The method of heating water for heating and/or hot water installation for its implementation and the gas generator heat for installation

 

(57) Abstract:

The inventive form in the body flow (P) circulating fluid and the heated gas stream (GBV). Formed between the N heat transfer with condensation of water vapor in the gas P,take away from him the condensate. Serves external P water for hot water and provide heat transfer from P circulating fluid to the external Clause of the water. Then P circulating fluid is divided into two P with control over their consumption. One of these P cool external P water to a temperature below the dew point of water vapor GBV. Then carried out in a countercurrent heat transfer to the split P inside the final downstream part of the oil with the withdrawal of condensate between the finite and the average over parts of GBV. Split N join. In average over part of the GBV carry out the heat transfer to the United P. In the initial downstream part of the oil and arrange the transfer of heat to the joint P in parallel. Heat transfer from P circulating fluid to the external P water exercise from the first one of the split P, then from the joint P after completion of the primary downstream part of the OGP. 3 C. and 23 C.p. f-crystals, 35 ill.

The invention relates to a power system, and intralesional way.

You know the water heating device for heating and/or hot water, in which a flow of a circulating fluid, such as water, and the hot gas stream, for example, fuel combustion products, transfer of heat, including latent heat of condensation of water vapor from the heated gas flow to the circulating liquid away from the gas stream by condensation, serves external water flow, for example, for hot water and transfer heat from the flow of circulating fluid to the external water flow [1].

Also known installation for water heating and/or hot water containing a gas generator heat communicated with him flue and the chimney, made in the flue system heat exchangers, including, for example, elementary, middle, and end heat exchangers, condensate and water / water heat exchanger provided in a heated environment with the external source of water flow and the heat medium circulation path of the cooling heat exchangers [2].

Famous and gas heat generator for heating and/or hot water containing a combustion chamber with flame plate, with openings have been fitted the author side of the bottom nozzle for feeding and mixing gaseous fuel with air, each of which is made in the form of ejector in communication with a source of combustible gas ejecting nozzles are evenly distributed around the perimeter and inclined at an angle to the axis of the Central nozzle communicated with the atmosphere [3].

The disadvantages of the known devices are low efficiency, typically not exceeding 0.85, and a high content of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides in the combustion products, which makes them very far from environmentally friendly devices international class "blue angel".

The aim of the invention is the provision of environmental cleanliness (class "blue angel") and high (>0,92) thermal efficiency.

This is achieved by the fact that after transferring the heat to the external flow divide the stream of circulating fluid into two streams, the distribution of consumption between which regulate, one of the split streams are cooled by external water stream to a temperature below the dew point of the water vapor in the gas stream, is carried out at protivohode heat transfer from the downstream end part of the gas stream is cooled to flow with nonequilibrium condensation of water vapor from the gas stream and the output capacitor between the end and average flows, the Central downstream part of the heated gas flow to the flow of circulating fluid, carried out at the co-current heat transfer from the initial upstream portion of the heated gas flow to the flow of circulating fluid, the heat transfer to the external water flow is carried out from the first one of the split streams, and then from the flow of circulating fluid.

Installation goal is achieved by the fact that it is equipped with extra water / water heat exchanger and an adjustable separator flow of a circulating fluid, the inlet of the separator is in communication with the outlet water / water heat exchanger, one output with the input of additional water / water heat exchanger, the output of which is communicated with the inlet end of the heat exchanger, the second output of the splitter and the output end of the heat exchanger is in communication with the input medium of the heat exchanger, the output medium of the heat exchanger to the input of the primary heat exchanger, the yield of the latter is communicated with the inlet water / water heat exchanger, the condensate is installed between the middle and end heat exchangers, additional water / water heat exchanger in a heated environment informed by input from the external source of water flow, and the exit - entry water / water heat exchanger. The plant is equipped with an additional adjustable divider ottawacanada heat exchanger, one of them is through thermal load, for example heating the battery.

The unit is supplied through the second gas generator of the heat and communicated with him the second flue and chimney made in the second duct of the heat exchanger system, including, for example, elementary, middle, and end heat exchangers installed between the second average and the ultimate heat exchangers second condensate, the second additional water / water and water / water heat exchangers, consistently reported on the heated medium from a source external to the stream of water and the heating medium - circuit circulation of the cooling of the second heat exchangers so that the output of the second additional water / water heat exchanger is in communication with the input of the second end of the heat exchanger, the outlet of the second end of the heat exchanger with the inlet of the second secondary heat exchanger, the yield of the latter - with the input of the second primary heat exchanger, the yield of the latter - with the input of the second water / water heat exchanger, the output of which through the second adjustable separator flow communication with the input of the second additional water / water heat exchanger and the inlet of the second secondary heat exchanger. In the heated environment WHC provided with an intermediate adjustable separator, installed in at least one of loops of circulating fluid, the inlet of which communicates with the output of the corresponding water / water heat exchanger, and the outputs from the input of the corresponding separator flow of a circulating fluid, one of them through the filter, at least one gas generator heat made with walls with channels communicated with the corresponding path of the circulating fluid; at least one heat exchanger in the form supplied by the collectors pack of plates arranged along the flow of heated gas at a distance from each other and provided with channels for pumping the flow of circulating fluid, the inputs and outputs of which are connected to the respective collectors of the package.

The channels in each plate is made parallel to each other in the zones, each of which has the shape of a triangle, the two extreme zones are conjugate bases of the triangles on the surface of the flue with the appropriate headers, two middle zone located between these extreme areas have common grounds triangles and involve the relevant stakeholders with large lateral sides of the triangles of the two extreme zones. While the channels in each of KGEU of the secondary zones parallel to the corresponding side of the triangle of this zone is not paired with any of the parties of the extreme zone. At least one heat exchanger is formed by two or more packages. The inlet manifold package provided with a distribution device such as honeycombs. The final heat exchanger with vertical plates, and the flue in its bottom wall with openings for drainage of condensate.

