounted on hydraulic drive of locking apparatus engageable with stop positioned on hydraulic drive stem in upper position of pump. Hermetic contact of lower level sensor is connected to power unit through time delay relay, receiving-transmitting unit, unit for controlling electric engine of downstream pump-and-power unit, control unit of additional electric hydraulic relay and in parallel with second end switch also mounted on hydraulic drive of locking apparatus and engageable with said stop in lower position of pump. Hermetic contact of minimum level sensor is connected to power unit and unit for controlling electric engine of upstream pump-and-power unit.
EFFECT: increased efficiency by providing automatic controlling of water flow rate supplied to upstream of open irrigation system.
FIELD: irrigation systems for automatic irrigation of plants on restricted areas.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has accumulation reservoir with bottom opening closed with valve, auxiliary reservoir, two float valves, one of said valves being designed for feeding water to accumulation reservoir and other valve serving for cutting-off said feeding process. Valve floats are positioned within auxiliary reservoir positioned lower than bottom of accumulating reservoir and connected through flexible pipelines to hermetically sealed reservoirs having porous bottoms and embedded in soil. Drawing of water by soil through said bottoms results in reduction of water level within auxiliary reservoir. Float valves are opened and water is delivered through one of said valves into accumulating reservoir. On reaching of predetermined water filling level, discharge opening valve is opened and water is delivered into low-pressure irrigation system and through other float valve into auxiliary reservoir. Increase in water level within accumulation reservoir cuts-off feeding of water into this reservoir. During operation of high-pressure irrigation system, functioning of apparatus is regulated by filling of accumulation reservoir to certain small volume and stabilized by means of detachable reservoir adapted to be mounted on accumulation reservoir and having horizontal partition walls.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and enhanced reliability in operation of apparatus.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the irrigation systems and can be used, in particular, for automatic watering of plants in garden sites and kitchen gardens. The device for automatic watering of plants includes a feeding tank with a siphon established on a mark of operation, starting chamber and evaporating tray. The feeding tank is supplied with cutout lever valve and an overfall tube. The starting chamber has the form of bucket and is executed with possibility of free rotationally oscillatory movement around pivotal axes between two fixed stops. The evaporating tray is established on the springs which have been put on dowels, fixed on the top edge of the feeding tank wall. The plunger is located rigidly on the evaporating tray connected pivotally with the lever of cutout valve. The valve is installed on the cutout valve entering and regulating water current. The overfall tube is connected to an irrigating network.
EFFECT: provision of rational use of water for plants watering.
SUBSTANCE: automated irrigation system equipped with low pressure rotating sprinklers consists of hydraulic pumping station, containing turbine connected with a shaft of high and low pressure pumps. The central control board is connected with automatic weather station, metre, placed on the low pressure supply pipeline of irrigation system, and winding of commutating three-way valve, the inlet of which is connected with the outlet of the high pressure pump, and the outlet with the inlet of the high pressure supply pipeline. The outlets of the high pressure supply pipeline are connected with the inlet of the first tree-way valve of the control systems and hydraulic protection of sprinklers from failures, the drive of which is connected with a plunger of ratchet gear, and diaphragm actuator of which is connected with high pressure supply pipeline. The outlet of the first three-way valve is connected through throttle with diaphragm actuator of double throw switch, interacting with the drive of the second three-way valve, the inlet of which is connected with high pressure supply pipeline, and the outlet is connected with feed line of hydraulic drive of the sprinkler and line of hydraulic protection of the sprinkle from failures through the cut-off valve. The outlet of the line of hydraulic protection is connected with the diaphragm actuator of the cut-off valve and diaphragm actuator of hydrorelay controlling hydraulic drive gate valve, placed on the inlet of the sprinkler. The outlet of the feed line of hydraulic drive is connected with through three-way valve with end pulse sprinkler, and the drive of the third three-way valve is connected with on-off mechanism connecting pulse sprinkler with the feed line of hydraulic drives, which contacts with the sensors of the beginning and the end of sprinklers passing the corner sector.
EFFECT: invention allows simplifying automated control system, increasing quality of irrigation.
