Device for hardening holes
(57) Abstract:Device for hardening of holes can be used to harden the holes, for example bolted, by means of surface plastic deformation. At the same time, two-way reinforcement of the edges of the holes through the two punches. Both plugs have a Central through hole, and a single induction-dynamic actuator in the form of a flat current-carrying coil, copper disk mounted on one of the punches, and pre-charge capacitive energy storage. Punches and coil mounted on a common shaft, which is inserted into hardened hole. With one punch with a fixed copper disk has a code landing on the rod. This punch is mounted on the rod so that the copper disk was located next to the coil. Another punch, located on the opposite side hardened hole, has a rigid threaded mount on the rod. 2 Il. The invention relates to the processing of materials and products from them, namely, devices hardening metal by methods of surface plastic deformation.One of the most important structural elements, CLASS="ptx2">The known device processing internal poverhnosti holes rocketcam , comprising a power element with balls or rollers.A common feature of the analogue and the claimed device is the presence of strong reinforcing block.The described device is quite effective, however, inconvenient to operate, especially in the field (not in the steel mills) in the processing of previously drilled holes, have low productivity. The disadvantage is the need to adjust desktop size rolling depending on the source of the diameter of the hole.Also known similar devices containing hydraulic radial press with a punch to harden previously captured frame and the roller rolling.A common feature of the analogue and the inventive device are the existence of a punch.These devices implement both technology of surface hardening of the holes, therefore, can be implemented as appropriate for weight and performance. However, they have low productivity and can't handle holes without chamfers.Prototype technical susn is of the edges.A common feature of the prototype and the claimed invention is the presence of a punch.This device has a high efficiency hardening of bolt holes, measured in absolute value and relative increase in the fatigue limits of bolted joints.The drawback is the large size and weight and, as a consequence, the impossibility to use in the field (operational) conditions.The purpose of the invention is the improved resistance of structural engineering elements having apertures, for example bolted, fatigue.The goal is achieved using the method of surface plastic deformation of the holes. In many cases, a device for hardening should work not only in stationary(Zavodsky) conditions, but also in operational, i.e. directly in the process of maintenance of any machine-building complexes or products. For example, it is expedient to consolidate the bolt holes in the rails in the field. Thus it is possible to prolong the service life of the rail without replacing them.Therefore, first, the requirement of small mass and size parameters of the device hardening, katoh, device hardening should have a sufficiently high performance, otherwise it may be economic feasible.The technical result that can be obtained by carrying out the claimed invention, is to reduce the weight, dimensions and performance.The essential features characterizing the invention include the punch, however, unlike the prototype, made with a Central hole and firmly attached to the annular disc made of a material with high electrical conductivity, added flat ring current coil, the conclusions of which is connected via a key element to the capacitive energy storage device, a rod threaded on one end and a power part of enlarged diameter at the other end, and a second punch, made in the form of a cap nut, and the shaft is installed in hardened hole in such a way that on the one hand holes on the rod freely installed coil and the first punch, but on the other hand on the rod wound on the thread of the second punch.Signs, distinctive features of the prototype include the presence of two punches instead of one, and has a Central skou. Also added a flat ring current coil, the conclusions of which is connected to the newly introduced key element and a capacitive energy store. Additionally there is a rod with threads on one end and a power part of enlarged diameter on the other. These elements have the following mutual arrangement. The rod is installed in hardened hole so that one side of the hole to the specified shaft freely mounted a coil and the first punch, and on the other side wound on the thread of the second punch.The set of essential features, including two punch with a common drive (mechanical connection), allows for two-sided coating of holes, which reduces the number of operations and improves performance.The only element that secures the device in place is the punch, made in the form of a cap nut. The convenience and ease of fastening also determine the increase in productivity. Union nut can be