Gas heat generator, made in the flue heat exchangers and the flue is installed vertically. The duct is in communication with the chimney-type injector, and the exit flue installed at a distance from the entrance of the pipe is not less than 0.15 D, where D is the hydraulic diameter of the duct. The end plate of the heat exchanger is made with inclined to the horizontal input of heated gas stream edges, and the condensate is made in the form of gutters installed under the lower part of the input edges across the end plates of the heat exchanger. The condensate is made in the form of corrugated spacers with peaks and troughs, directed along the plate package of the final heat exchanger and positioned under the respective plates of the package, each flute is made with an angle not Noah, reported depression with drain.

The condensate formed established under the end plates of the heat exchanger and directed the tops of the hot gas flow V-shaped profiles, each of which is communicated to the lower part of the drain chute is made across a profile along at least one side of the flue. Each profile is made with a transverse dimension of not less than h, where h is the width of the plate package of the final heat exchanger, and is set along the corresponding plate of the package.

Each profile is made with different sides with respect to lengths of no more than 0.5 - the radius of the vertex is equal to (0.5 to 2)H, where H is the gap between two adjacent plates package of the final heat exchanger, the transverse dimension of not less than H+2h and installed under the respective two plates of the package.

In part of the gas generator heat this objective is achieved in that each nozzle exiting away from the fire face at a distance (0.1 to 0.3)D1where D1the diameter of the outlet nozzle, each hole fire in the hull is made with a diameter of D2= (1-1,2)D1the gap between the nozzle and the bottom communicated with the atmosphere, and the output oversteamed the neckline of the Central nozzle in the nozzle, thus ejecting and the Central nozzle of each injector is made with respect to the area of openings equal to = K(M2/M1)(C1/C2)2where the numerical factor K = (1.5 and 1.8)10-5; M1, M2 is the molecular weight, respectively, of fuel gas and air; C1, C2 - mass flows, respectively, the fuel gas and air.

The inlet of each ejecting nozzles are made with the edges rounded with a radius not less than 0.2 D4where D4the diameter of the neck of ejecting nozzle of a nozzle; at least part of the channel of each ejecting nozzle is conical with an input diameter of D5not less than 1.5 D4and proplam at the top is not more than the angle of the ejecting nozzle to the axis of the nozzle.

The Central nozzle is made with a sudden expansion at the neck and the area of the ledge not more than 25% of the area of the neck of the Central nozzle, and each ejecting nozzle is made with an inclination to the axis of the Central nozzle at an angle less 25aboutand with the outlet side of the ledge.

The Central nozzle is supplied is made for the mouth of the groove is triangular in shape, ejecting nozzles are made with the outlets close to the mouth of the Central nozzle side of the groove of the La to the axis of the nozzle at least 6about.

The combustion chamber is provided with inserts with education in the chamber for a length at least between the firing head and stabilizers flame of channels by the number of injectors, each of which is arranged coaxially with the corresponding nozzle in the form of a truncated cone with a smaller base, described around the hole fire in the bottom.

The combustion chamber is provided with a partition installed between the injector with the formation of the individual for each injector of the combustion chambers. Each nozzle is provided with an additional nozzles provided inputs with a source of combustible gas, and exits from the combustion chamber, defined by the perimeter of each hole fire in the bottom and inclined at an angle not exceeding 45aboutto its axis, with respect to the additional space and ejecting nozzles of not more than 0.8.

In Fig. 1 presents a scheme of the proposed method, Fig. 2-4 schematic of the basic embodiment of the installation of Fig.5-7 - calculated dependences of the concentrations of harmful impurities and efficiency of system parameters; Fig. 8-12 schemes of the embodiments of the heat exchanger of Fig.13 is a connection diagram of the flue to the chimney of Fig.14-21 - schemas and execution of the condensate; the CLASS="ptx2">

In Fig.1, illustrating the method of heating and/or hot water 1 shows the flow of circulating fluid, the heated gas stream 2, the condensate 3, the external water flow 4, separated flows, respectively 5 and 6, part of the heated gas flow - final 9, medium 10, the starting 11.

Installation of water heating and/or hot water (Fig.2) includes a source 12 of a heated gas stream, the flue gas duct 13, the flue pipe 14, the initial 15 average 16 and the end 17 of the heat exchanger, the condensate 18, water / water heat exchanger 19, 20 external source of water flow, the circuit 21 circulating cooling heat exchangers, additional water / water heat exchanger 22, an adjustable separator 23 of the stream.

The installation may contain (Fig.4) gas heat generator 42, the duct 43, the pipe 44, the initial 45, medium 46, the end 47 of the heat exchanger, the condensate 48, the second additional water water 49 and the water water 50 Teploobmennik, the source 51 external water flow path 52 of the circulating cooling the second heat exchanger, the second adjustable separator stream 62, the intermediate separators 66 flow filters 68.

At least one heat exchanger installation (Fig.8,9) made in videopristavku, including U-shaped 80-81.

Gas heat generator for installation of water heating and/or hot water supply contains (Fig. 22) the camera 82 combustion, fire plate 83 with the holes 84, stabilizers 85 flame nozzle 86 with the entraining nozzles 87 and the Central nozzle 88, insert 89, peregorodki 90, additional nozzle 92.

Implementation of the proposed method is as follows (see Fig. 1). Create thread 1 circulating liquid such as distilled water, and heated gas stream 2, for example, high temperature products of combustion of hydrocarbon fuel. Transfer of heat, including latent heat of condensation of water vapor, alternately from various areas of the heated gas stream 2 to stream 1 circulating fluid from the hot part of the flow of circulating fluid in zone 7 to the external flow of water 4.

After the zone 7 stream 1 circulating fluid is divided into two streams 5 and 6, adjusting the flow. One of the split streams, such as 5, further cooled in zone 8 external thread 4 of the water to a temperature below the dew point of the water vapor in the gas stream 2.

