Stand for studying the dynamics of gas and two-phase gas-liquid flows in the relief piping
(57) Abstract:The inventive modeling section of pipe of three parallel tubes of different diameter provided with a swinging side member articulated node and a tripod, in which it is installed to rotate in a vertical plane in the range of 0 - 20°. Glass pipe facing and downstream sections are connected by an angle of 120° one with respect to another steel curved inserts with welded fittings. Fitting have a three-way valves to enter into the cavity of the gas pipes and connect the reference gauge. In the ascending pipe installed cassette dedicated flow straightener made in the form of packages of thin-walled tubes of smaller diameter. The pump station has three pumps connected in parallel. On the suction line station includes a saturator and a gas cylinder for cooking gas-saturated model of fluid and connected to a pump with capacity for the analyzed fluid. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill. The invention relates to the dynamics of gas and two-phase gas-liquid flows in the relief pipes, such as gas oil and oil products in terms of phase transitions in mA the range of measurements, the decline in the relative size of the model area relief pipeline and providing the possibility of modeling the growth dynamics of the gas accumulations in phase transitions and their subsequent erosion (dissolution) in conditions as close as possible to the real characteristic of trunk pipelines.This objective is achieved in that the stand for the study of hydrodynamic processes of two-phase flows in the relief piping is a model measuring range is made from three parallel arranged for swinging spar glass tubes of different diameter, which is mounted through a hinge in the tripod can be rotated in a vertical plane in the range of 0-20aboutglass tubes having upstream and downstream sections, connected at an angle 120aboutrelative to each other through a bent steel inserts with welded fittings with a three-way valves to enter into the cavity gas pipes simulating gas accumulations, and connect the reference gauge to determine the pressure in the gas accumulation.In addition, in ascending sections provided cassette dedicated flow straightener, the situation of the indices of flow of the pumped model fluid.On the suction line of the pump station stand includes a saturator for the preparation of gas-saturated model of fluid connected with a pump with capacity for liquid and gas bottle.In Fig.1 shows a diagram of the stand; Fig.2 - scheme of the test section of the stand is installed in the holder; Fig. 3 - section a-a in Fig.2 (cross-section of the pipe at the place of installation of the cassette dedicated flow straightener).The stand consists of a receiving and storage tanks for model liquid E1 displacement of 1.2 m3, pumping station (NS), consisting of three parallel-connected centrifugal pumps N1, N2 and N3, the metering unit (CU), equipped with two parallel mounted flowmeters P1 and P2 type TURBOQUANT, measuring sector (PS), made of three parallel arranged for swinging spar glass pipe diameter 0,056, 0,079 and 0,105 m respectively, which is mounted through a hinge in the stand and site preparation of gas-saturated liquid (URGE), including the saturator (S) with a drive for saturator (PS), a gas cylinder (GB) with pressure regulator (RD). All main components of the stand are connected by galvanized steel pipes with a diameter of Dy= 50 mmThe pumps at the pumping mill is Tr (f), a control manometer M2 and the drain pipe with a valve 7 for draining the model fluid from the system process piping NS.The metering unit has two parallel measuring lines with flow meters P1 and P2 connected by means of the valves 8 to 11 in the bypass line with valve 12.SU through a control valve 13 is connected with the measuring section (PS) by means of a flexible rubber sleeve 14 (Dy= 50 mm), providing the ability to move Yiwu in the vertical plane.Measuring range (see Fig.2) simulating the profile element pipe, consists of three parallel arranged on the swinging side member 15 of the glass pipe diameter 0,056, 0,079, 0,105 m respectively, which is mounted through hinge 16 in the stand 17. Pipe Yiwu consist of ascending and descending sections, having a length L1= 1.1 and L2= 5.1 m, respectively, are interconnected at an angle of 120aboutrelative to each other through a bent steel inserts 18, with welded fittings with a three-way valves 19 and 21 to enter into the cavity of the pipe gas from the gas container through the pressure regulator and the valves 22 and 23, modeling gas accumulations and connect the reference gauge M1 for esmerine chasers cranes 24 - 29. Using the rolling bearing 30, the downstream section of the glass tube has the ability to change the tilt angle in the vertical plane in the range of 0 - 20abouton the horizontal axis. In addition, ascending the plots have a cassette dedicated flow straightener 31, consisting of a package of thin-walled tubes of smaller diameter (see Fig.3) to provide stabilization