secured even without the key, manually. The device does not require long preparation work and installation.When using, for example, rail is isawanya one drive (coil, copper disc and capacitive energy storage are induction-dynamic drive) to initiate movement of the two plungers defines a low weight and small dimensions of the device.For example, to improve the fatigue resistance of railroad rails in the area of the bolt holes on 50% of the required device hardening with dimensions of 140 x 230 mm and weight of 6 kg (without capacitor Bank). The capacitor Bank in this case has a size of approximately 420 x 300 x 190 mm and a weight of 32 kgFor charging capacitor banks can be used the standard scheme with one - or full-wave rectifier.In Fig. 1 presents the proposed device; Fig. 2 - power unit (without capacitive energy storage and the scheme of its charge).The device comprises a cylindrical rod 1 with the power part (thickening) 2 large diameter, which is integral with the shaft or has a tight fit on the rod. The rod 1 free set of flat circular current-carrying coil, consisting of an electrically insulating frame 3 and winding 4 and the plug 5. Reinforcing portion 6 of the plug 5 can be made of higher quality metal. The punch 5 is rigidly clucene through the key element 8, for example, closing an electrical contact to a pre-charged capacitive drive 9 energy. On the other end of the rod 1 and the thread is wound, the second plug 10 made in the form of a cap nut.Reinforcing edge punches made in the form of rounded chamfers.The device operates as follows.The rod 1 are installed on the coil (frame 3 with the winding 4 and the plug 5 is inserted into hardened hole, such as bolt hole in the rail the rail. On the other hand on the rod 1 wind the punch 10 and tighten it with a wrench. This rounded shaped edges of the punches is partly to get in a hardening of the hole.Copper disc 7 with nearby current windings 4 are induction-dynamic drive. To effect the hardening of the hole (pulse load) close contact (item 8). Then pre-charged capacitive drive 9 energy (capacitor Bank) is discharged to the coil 4. In the copper disk 7 will be the induction of electric currents that interact with the current in the winding 4 will result in rejection of the disk 7 with the plug 5 from the coil.Under the Oia, acting on the coil will be transmitted through the force part 2 of the rod 1. The rod 1 will move, pulling the plug 10. The punch 10 will hit harden the hole from the opposite side.The mass of the punch 5 and the power section 2 of the rod 1 must be equal to the strain hardening harden the holes on both sides was the same. DEVICE FOR HARDENING of the HOLES containing the punch, characterized in that, in order to reduce size and weight and improve performance, the device has a flat annular current coil, the conclusions of which is connected to the capacitive energy storage device, a rod threaded on one end and a power part of enlarged diameter at the other end and more punch in the form of a cap nut, and the main punch is made with a Central hole and with a fixed disk of a material with high electrical conductivity, while the coil and the main punch freely mounted on the rod, and the extra punch on the threaded rod.
FIELD: manufacture of metallic articles, particularly of hard-to-form intermetallic alloys, possibly electric resistive heating members.
SUBSTANCE: article is made of aluminides of iron, nickel and titanium. Method comprises steps of subjecting article being cold worked to cold hardening; performing rapid annealing at seasoning less than 1 min; repeating operations of cold working and rapid annealing for receiving article with desired size. It is possible to make article by casting, powder metallurgy process or plasma deposition.
EFFECT: enhanced strength of article.
26 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: plastic working of metals, namely strengthening metals by plastic deforming.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of placing sample in fitting; acting upon it by means of pulse energy sources for speeding up and pressing it through ducts formed in fitting and crossing one to other by desired angle.
EFFECT: possibility for producing compact high-density materials with three-dimensional homogenous ultra-fine grain structure.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metal forming and may in production of nanocrystalline structure of metals. Billet is subjected to jumping and extrusion. Extrusion is performed by displacing metal from cylindrical billet edges into cylindrical section and backwards. Note here that billet shape and sizes are retained. Jumping and extrusion are executed by hollow male die, solid male die fitted in the latter, and moving round plate. Arranged plate diameter D is defined from the following equality: where: d is solid male die diameter. Extrusion is executed by displacing shifted metal of billet cylindrical and edge sections at the rates related by above specified relationship.