Job specific flow rate 5 and its hlaidentical 2 flow 5 with non-equilibrium condensation of water vapor from the gas stream 2. The condensate is collected and removed from the gas stream 2 between its end 9 and an average of 10 parts. Mixed flows, followed by heat transfer sequentially from the medium 10 and the first 11 parts of the heated gas stream 2 stream 2 circulating fluid.

Heat transfer from the circulating fluid to the external water flow 4 carry out first from the stream 5, and then from stream 1 when the counter (over the counter) respectively in zones 8 and 7.

This sequence of operations can vary the amount of external heating water flow without changing the parameters of the hot gas flow, to vary the amount of heat transferred by the flow of a circulating fluid heat load, without changing the flow of a circulating fluid in General, in the whole range of changes of parameters of flow of the circulating fluid and the external flow of water to provide nonequilibrium condensatio water vapor from the gas stream and as a consequence to increase efficiency.

Heat transfer to the circulating fluid is carried out from the downstream end part 9 of the heated stream 2 at the counter (over the counter) and from the initial downstream part 1 heated gas stream 2 - parallel (cocurrent flows, Elam high efficiency.

The installation of heated water for heating and/or hot water is carried out as follows (see Fig.2). In the operation of the generator 12, such as a combustion chamber, creates a heated gas stream, which expires in the flue pipe 14 via the duct 13. The fluid flow that is generated, for example, under the action of temperature or by using a pump circulates through the loop 21, the heat exchangers 15, 16 and 17. Heat transferred from nagretogo gas flow to the flow of circulating fluid, in turn, is transferred from the circulating fluid to the external water flow created by the source 20, the intermediate water / water heat exchanger 22 and water / water heat exchanger 19.

The input 24 of the separator 23 is communicated with the outlet 25 water / water heat exchanger 19, the output 26 of the separator 23 with the inlet 27 of the intermediate water / water heat exchanger 22, and the output 30 from the input 32 of the secondary heat exchanger 16. The output 28 of the intermediate water / water heat exchanger 22 is in communication with the entrance end 29 of the heat exchanger 17, the outlet end 31 of the heat exchanger 17 to the input 32 of the secondary heat exchanger 16, the output 33 of the latter with the inlet 34 of the primary heat exchanger 15, the output 35 of which saabsan to the input 36 water water Teploobmennik 38 - to the input 39 of vodovodna heat exchanger 19.

Using the separator 23 is the redistribution of the costs of its outputs 26 and 30, for example, by changing the resistance of the outputs. Part of the flow of circulating fluid from the outlet 26 of the separator 23 is cooled in the intermediate heat exchanger 22 and is pumped through the final heat exchanger 17.

The degree of cooling and the flow rate of the circulating fluid flowing through the intermediate heat exchanger 22, is selected from the conditions for condensation of water vapor from the heated gas stream to the end walls of the heat exchanger 17. The flow rate is 5 circulating fluid (the position of the separator 23) can be set based on the estimated parameters, or can be installed experimentally, for example, by condensation in the condensate 18.

To extend the operational capabilities of the plant provides an introduction to the installation of the heat load 41 and an additional separator 40 (see Fig. 3). The inlet separator 40 is in communication with the outlet 35 primary heat exchanger 15, one of the outputs from the input heat load 41, and the other input 36 water / water heat exchanger 19. With the same input 36 reported output heat load 41.

P the new load 41, for example, heating the battery. This separation of flow of a circulating fluid at the site with the highest temperature allows you to change the ratio of heat for heating and hot water, while ensuring the conditions for maintaining the temperature of the water supplied to the hot water.

Through the use of adjustable dividers 23 and 40 is able to vary the efficiency of the plant, the degree of heating of the water coming from the external source 20, the temperature of the radiator 41, without changing the mode of operation of the gas heat generator 12.

The heat transfer from the flow of circulating fluid to the heat load 41 may be performed by additional circulating in counter-current flow of coolant (not shown). Separator flow may, for example, using a tee with the same bushing sections of the input and outputs and an adjustable throttle device, allowing you to modify, for example, the size of the orifice), installed at one of the outlets of the tee.

The output 53 of the second additional water / water heat exchanger 49 is communicated with the inlet 54 of the second end of the heat exchanger 47, the output 55 is of labmedica 45, the output 59 which communicates with the inlet 60 of the second water / water heat exchanger 50.

In a heated environment (water flows from external sources) output 63 of the second intermediate water / water heat exchanger 49 and the output 64 water / water heat exchanger 19 is communicated with the inlet 65 of the second water / water heat exchanger 50.

The camera 52 of the combustion generates hot gas stream flowing through the pipe 44 through the second duct 43. The fluid flow circulating in the secondary circuit 52 and second heat exchangers 45-47. Heat transferred from the second heated gas stream to the second stream of circulating fluid, in turn, is transmitted in the second interim water / water heat exchanger 49 and from the circulating fluid to the external flow of water created by the source 51. After the output 63 of the second additional water / water heat exchanger 49 and after the release of 64 water / water heat exchanger 19 external streams of water are mixed and fed to the input 65 of the second water / water heat exchanger 50, after which the total external water flow is used, for example, for hot water.

This option allows you to implement a system of heating and hot water supply with partial separation of functions tepelene high efficiency due to the condensation of the water vapor in the exhaust gases to the first group.

In the proposed scheme (see Fig.4) depending on the requirements of consumers, it is possible simultaneous and sequential operation of the sources 12 and 42. As a source of external flows of water can be used the same source, it is possible to use different, independent sources.

The unit can be supplied with an intermediate adjustable divider 66, which is installed in one or both circuits 21, 52. The input 67 of the intermediate separator 66 is connected to the output of the corresponding water / water heat exchanger 19 for example (see Fig.3), and the outputs from the input of the corresponding separator flow of a circulating fluid, for example with the input 24 of the separator 23, with one of the outputs through the filter 68. This allows cleaning of the flow of a circulating fluid, for example, from rust and other mechanical impurities that may be in liquid water / water heat exchangers and heat load after long interruptions in the initial moment of inclusion. The proposed scheme also allows you to replace the filter without stopping the installation.

