The allocation method grafted copolymers abs
(57) Abstract:The essence of the invention: invention allows to improve the environmental and technical-economic indicators of the process of obtaining plastic ABS through a full binding Polignano by degassing of Acrylonitrile, to reduce the consumption of coagulant and to improve the degree of alignment of the polymer with an antioxidant. The aim is achieved in that in the known method the selection of grafted copolymers ABS, obtained by the emulsion polymerization, including coagulation degassed latex aqueous solution of aluminum sulfate, the stabilization of the suspension of ionol and separation of the copolymer from the aqueous phase into the flow of degassed latex consistently dispense a 10 - 15% aqueous solution of sodium sulfite, maintaining the mass ratio of free Acrylonitrile : sodium sulfite is in the range from 1 : 2.5 to 1 : 3.0, and reacting 1,5 - 2,0 h, aqueous suspension of BHT in the amount of 0.36 to 0.39 wt. % copolymer and an aqueous solution of the coagulant is aluminum sulfate in the amount of 1.85 - 1,95 wt. % in the copolymer. 1 Il., table 1. The invention relates to methods for producing impact-resistant resin plant plastics ABS, obtained by the method of emulsion graft polymer is.There is a method of selection of the grafted copolymers of the type ABS, obtained by the emulsion polymerization by adding to the latex before coagulation of 0.5-10 wt.h. plasticizer in aqueous emulsion, followed by the coagulating solution of calcium chloride.The disadvantages of this method are the need to use fairly scarce plasticizers (type propilenglikolstearat), the complexity of their administration in the form of an emulsion, the use of insufficient coagulant is calcium chloride, which does not ensure receipt of the particles of narrow fractional composition for further processing.Closest to the proposed invention by the technical nature taken for the prototype and the basic method is the method of selection of grafted copolymers ABS, in which coagulation degassed latex obtained by emulsion polymerization using an aqueous solution of coagulant (aluminum salts) in the apparatus with a stirrer, followed by filtering and processing the selected product. This method is implemented in industry Uzlovskaya "Plastic".As monomers for obtaining the original latex usually use butalital - Acrylonitrile and styrene ( -methylsterol). The overall conversion of monomers during polymerization is 96-98%.The disadvantages of the method adopted for the prototype:
1) remaining in the latex after degassing steam Acrylonitrile in the amount of 0.07 to 0.1 wt.% partially enters besieged plastic and drying in air dryers vented to the atmosphere with exhaust air from the dryers, and partly discharged into the waste water. Acrylonitrile is a very toxic product hazard class II, which hit in the atmosphere and water, even in small quantities is extremely undesirable because of the damage to the natural environment;
2) use as a coagulant only aluminum salts can not withstand the pH of the coagulation process, to achieve a narrow distribution of polymer particles in size and are characterized by leakage of small particles in the waste water. If this is not achieved uniformity of distribution of the oxidant is introduced continuously into the flow of latex.The aim of the invention is to increase the ecological and technical-economic indicators of the process of obtaining plastic ABS through a full binding is not removed by degassing of Acrylonitrile, reducing consumption of COAG, is that the known method of allocation grafted copolymers ABS, obtained by the emulsion polymerization, including coagulation degassed latex aqueous solution of aluminum sulfate, the stabilization of the suspension of ionol and separation of the copolymer from the aqueous phase into the flow of degassed latex consistently dispense a 10-15% aqueous solution of sodium sulfite, maintaining the mass ratio of free Acrylonitrile: sodium sulfite is in the range from 1:2.5 to 1:3.0, and reacting 1,5-2,0 h, aqueous suspension of BHT in the amount of 0.36 to 0.39 wt.% the copolymer and an aqueous solution of the coagulant is aluminum sulfate in the amount of 1.85-1,95 wt.% the copolymer.The process is executed as shown in the drawing the schema as follows.Degassed latex ABS with residual Acrylonitrile 0,07-0,1% from the evaporator 1 through line 2 by pump 3 serves in the capacity of 4. In line 2 by line 5 dispense a 10-15% aqueous solution of sodium sulfite, maintaining the mass ratio of free NAC: sodium sulfite is in the range from 1:2.5 to 1:3.0, and reacting 1,5-2 hours From the tank 4 latex on line 6 sent to bethey mixer 7 where on line 8 serves stabilizer - ionol, in the amount of 0.36 to 0.39 wt.