SUBSTANCE: method includes creation of irrigation sections at southern slopes with wide stationary beds with narrow trenches and dead-end irrigation furrows at the edges of beds. Trenches are laid along the middle of beds and filled with vegetable remains, manure and coated with mulch of vegetable remains. Californian worms are added into narrow trenches arranged in the middle of beds. Distance between dead-end furrows makes 1.2…1.8 m and corresponds to distance between wheels of agricultural equipment. Beds and dead-end irrigation furrows are arranged at both sides from self-discharge pipeline of irrigation network in irrigation section and laid at the angle to area horizontals. Slope of irrigation furrows does not exceed inclination of 0.005. Yearly in autumn narrow trenches are released from biohumus and filled with a new mixture of vegetable remains and manure. System of melioration comprises irrigation systems on irrigation sections. Irrigation systems comprises self-discharge pipeline laid along maximum slope of area, stationary beds, dead-end irrigation furrows, measuring and computing system. Measuring and computing system is connected by radio channel to central control panel of irrigation systems in irrigation sections, which are connected to signalling indicator of irrigation termination and double-wire communication line to devices of gates control. Devices of gates control are installed on units of irrigation system, inlet of which is connected to discharge pipeline, and outlet - to irrigation pipelines and microhydrants for water supply. Irrigation pipelines are laid parallel to discharge pipeline. Vortex water activator is installed on discharge pipeline. Signalling indicator of irrigation termination is arranged in the form of two soil moisture detectors, the first of which is installed in lower horizon of active soil layer. The second detector is installed at lower border of active soil layer.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve quality of irrigated sections melioration in piedmont area, to eliminate losses of irrigation water for depth filtration and discharge, to improve crop capacity and increase efficiency of irrigation systems.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: the device comprises a system of injection wells, output wells and water distribution network with wells and surge units for aerosol moisturing. The injection wells contain gas-vapour or electric generators installed along the outer frame and inside the aquifer. The output wells contain pumps. The water distribution network with wells and surge units for aerosol moisturing is installed on the irrigated plot of the field. The gas-vapour generator contains a combustion chamber. The combustion chamber has a lid on one of its sides with an inlet valve to feed pressurized air from the piston compressor. Another side of the combustion chamber is fitted with outlet from extracting burned gas, combined nozzles for injecting the mixture of fuel thermal breakdown products and conductive fluid. The combined nozzles are installed on the combustion chamber wall in series one after another. The burner nozzles are installed adjacent to combined nozzles, they are used for injecting hot products of thermal breakdown of conducting fluid and products of burning the gaseous fuel-air mixture. The burner nozzle is connected with the piston valve mechanism. The piston valve mechanism contains a cylinder with a piston and a spring. The cylinder is fitted with a duct feeding pressurized air from the receiver. The receiver has a back flow valve and ducts fitted water-injecting nozzles. The ducts are connected with the cylindrical part of the valve mechanism. The cylindrical part of the valve mechanism has a blow valve for releasing the gas-vapour mixture into the atmosphere and a flange for fixation on the casting pipe of the injection well. The injection well is connected with the tubing string. The surge unit contains a receiving chamber. The receiving chamber has a back flow valve with water pressure. The receiving chamber is connected with the mixing chamber. The mixing chamber is fitted with a nozzle, and the surge unit is installed on a pillar. The pillar is connected inside the well to the water distribution network. The water network has a hinge connection to change the inclination angle of the bore, a jointed support used to rotate it the bore on the platform and a combustion chamber with expanding nozzle. The burner nozzles have a frame with hoses for conductive fluid feeding. The hoses are connected with cylindrical ducts. The cylindrical ducts are located inside the frame in the insulated layer. The electrodes are installed on one side of the cylindrical ducts. The electrodes are connected to the surge generator. Nozzles are installed on another end of cylindrical ducts. The nozzles are installed at an angle in relation to each other and are connected to the spraying nozzle blasting chamber. The spraying nozzle has a bottom with gas stream outlets.
EFFECT: the construction ensures high production yield of crops.
3 cl, 14 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device of automatic control of mist-generating plant relates to gardening, namely to vegetative propagation of horticultural crops by the method of herbaceous cuttings. The device comprises operating mode switches on the number of units of mist-generating plant, a commutation switch to connect the power source to the units of mist-generating plant and cyclical timing relay that determines the duration of the presence or absence of each unit power. The cyclical timing relay consists of a microcontroller, a real-time clock, a memory module, two encoders, control buttons and an alphanumeric LCD display.
EFFECT: device of automatic control of mist-generating plant provides optimisation of watering mode by an independent set of time of watering and the time of pause separately for several intervals within the day, such as morning, day, evening and night.
SUBSTANCE: automated check outlet conduit comprises a lock installed on a water-outlet hole on a horizontal axis of rotation, a control chamber with an elastic shell, communicated with reaches, a valve connected with a level sensor, limiters of the control range. The automated check water outlet is equipped with a stem for fixation of the range of discrete control within wide limits, having a movable float level sensor. The control chamber is equipped with an outlet nozzle, on which there is a magnet for valve fixation. At the same time limiters of the control range are made in the form of fixators, one of which is arranged in the upper part of the stem above the movable float level sensor, and the other ones are arranged above the outlet nozzle of the control chamber.
EFFECT: expanded control range and stabilisation of device operation under various heads.