The operation of the separators 23, 40, 62 and 66 of the flow can be carried out independently from each other. Constitu 15, 16, 17 and 45, 46, 47, sources 12 and 42, additional water / water heat exchangers 22 and 49, water / water heat exchangers 19 and 50, and other similar elements of the unit can be similar to each other.

The walls of the sources 12 and 42 of the heated gas stream can be provided with channels through which flows the coolant. The consistent message of the inlet and outlet openings of the channels in the walls of the sources 12 and 42 with the corresponding circuit 21 or 52 circulating cooling eliminates overheating of the structure, to reduce heat loss and improve efficiency.

In Fig. 5 presents the results of the equilibrium calculation of the temperature T of the combustion products and the concentrations of oxides of nitrogen NO and carbon monoxide in the combustion products of methane depending on the ratio of excess oxidant.

It is seen that in order to ensure environmental cleanliness - ensure that concentrations of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide, respectively, the class of "blue angel" or at least the requirements of GOST, even the maximum concentration being implemented for when the coefficients of excess oxidant is greater than 1.5 and NO - when the coefficient of excess oxidant over 3.0. I.e., at the same time ensuring maximum up to the ka oxidant greater than 3.0, the temperature of the combustion products will be T 1000 K. it is Known that the reaction of combustion of natural gas with such large coefficients of excess oxidant and low temperature is almost impossible.

In Fig. 6 shows the results of calculation of the gas temperature at the outlet of the heat exchanger Thallat various efficiency = (Tmountains- -Thall)/(Tmountains-Tabout), where TmountainsThall- gas temperature, respectively, before and after the heat exchanger; Tabout- the initial temperature of the gas, T = =20aboutdepending on the ratio of excess oxidant . You can see that achieving even efficiency = 0.9 at = 3,0 should require significant effort, and may be unrealistic because of the very low values of Thall.

In known generators and sources of heated gas stream using the most economical, does not require additional devices such as fans ejector nozzles, the combustion of natural gas is carried out at the coefficients of excess oxidant 1,0-1,05. Given that the determining factor in achieving varying concentrations of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide is the temperature level, to ensure acceptable concentration of the principle feasible, for example, in devices of the type flameless burners, however, because of clutter passage sections burners design elements - hot grids, lattices, and so on, requires setting additional fans when working on low-pressure gas.

The system heat exchanger (see Fig.8,9) is in the form of a set of plates 69 and executed inside the plates in the channels 70, which is pumped through the flow of circulating fluid. The inputs and outputs of the channels in each plate and all plates in the package, respectively, are combined manifolds 71 and 72. The design of the proposed heat exchanger provides rapid and uniform heating of the circulating fluid as it passes the same path from an input to an output manifold on each channel. This is especially important when the heat exchanger at high temperatures, for example in the high temperature zone of the combustion products of hydrocarbon fuel when used as a generator of heat of the combustion chamber. In addition, more fully realized the advantages of direct-flow and counter-flow diagrams the flow of circulating fluid.

Typically, the fluid is pumped into the inlet manifold of the heat exchanger pipe, square proh uniform distribution of fluid between all the plates in the package and all channels in each plate the inlet manifold communicates with the channels through the switchgear, for example honey-komba (not shown).

Each plate heat exchanger performed, for example, in the flue gas duct 13 with a variable pass-section (see Fig.10) has the channels 70. This particular execution of the channels and in certain areas of the plate allows you to provide uniform heating of the fluid flowing through each channel, uniform cooling of the hot gas flow at small length and to ensure the high efficiency and low pollutant concentration at the outlet of the installation.

Two extreme zones are in the form of triangles MNA and BCD Foundation MN and g which are conjugate with manifolds 71 and 72, respectively. The middle two zones - triangles MAV and BDM made with the common base MV, located between zones MNA and BCD and involve them in large parties MA and BD triangles. The channels 70 in each of the end zones are parallel to the corresponding shorter side of the triangle. In the area of the triangle BCD channels parallel to the short side DC, in the area of the triangle MNA - less side NA. In each of the secondary zones of the channels are parallel to the respective free side, not suprageneric AVM - free side AB.

If the heat exchanger is in a duct of constant cross-section, in this case (see Fig.11) the middle two zones are the same and essentially form a single middle zone in the form of a parallelogram MAV with channels one zone, passing into the channels of the other zone. If the channels in each of the zones are different or variable pitch, switching from one zone to the other channels of the same zone can communicate with the channels the other zone through the intermediate reservoir 73, performed in gaps between the respective channels.

Extreme zone in each plate heat exchanger, typically occupy a small part of the surface of the plate and from the point of view of heat transfer (co-current, counter-current or a different direction of flow) determining going to be the execution of the channels in the middle zones, which cover almost the entire surface of the plate.

If technical conditions, it becomes possible to manufacture a sufficiently long flow heat exchangers (see Fig.12) between the average areas can be an additional area in the form of a parallelogram with channels, designed as a continuation of the channels of one of the secondary zones.

To the Oia, the outer surface of the plate may be smooth, as shown in Fig.9, has protruding above the plate surface of the walls of the channels, individual projections for the intensification of heat transfer, fins, etc.

If the manufacturer piratejenny plates is technologically difficult or impractical for other reasons, if for optimization of heat removal required to change the step plate in a current of heated gas stream, then the best is the performance of the heat exchanger of the multiple set of successive batches of wafers, the collectors of which are reported accordingly.