EFFECT: higher degree of deformation, shorter process.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metallurgy, particularly, to development of methods designed to increase fatigue life of structural metals on the basis of material energy structure conversion in both production and operation. Hardening the plates of structural metallic materials comprises aging the plate by applying external mechanical effects thereon to cause cyclic expansion, varying said effects in the range of cyclic dozed compression stresses from σ = (3÷10) kg/mm2 to σmax = (+1÷+4) kg/mm2 and shear stresses up to τ = (±3.0÷±5.0) kg/mm2.
EFFECT: higher fatigue resistance of structural metallic materials.
2 tbl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: metal strip is produced solid, without welds, from ferritic, martensitic or ferritic/martensitic steel containing at least one section, where crystals have relatively more prominent anisotropic orientation, and at least one section, where crystals have relatively less prominent anisotropic orientation. At that X-ray θ-2θ diffractograms taken at two opposite points of the strip using CuKα radiation (intermediate infrared radiation) do not show statistically any essential difference regarding position and form of relative peaks. Rolling of strip 11 is performed between roll 21, provided with rotation axis 211 and rolling surface 212 on the one side, and surface 31, provided with supporting surface 311 on the other side. Roll angular speed is adjusted. Produced strip is used for production of forceps, supporting implants and prosthetic articulations.
EFFECT: providing specified elastic coefficient of metal strip.
21 cl, 4 tbl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: stock is exposed to closed deposition in a matrix channel and double-sided extrusion. Extrusion is carried out into upper and lower wedge cavities formed by upper and lower wedge puncheons. Then the specified puncheons are extracted from the matrix channel and turned around the axis by the angle 180°. By means of these puncheons they perform the subsequent loading of the stock with filling of the upper and lower wedge cavities at the other side. The cycle is repeated, afterwards wedge puncheons are replaced to puncheons with an end surface arranged perpendicularly to the axis of the stock. Closed deposition is carried out giving initial shape to the stock. Wedge puncheons and matrix channel have round or rectangular shape.
EFFECT: invention excludes formation of cracks, cavities, folds and clamps in a stock and provides for higher resistance and operability of a device.
3 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed composition contains the following substances, in wt %: C: 0.1-1.0, Mn: 10-25, Si: up to 0.5, Al: 0.3-2, Cr: 1.3-3.5, S: <0.03, P: <0.08, N: <0.1, Mo: <2, B: <0.01, Ni: <8, Cu: <5, Ca: up to 0.015, at least one element from the group V and Nb: Nb: 0.01-0.5, V: 0.01-0.5, and if required, Ti: 0.01-0.5, iron and unavoidable impurities making the rest.
EFFECT: higher strength for production of flat articles at hot and cold deformability.
15 cl, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: steel coil spring in resilient loaded condition, that is rather lower the elastic strength, is subjected to pulse sub-sonic air flow with frequency 1130-2100 Hz, and sound pressure 120-140 dB, at room temperature, and upon its location across the air flow.
EFFECT: increased elastic characteristics and widening of nomenclature of treated items.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metallurgy, specifically to production of a structural element by means of hot pressure treatment of semi-finished product made of steel. Method of producing structural element by means of hot pressure treatment of semi-finished product made of steel includes cold pressure treatment with deformation degree of at least 3 %, heating of semi-finished product to temperature below temperature Ac1 of phase transition and plastic deformation.
EFFECT: higher strength of structural element.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: residual stresses are formed in the axisymmetric plastic deformation of the article by means of a deforming tool with a conical working part. Residual voltages are formed at a relative reduction of 1.0%. Residual compressive stresses are formed in the peripheral layers of the article to a depth of 0.3R, where R is the product radius and residual tensile stresses in the central region of the article by creating a tensile force greater than the axial compression force.
EFFECT: rigidity of the products increases.