of hydrodynamic characteristics of the flow of the pumped model fluid.Distributor of the descending part Yiwu with cranes 27 - 29 through a flexible hose 33 is connected to a return line 34 which is connected by means of the valves 35 and 37 with receiving a consumable capacity of E1 and saturator With, and with the valve 32 is connected with the calibrated capacity of E2 under control measurements of flow rate model fluid volume method in the region of small values of the cost. To model fluid pumping from a calibrated tank E2 in receiving the supply tank E1 includes a pump H4 and piping with valves 38 and 39.Site preparation of gas-saturated liquid through the valve 40 is connected to the suction line of the pump station and includes a saturator having a drive substation and connected to a gas cylinder through Reguera M3 and M4. Receiving the supply tank E1 is connected to the intake manifold at the pump station crane 42.Preparation stand to work is as follows.Include one of the pumps, such as H3, pumping stations and open valves 42, 5, 6, 26, 29, 35 and 36 and control valve 13 produce filling one of the pipes of the investigated area model fluid from the output-supply tank E1. The three-way valve 21 is open and connects the cavity of the investigated area with the atmosphere. After filling the system model fluid pump includes using movable support 30, the downstream section of the glass tube is set up and fixed at a certain angle to the horizon in accordance with the plan of the experiment. Then by means of the valves 22 and 23 from the gas tank through the pressure regulator serves gas, forming gas concentration required for the experiment, while the part of the model fluid is displaced in a calibrated tank E2. The valve 12 to the bypass line metering close and open the valves 8 and 10, connecting one of the flowmeters, for example P1, allowing to define as a volumetric quantity of fluid and instantaneous current flow value.providing desired flow model fluid, and simultaneously open the valve 29 on the descending section of the measuring site. With the regulating valve 13 establish a more accurate model fluid flow in the system, which is controlled by the flow meter P1. Simultaneously with the start of the pumping station in the operating mode include a stopwatch, which record the time of the erosion or removal of gas accumulations, and with the help of the reference manometer M1 measure the pressure change in the gas concentration during the experiment. At the end of the experiment model the liquid from the measuring unit with a pump H4 merge in receiving the supply tank E1.In the study of hydrodynamic processes in gas-saturated model fluid work on the stand is as follows.Opening the valve 37 on the back of the line model fluid fed into the saturator. After filling the saturator liquid from a gas cylinder through a pressure regulator at an open gate valve 41 in the saturator, serves a Mixture of gas with liquid in the saturator are subjected to a thorough mixing with a drive of the saturator. When the gas is dissolved, i.e., saturates model fluid. After preparation of gas-saturated liquid, the valve 37 and the valve 41 zakrya the carbonated liquid, differ only by the fact that the regulating valve 13 create a pumping modes, simulating how the growth in gas accumulations in terms of phase transitions or the degassing of gas-saturated liquid, and removing the gas accumulations or dissolution fluid flow by increasing its consumption.Study of the process of removal and washing of the gas accumulations and their growth in terms of phase transitions at pumping as degassed and gas-saturated liquids allows us to predict similar processes on a real pipeline, which may negatively impact their performance, equipment reliability, reliability of accounting pumping volumes of oil and oil products, as well as to choose the most efficient modes of pumping fluid to avoid these complications. 1. STAND FOR studying the DYNAMICS of GAS AND two-phase gas-LIQUID FLOWS IN the RELIEF PIPING, consisting of Primorskugol capacity for the analyzed fluid, pump stations, filter, metering, glass pipes, simulating the relief section of the pipeline, pipelines, process piping, wherein simulating the Uch is Mirny node and tripod in which it is installed to rotate in a vertical plane in the range of 0 - 20oand a glass pipe with ascending and descending sections are connected by an angle of 120oby bent steel inserts with welded fittings, the latter are three-way valves to enter into the cavity of the gas pipes and connect the reference gauge.2. Stand under item 1, characterized in that the ascending pipe installed cassette dedicated flow straightener made in the form of packages of thin-walled tubes of smaller diameter.3. Stand on PP. 1 and 2, characterized in that the pump station has three pumps connected in parallel.4. Stand on PP. 1 to 3, characterized in that the suction pump station installed saturator and gas cylinder for cooking gas-saturated model of fluid and connected to a pump with capacity for liquids.