Gas heat generator, flue and made the heat exchangers can be installed both horizontally and vertically. In the first case, the condensate collecting sufficient to perform the final heat exchanger with vertical plates. The condensate will flow down on the surface of the wafer and assembled on the bottom wall of the flue, which drain is supplied with holes. However, it is preferable to install a heat generator, flue and heat exchanger vertically, because you can use Arhimedova force to organize the required flow in the gas-dynamic path setup. In this slur> In addition, in the latter case, there is a need to ensure the independence of the operation of the gas generator and heat from flue chimney. For the connection of the ducts 13 and 43, respectively, with flue pipes 14 and 44 (or branches of the same tube) are performed according to the type of injector (see Fig. 13), where the outlet duct is located at a distance from the entrance to the chimney not less than 0.15 D, where D is the hydraulic diameter of the outlet duct (D = 4F/N, where F is the area of the outlet duct; and P is its perimeter). The pressure at the outlet of the heat source is close to the ambient pressure, and the heater can be configured for optimal efficiency and ecology mode.

For collecting and withdrawing the condensate end plate heat exchangers 17, 47 (Fig. 14) when installing the flue vertical run so that their input on the hot gas stream edges 74 were tilted at an angle to the horizon, providing a steady airflow over the condensation on the input edge of each plate. The angle of unseparated flow depends on the surface properties and fluid and in each case is determined by the material from which the plate is made,state the condensate is in the form of a chute 75, located across the plates along one side of the duct outside of it. Water vapor heated gas stream are condensed on the surface of the end plates of the heat exchanger, the condensate flows down the plates to the input edges and the edges in the gutter where removed in a special collection or another place. This installation does not cluttering the cross-section of the flue components, however, the end of the heat exchanger with the bevel of the input edges of the plates is not always possible.

The end plate of the heat exchanger can be performed by tilting the input edges in both directions from the middle of the plate to the opposite walls of the duct (see Fig.15). In this case, the unit is equipped second, similar to the first chute installed properly. This allows to increase the degree of filling of the duct, to reduce the dimensions. Finally, each end plate of the heat exchanger can be performed with the output edges in the form of "saw", and gutters for collecting and withdrawing the condensate to be placed under the appropriate "tooth" (see Fig.16).

Schematic of condensate gathering tanks, shown in Fig.17-24, lead to some clutter cross section of the duct and as a consequence polychrystalline plates with the special form of the input edges.

The condensate is performed (see Fig.17) in the form of corrugated spacers, the top 76 and cavity 77 which is directed along the end plates of the heat exchanger and installed under the respective plates. Holes 78 are made between the top 76 and the cavity 77 on each ripple and intended for the passage of heated gas stream. The angle of each of the corrugations is selected from the conditions of unseparated flow of condensate on the surface of the corrugations. Water vapor heated gas stream are condensed on the surface of the end plates of the heat exchanger, the condensate under the influence of gravity, flows down in the form of drops or sprays detached from the lower edges of the plates moves towards the hot gas stream, while cooling it, and deposited on the surface of the corrugated spacers. Further, the condensate flows down along the surface of the spacers and is collected in the depressions 77 bumps where the chute 75 is output from the installation.

The number (area) of the hole 78 is selected from the conditions under which a minimum resistance to the gas flow. This condition will vaporetta, if the minimum size of holes 78 will be at least 25% of the cross-sectional area of the gap 79 between the plates. Part of the condensate flowing from the bottom edstone in holes 78 and further in the unit path to the middle heat exchanger.

In Fig.18, 19 is a diagram of a variant of the condensate, in which the corrugated insert is separate from bumps, fixed lower parts of the side wall of the trench 75.

The most compact is the condensate, the scheme of which is shown in Fig.20. Each V-shaped profile 80 is made with a transverse dimension not less than the thickness h of the respective plates 69 and installed under this plate. Therefore, the condensate flowing down from the plate, enters the appropriate profile 80 and its lower part is in the groove 75, which leaves the plant. The input stream edge of the end plate of the heat exchanger in this case, it is advisable to perform rounded.

In the condensate, the scheme of which is shown in Fig.21, each profile 81 is made with different parties. In order to ensure minimum loss when the flow profile of the heated gas stream, each profile 81 must be performed with the ratio of the side lengths of not more than 0.5 and the radius of the vertex is equal to (0.5 to 2)H, where H is the gap between two adjacent plates. Profile 81 is performed with a transverse dimension of not less than H+2h and sets peoplee and/or hot water (see Fig.22) as follows. Gaseous fuel, such as methane or propane, under the action of excess pressure is supplied from a source such as gas, to the inputs of ejecting nozzles 87. The gas flowing out of the nozzles 87, ejective atmospheric air which enters the nozzle through the Central nozzle 88, mixing with the combustible gas. At the exit of the nozzle, the mixture is ignited and burns in the combustion chamber 82. In the initial moment of time the ignition of the mixture is igniting a candle or other auxiliary igniter, and further combustion is supported by stabilizer 85 flame.

The combustion process of fuel is carried out at the coefficients of excess oxidant from about 1.35 to 2.0.

For large ratios of the ejection speed of the expiration of the combustible mixture at the exit of the nozzle are small, which can lead to leakage of flame in the burner. The operation of the ejector nozzle type impact elements such as the combustion chamber, flue, flue pipe. As a result, for example changes rods chimney and as a consequence changes of velocities of flow in gas-dynamic path of the nozzle, the combustion chamber, the flue and heat exchangers can be predostavlena from fire face 83 at a distance, equal (0,1-0,3)D1where D1the diameter of the outlet nozzle, the gap between the nozzle and the bottom communicated with the atmosphere, each hole 84 in the firing plate 83 is made with a diameter of D2= (1-1,2)D1and the inlet of each of the Central nozzle 88 is made with the edges rounded with a radius not less than 0.2 D3where D3the diameter of the neck of the Central nozzle, the ratio F of squares ejecting nozzles ( D42n/4), where D4the diameter of the neck, and n is the number of ejecting nozzles of the nozzle) and the Central nozzle ( D32/4) is equal to one of the numerical values of the range calculated by the formula

= K (M1/M2)/(C1/C2)2(1) where the numerical factor K = (1.5 and 1.8) x 10-5, M1, M2 is the molecular weight, respectively, of fuel gas and air; C1, C2 - mass flows, respectively, the fuel gas and air.

Is optimal (see Fig.24) the execution of the input apertures of each ejecting nozzle with the edges rounded with a radius not less than 0.2 of the diameter D4cap ejecting nozzle or partially or fully tapered canal (see Fig.25) with an input diameter of D5not less than 1.5 times the diameter D4and natives at the top no more than twice in the social nozzles with otnoshenii areas within the recommended ratio, the rounding of the input edges of the Central nozzle with a radius of not less than 0.2 of the diameter D3the neckline of the Central nozzle and the rounding of the input edges with a radius of not less than 0.2 Demetra D4cap or cone with D5/D4not less than 1.5 and not more than 2 (Fig.24 and 25), each ejecting nozzle, the best way is provided by the self-similarity of the injection (ejector) and work in the required range of parameters.

Let's consider several examples of the proposed execution of the injector. Let as combustible gas is methane (CH4. The pressure in the gas line inside the indoor residential building does not exceed 2000 PA, the heat source power heated gas flow is 100 kW, and the combustion source contains eight injectors capacity of 12.5 kW each.

Then the flow of entraining gas (methane) with the lower heat capacity of about 50 MJ/kg through one nozzle will be C1 = 0.25 g/C. in order to maintain the flow rate of methane in the differential pressure of 2000 PA and density =0,668 kg/m3ejecting nozzles nozzles should be carried out in a total area equal 4,84 mm2(calculated from the condition of equal pressure drop scarorough nozzle of 1.44 mm

Stoichiometric coefficient of Lofor mixtures of methane-air equal to 17, 16, the molecular weight of methane M1 = 16. Take that the working ratio of excess oxidant or = 1.5, then the air flow through the nozzle will be

C2 = C1 Lo= 0.25 x 17,16 x 1.5 =

= 6,435 g/s

Substituting the numerical values M1, M2, C1 and C2 in formula (1), we obtain = =0,00548-0,00658

As the desired ratio may be adopted any value from the obtained range. Select the ratio of the areas is equal to the average value 0,006, hence get that the diameter of the neck of the Central nozzle, the nozzle should be equal to 32 mm

When the diameter of the Central nozzle D3= =32 mm fillet radius of the input edges of the Central nozzle shall be not less than 6,4 mm

If the fuel is used gaseous propane WITH3H8then, given approximately the same with methane as the specific heat capacity, to ensure the same power through the ejecting nozzle must propane consumption 0.25 g/sec. At a density = 1,872 kg/m3the total area of the ejecting nozzles will be 2,89 m2and the diameter of a single nozzle of 1.1 mm

Stoichiometric coefficient of Lofor a mixture of propane and air is equal to 15 is on air in this case will be of 5.85 g/S. The numerical values in the formula (1), we obtain = 0,01246-0,01495.

Choose, for example, the average value of 0,0137, then the diameter of the neck of the Central nozzle is equal to 16.4 mm, and the minimum radius of strugania input edges of the Central nozzle is not less than 3.3 mm

For example, ejecting nozzle inclined at an angle of 20aboutto the axis corresponding to the Central nozzle, and the diameter of the ejecting nozzle is 2 mm and its channel is tapered. Then the minimum inlet diameter D5will be equal to 3.0 mm, and the maximum angle at the vertex of the cone 40about. It may be that the small wall thickness of the Central nozzle, in which it performs the ejecting nozzle, will not withstand the recommended ratio of diameters, namely at an angle 40aboutand the diameter of the neck of ejecting nozzle 2,0 mm the ratio of the diameter of the inlet to the orifice ejecting nozzle is smaller than the 1.5. Then the channel ejecting nozzle should vaporetta not conical, with rounded inlet edges.

Changing the angle of the ejecting nozzles to the axis of the Central nozzle and changing as a result of this form of the outlet openings of the nozzles largely determines the possibility of proiti the likelihood of leakage of the flame in the nozzle, to avoid "sticking" ejecting jets to the surface of the Central nozzle and at the same time to accelerate and improve the mixing ejecting jets with ejecting a stream of atmospheric air, it is advisable to perform a Central nozzle with a sudden expansion at the neck (Fig. 26,27). The Central nozzle is performed with one of the known form of the channel.

To avoid a noticeable influence on the flow in the nozzle, and consequently, reducing the coefficient of ejection, the amount of the ledge should not exceed an area of 25% of the area of the neck of the Central nozzle. Execution ejecting nozzles with tilt axes at an angle less than 25aboutto the axis of the Central nozzle so that their outlet openings located on the side of the ledge opposite the entrance of the Central nozzle, allows you to work at very low pressure gaseous fuel, with large coefficients ejection without overshoot flame upstream from stabistor flame established by the injector in the combustion chamber.

One of the embodiments of the sudden expansion of the Central channel of the nozzle with a minimum disturbing effect on the flow, is the Central supply nozzle for neck ring groove trapolin the side of the groove and another side of the groove with an angle to the axis of the Central nozzle ugogo not more 6about(S. Fig.28, 29).

Because the requirement of environmental cleanliness is one of the main requirements in the now Autonomous, decentralized heating systems and hot water, as described above, the nozzle of the proposed source of heated gas stream is performed so that the specific fuel losses at the entrance to Central and ejecting nozzle to provide an environmentally friendly mode of the device the air - fuel mixture corresponding to the coefficients of excess oxidant = 1,3-2,0( = 2,0 upper flammable limit of the gas mixture).

The proposed method and device for its implementation provide the ability to adjust temperature and flow rates of the circulating fluid flow and external flow of water without changing the parameters of the gas generator of heat, i.e., for a given heat capacity. However, it is preferable mode change parameters of the gas generator of heat, i.e. the change of heat capacity, for example, by disabling part of the nozzles due to the cessation in them the entraining gas. This is a reorganization of the flow in the combustion chamber, the area above otkluchenie depletion of the fuel mixture due to the suction through the holes in the fire above the bottom off jets of air. The consequence of this can be changing the completeness of combustion and the emergence of harmful impurities as a separate nozzles, and the volume of the combustion chamber.