FIELD: mechanical engineering; testing facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for stand tests of pumps of any application. According to proposed method full pressure at pump input is maintained constant by means of reservoir with free surface of liquid exposed to constant (atmospheric) pressure installed in intake pipeline. Working liquid saturated vapor pressure at pump input is changed by heating. Periodical measurement of required parameters in process of liquid heating makes it possible to calculate sought for cavitation margin Δh. Method is implemented by test stand containing pump to be tested, output throttle, flow meter, heat exchanger, service tank, pipe fittings, all arranged in closed hydraulic circuit, and reservoir with free surface of working liquid in combination with capsule made of heat conducting material connected to circuit at pump input. Space of capsule is divided into two parts, one of which is partly filled with working liquid and sealed, and other communicates with circuit.
EFFECT: improved accuracy of measurements and simplified determination of pump cavitation characteristics.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in through portion of pipe with choking of through portion cavitation flow lock mode is set, and in zone of low density value of critical pressure of cavitation and liquid flow are determined, which flow is used to determined liquid speed in pipe neck. Received critical pressure value of cavitation is aligned with pressure of saturated steam of pumped liquid, after that to specially built calculation graph dependencies of relative value of critical pressure of critical speed of flow in channel neck are applied in the moment of setting of lock mode with different concentration of cores target concentration of cores of cavitation of pumped liquid is determined.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: aviation industry.
SUBSTANCE: device helps to get real pattern of liquid pressure distribution which flows about "blown-about" object in water tunnel. Device has driven frequency pulse oscillator, frequency divider, control pulse counter, longitudinal contact multiplexer which connect capacitors with shelves, lateral contact multiplexer which connect the other output of capacitors, matching unit, analog-to-digital converter, indication unit, water tunnel, blown-about object, grid with capacitive detector.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement.
FIELD: experimental hydrodynamics.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises making a model dynamically similar to the marine engineering structure in mass, sizes, location of the center of gravity, and inertia moment and mounting the model in the experimental tank by means of anchor-type links provided with dynamometers. The device comprises experimental tank and model provided with anchor-type links for connecting with the frame. The anchor-type links are provided with dynamometers and devices for control of initial tension. The frame has flat horizontal base, vertical pillars , and blocks. The base is provided with the members for securing the vertical pillars at specified points of the base. The vertical pillars are provided with blocks and members that are mounted for permitting movement along the pillars and their locking at a given position. The model is provided with the pickups of angular and linear movements. The outputs of the dynamometers and pickups of angular and linear displacements of the model are connected with the input of the computer.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: measuring techniques.
SUBSTANCE: method and device can be used for measurement of hydraulic-dynamic resistance of different surfaces moving in fluid. Time of load descending, which load is kinetically connected with disc rotating in water, is compared when surface of load is coated with different matters.
EFFECT: simplicity at use; reduced cost.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises modeling the process of interaction of water flow with a rough surface by changing the working member of the sloping chute for a precision member with the smooth surface, measuring the height of the water flow in the entrance and exit sections of the chute by means of micrometer with measuring needle, determining the flow rate, and measuring the width of the chute. The smooth member is changed for the working member provided with a rough surface, and the height of the water in the exit section of the chute is measured.
EFFECT: simplified method.