Since, as shown by experimental studies, in the lower part of the combustion chamber 82 near the fire face 83 between the holes 84, the formation of dead zones with a high value of the coefficient of excess oxidant due to suction of air through the gap between the nozzle and flame plate, in the proposed solution these stagnant zones are excluded due to the supply chamber 82 insertions 89 (see Fig.30, 31). Each insert 89 is designed so that in the chamber 82 formed channels according to the number of nozzles aligned to the corresponding nozzle. Each channel is made in the shape of a truncated cone with a smaller base, described around the hole 84 in the firing plate 83.

The insert can be performed (to fold and cut from thin-walled shells (Fig. 30) or from solid billet, in which wash the tapered channel. The height of the insert 89 runs at least from the fire face 83 to the flame stabilizer 85. The area of the annular gap between the respective insert 89 and flame stabilizer 85 should not be less than the square of the CSOs cone flat surface after crossing the adjacent inserts. Optimal is performing inserts, when the height of the insert along the perimeter formed by the channel is limited to the intersection at this point with the corresponding adjacent inserts (see Fig.30). This completely eliminates stagnant zones and at the same time provides the possibility to transfer the flame from one regulator to another when the inclusion of separate nozzles without auxiliary devices.

To maintain constant conditions in the combustion chamber when adjusting the setup settings by turning off part of the nozzle of the heat generator allows the supply of the combustion chamber walls 90, which is installed between the nozzle 86 so that each nozzle is formed as if the individual combustion chamber 91. Square bore individual combustion chamber 91 in the area of the flame stabilizer (square bore between the respective partitions 90 and stabilizer 91) not Goldina to be smaller than the area of the respective openings 84 in firing the bottom. The square bore of individual combustion chambers in the zone behind the flame stabilizer must be chosen such as to avoid locking of the burning stream.

This is not what the camera was in the cross-sectional shape of the polygon. Walls 90 may also be performed (see Fig.33) cylindrical and form of the individual combustion chamber with a cross-section in the shape of a circle or ellipse.

Walls 90 may be used in the combustion chamber independently (see Fig. 32, 33), and together with inserts 89. In the latter case, the tapered channel, each insert 89 is transferred to the surface of the respective partitions 90 at the intersection of the cone with partitions (see Fig.35).

Additional nozzles can be performed by using special elements, such as ring collector (see Fig.34), or to run in the structural elements of the combustion chamber, for example, in boxes 89 (see Fig.35).

The proposed solution as part of the method of heating and/or hot-water supply in parts of the device for its implementation - installation for heating and/or hot water, gas heat generator for setting allows you to increase efficiency at the expense of wider possibilities for regulation of parameters depending on the load, higher efficiency, ensuring a clean, relevant international class "blue angel", wihabejigo water, including education in the path of flow of a circulating fluid, such as water, as well as a heated gas stream, such as products of combustion, heat transfer between the flows with condensation of water vapor in the gas stream and diverting condensate from the latter, the inflow of external water flow, for example, for hot water and heat from the flow of circulating fluid to the external flow of water, wherein after heat transfer past a flow of a circulating fluid is divided into two streams with flow control between them, one of the divided flow of the circulating fluid is cooled by an external water stream to a temperature below the dew point temperature of water vapor heated gas stream, and then carried out in a countercurrent heat transfer to the specified split the flow inside the end on the downstream side of the heated gas flow under non-equilibrium condensation of water vapor from the gas stream with the withdrawal of condensate between the finite and the average over parts of the hot gas flow, after which the divided flow of the circulating fluid unite, and in average over part of the heated gas stream are heat transfer to United is giving heat to the combined flow of the circulating fluid in the co-current, thus heat transfer from the circulating flow of fluid to the external water flow is carried out from the first one of the split streams, and then from the combined flow of circulating fluid after the initial upstream portion of the heated gas stream.

2. Installation for heating water for heating and/or hot water containing a gas generator heat communicated with him flue and the chimney, made in the flue system heat exchangers, including, for example, elementary, middle, and end heat exchangers, condensate and water / water heat exchanger provided in a heated environment with the external source of water flow and the heating medium - circuit circulation of the cooling heat exchanger, characterized in that it is equipped with extra water / water heat exchanger and an adjustable separator flow of a circulating fluid, the inlet of the separator is in communication with the outlet water / water heat exchanger, one output with the input of additional water / water heat exchanger, the output of which is communicated with the inlet end of the heat exchanger, the second output of the splitter and the output end of the heat exchanger is in communication with the input medium of the heat exchanger, the output of which is with PHONIC installed between the middle and end heat exchangers, additional water / water heat exchanger in a heated environment informed by input from the external source of water flow, and the exit - entry water / water heat exchanger.

3. Installation under item 2, characterized in that it is provided with an additional adjustable separator flow of a circulating fluid, the inlet of which communicates with the output of the primary heat exchanger, and exits from the entrance of water / water heat exchanger, one of them is through thermal load, for example heating the battery.

4. Installation according to p. 3, characterized in that it comes with a second gas generator of the heat and communicated with him the second flue and chimney made in the second duct of the heat exchanger system, including, for example, second initial, middle and final heat exchangers installed between the second average and the ultimate heat exchangers second condensate, the second additional water / water and water / water heat exchangers, consistently reported on the heated medium from a source external to the stream of water and the heating medium - circuit circulation of the cooling of the second heat exchangers so, the output of the second additional water / water heat exchanger is in communication with the entrance wtoo communicated with the input of the second primary heat exchanger, the output of which is communicated with the inlet of the second water / water heat exchanger, the output of which through the second adjustable separator flow communication with the input of the second additional water / water heat exchanger and the inlet of the second secondary heat exchanger, and the heated environment, the output water / water heat exchanger is in communication with the input of the second water / water heat exchanger.

5. Installation on PP. 2 to 4, characterized in that it comes with a second adjustable separator, installed in at least one of loops of circulating fluid, the inlet of which communicates with the output of the corresponding water / water heat exchanger, and the outputs from the input of the corresponding separator flow of a circulating fluid, one of them is through the filter.

6. Installation on PP.2 to 5, characterized in that the at least one gas generator heat made with walls with channels communicated with the corresponding path of the circulating fluid.

7. Installation on PP.2 to 6, characterized in that the at least one heat exchanger in the form supplied by the collectors pack of plates arranged along the flow of the heated gas with a gap between adjacent plates and provided with channels for p the ptx2">

8. Installation according to p. 7, characterized in that the channels in each plate is made parallel to each other in the zones, each of which has the shape of a triangle, the two extreme zones are conjugate bases of the triangles on the surface of the flue with the appropriate headers, two middle zone located between these extreme areas, have a common basis of triangles and involve the relevant stakeholders with large lateral sides of the triangles of the two extreme zones, with the channels in each of the end zones are made parallel to the respective lower side of a triangle given zone, and each of the secondary zones parallel to the corresponding side of the triangle given zone, not paired with any of the parties of the extreme zone.

9. Installation on PP.7 and 8, characterized in that the at least one heat exchanger is formed by two or more packages.

10. Installation on PP. 8 and 9, characterized in that the inlet manifold package supplied with switchgear, for example, honeycomb.

11. Installation on PP.2 to 10, characterized in that final heat exchanger with vertical plates, and the flue in its bottom wall with openings delanie in the flue heat exchanger and the flue is installed vertically.

13. Installation according to p. 12, characterized in that the duct is in communication with the chimney-type injector, and the exit flue installed at a distance from the entrance of the pipe is not less than 0.15 D, where D is the hydraulic diameter of the outlet duct.

14. Installation on PP.12 and 13, characterized in that the end plate of the heat exchanger is made with inclined to the horizontal input of heated gas stream edges, and the condensate is made in the form of gutters installed under the lower part of the input edges across the end plates of the heat exchanger.

15. Installation on PP.12 and 13, characterized in that the condensate is made in the form of corrugated spacers with peaks and troughs, directed along the plate package of the final heat exchanger and positioned under the respective plates of the package, each flute is made with an angle of not more than 80owith holes for passage of the heated gas flow is made between peak and trough, and reported the trough with a drain gutter.

16. Installation on PP.12 and 13, characterized in that the condensate formed established under the end plates of the heat exchanger and directed the tops of the hot gas flow V-shaped profilemanager on p. 16, characterized in that each profile is made with a transverse dimension of not less than h, where h is the plate thickness package end of the heat exchanger, and is set along the corresponding plate of the package.

18. Installation according to p. 16, characterized in that each profile is made with different parties with respect to the lengths of not more than 0.5, the radius of the vertex is equal to (0.5 to 2)H, where H is the gap between two adjacent plates package of the final heat exchanger, a transverse dimension at least H + 2h and installed under the respective two plates of the package.

19. The gas generator of heat for the installation of heating water for heating and/or hot water containing a combustion chamber with flame plate, provided with holes, installed coaxially with the corresponding holes of the fire face in the combustion chamber of the flame stabilizers and on the opposite side of the bottom - nozzle for feeding and mixing gaseous fuel with air, each of which is made in the form of ejector in communication with a source of combustible gas ejecting nozzles are evenly distributed around the perimeter and inclined at an angle to the axis of the Central nozzle communicated with the atmosphere, characterized in that each nozzle the drawings an d, each hole fire in the hull is made with a diameter of D2= (1,0 - 1,2)D1the gap between the nozzle and the bottom communicated with the atmosphere and the inlet of each of the Central nozzle is made with the edges rounded with a radius not less than 0.2 D3where D3the diameter of the neck of the Central nozzle of the injector, thus ejecting and the Central nozzle of each injector is made with respect to the area of openings equal to

= K(M2/M1)(G1/G2)2,

where K = (1.5 and 1.8) 10-5- the numerical factor;

M1, M2molecular weight, respectively, of fuel gas and air;

G1, G2- massive expenses, respectively, the fuel gas and air.

20. The generator according to p. 19, characterized in that the inlet of each ejecting nozzles are made with the edges rounded with a radius not less than 0.2 D4where D4the diameter of the neck of ejecting nozzle injector.

21. The generator according to p. 19, characterized in that at least part of the channel of each ejecting nozzle is conical with an input diameter of D51,5 D4and proplam at the top is not more than the angle of the ejecting nozzle to the axis of the nozzle.

22. Generator for PP.ADU ledge not more than 25% of the area of the neck of the Central nozzle, and each ejecting nozzle is made with an inclination to the axis of the Central nozzle at an angle, the smaller 25oand with the outlet side of the ledge.

23. Generator for PP.19 to 22, characterized in that the Central nozzle nozzle fitted made for the mouth of the groove is triangular in shape, ejecting nozzles are made with the outlets close to the mouth of the Central nozzle side of the groove, and the other side of the groove is made with an inclination to the axis of the Central nozzle at an angle less than the angle of inclination of the ejecting nozzle to the axis of the nozzle at least 6o.

24. Generator for PP. 19 to 23, characterized in that the combustion chamber is provided with inserts with education in the chamber for a length at least between the firing head and stabilizers flame of channels by the number of injectors, each of which is arranged coaxially with a corresponding nozzle in the form of a truncated cone with a smaller base, described around the hole fire in the bottom.

25. Generator for PP. 19 to 24, characterized in that the combustion chamber is provided with a partition installed between the injector with the formation of the individual for each injector of the combustion chambers.

26. Generator for PP. 19 to 25, characterized in that the DAMI - with the combustion chamber, is made around the perimeter of each hole fire in the bottom and inclined to its axis at an angle not exceeding 45owith respect to the additional space and ejecting nozzles of not more than 0.8.

 

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