FIELD: experimental hydromechanics; designing of equipment for conducting hydrodynamic and ice searches of marine engineering facility models in model testing basins.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device includes towing trolley with frame rigidly secured on it; this frame is provided with bar which is connected with model through dynamometers and bearing plate. Dynamometers form three-support force-measuring system; they are provided in each support in form of two interconnected elastic members; one elastic member is made in form of five-rod member provided with longitudinal and lateral force sensors; it is located between two flanges. Second elastic member of dynamometer is made in form of membrane-type elastic member whose membrane is located between rigid rim and rigid central part of this member provided with threaded rod with elastic hinge mounted over vertical axis perpendicularly relative to membrane. Membrane, rim and rigid central part with threaded rod and elastic hinge are made integral. Rim of membrane elastic members is rigidly connected with one of flanges of five-rod elastic member in such way that threaded rod is located along vertical axis of support and is rigidly connected via elastic hinge with bearing plate secured on model. Membrane is provided with resistance strain gages forming vertical force measuring bridge. Second flange of each five-rod member is connected with additional bearing plate secured on bar.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of measuring forces and moments.
FIELD: the invention refers to experimental hydrodynamics and may be used for definition of the resistance of small objects to a running flow at tests.
SUBSTANCE: the arrangement is fulfilled in the shape of a grate with the width Bt. and the height ht, deepened at the height T formed by rods with a step ▵ fixed in the supporting contour and is located at a certain distance in front of the tested object. At that it is installed with possibility of independent displacement relatively to the tested object and is fastened on the object and/or the body or probably on the bodies moving together with the tested object relatively to the test gondola. It is also may be formed by a system of private turbulators fulfilled in the shape of grates with a different size of cells, with possibility of their independent displacement relatively to each other including the fastening on different bodies and located primary in-series. The private turbulators may be fulfilled in the shape of grates particularly with different main direction of the rods of the grate. The mode is in locating the turbulator in front of the tested object with possibility of independent displacement relatively to the tested object and fastening on the object and/or on the body probably on the bodies moving together with the tested object particularly to test gondola. At that the position of the turbulator relatively to the tested object particularly the distance and displacement relatively to the tested object and also deepening and probably dimensions are chosen on the basis of comparison of results of the trial run of tarring of objects of different scales.
EFFECT: possibility of investigating of small models and revelation of the influence of resistance of the surface of the model.
6 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to experimental hydrodynamics, hydrodynamics and aerodynamics of airscrew and can be used in shipbuilding and aircraft building. Method includes force field created by airscrew rotation and carrier moving, use of visualising facilities and field structure registration by optical equipment. Thus airscrew rotary speed is established assuming production and stream maintenance of visualising facilities. Field is registered by scanning in two transversely-spaced planes, i.e. horizontal and vertical, in front of, and behind, the airscrew. Thus boundary layer, turbulence areas, increased and decreased pressure areas, airscrew expansion angles, and whole flow structure are showed.
EFFECT: high-accuracy picture of airscrew propeller environment flow.
5 cl, 16 dwg
SUBSTANCE: test stand for amphibious vehicles has basin with entrance and exit ramp, side walls, road, ramp and basin borders. From both sides of exit ramp pits are made in which ends of tubular shaft are embedded. Parallel arms-brackets of sheet metal are attached to the shaft equally spaced from axis. Between attached arms-brackets, spacer pipe is preliminary embedded on shaft which pipe has rectangular pawl with holes on both sides. By means of these holes the pipe is attached to captivating sheet located on symmetry axis of exit ramp. At the end of arms-brackets with lugs, cylinder is attached on axis. This cylinder is made along generator of curve corresponding to curve of vehicle front bumper. Tube rings with pawls are put on shaft ends. The pawls are fixed on pit floors. Spheroidal flanges are fixed on shaft ends to which flanges arms are attached, with brought-out from pits ends having lugs, and pneumatic cylinders are attached to arms from two sides.
EFFECT: reduction of scope of work during test stand construction and provides getting true data about capability of vehicle to move over water surface on tired wheels.