% (copolymer) in suspension.In the intermediate vessel 4 is the binding of residual Acrylonitrile and sodium sulfite. The reaction produces a product soluble in water and subjected to a complete biological oxidation.In contrast to the known, the claimed method is complete binding of Acrylonitrile with the exception of its air emissions and sinks, and the subsequent processing of product consumption is reduced coagulant, decrease of the polymer with the wastewater by increasing the homogeneity of mixing, reducing the amount of stabilizer. The essence of the invention is illustrated by examples.Examples 2-4 confirm in comparison with example 1 of the prototype that implementation of the proposed invention will:
1. Dramatically reduce or eliminate the emissions of harmful substances Acrylonitrile in the atmosphere, the amount of which is about 50 tons per year (in nominal production capacity of 20 thousand tons/year and the content of residual Acrylonitrile in the latex is not more than 0.1%).2. To reduce the consumption of oü the process of stabilization, that will ultimately lead to reduced consumption of scarce stabilizer (in terms of specified capacity of up to 6 t/year).4. To reduce the loss of ABS plastic due to the leakage of small polymer particles in the waste water in terms of the specified capacity of 10 tons per year.Basic properties of ABS plastic with implementation of the proposed invention does not change (impact strength, yield strength). The ALLOCATION METHOD GRAFTED COPOLYMERS ABS, obtained by the emulsion polymerization, including coagulation degassed latex aqueous solution of aluminum sulfate, the stabilization of the suspension of ionol and separation of the copolymer from the aqueous phase, characterized in that the flow of degassed latex consistently dispense a 10 - 15% aqueous solution of sodium sulfite, maintaining the mass ratio of free Acrylonitrile and sodium sulfite of 1 : 2.5 to 1 : 3, and the time of interaction between 1.5 - 2 h, aqueous suspension of BHT in the amount of 0.36 to 0.39 wt.% the copolymer and an aqueous solution of the coagulant is aluminum sulfate in the amount of 1.85 - 1,95 wt.% the copolymer.
FIELD: polymers, chemical technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the continuous method for preparing polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or modified PTFE finely divided powders. The continuous method for preparing PTFE or modified PTFE finely divided powders involves the following steps: (a1) dilution of PTFE-latex of modified PTFE-latex prepared in polymerization in the dispersion-emulsion to the concentration from 5 to 25 wt.-% of PTFE or modified PTFE with possible filtration of the prepared diluted latex; (b1) molding latex with inert gas to the relative pressure with respect to atmosphere pressure in the range 3-40 kg/cm2 (0.3-4 MPa); (c1) addition of acid electrolyte solution to latex in the line-flow mixer at pH value 1-4; (d1) feeding the latex flow from the mixer through capillary tube under condition of turbulent current with the Reynolds number above 3000; (e1) gel prepared at step (d1) is coagulated onto granules at mechanical stirring with the specific power 1.5-10 kWt/m3 and stirring is maintained up to flotation of finely divided powder; (f1) below water is separated from the finely divided powder. PTFE of modified PTFE finely divided powders that can't be processed by thermal method prepared by abovementioned method show the following indices: apparent density is ≥ 470 g/l; average diameter of particles (D50) is above 200 mcm; distribution of particles by diameter determined as ratio between particles mass with diameter from 0.7 to 1.3 times with respect to average particles diameter and the total particles mass above 50%. Invention provides preparing powders without using the complex and expensive equipment, and powders possess the improved fluidity and show the apparent density and narrow distribution of particles by the diameter index.
EFFECT: improved preparing method.
9 cl, 1 tbl, 1 dwg, 6 ex
FIELD: polymer production.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of polymeric binders for toner and can be used for copying appliances and printers. Process comprises separate preparation via emulsion polymerization of (i) low-molecule weight copolymer of styrene (α-methylstyrene), 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (or butyl acrylate) and methacrylic acid at monomer weight ratio (88-91.5):(8-11):(0.5-1.0) with intrinsic viscosity in toluene 0.08-1.2 dL/g and (ii) high-molecule weight copolymer of styrene (α-methylstyrene) and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (or butyl acrylate) at monomer weight ratio (88-92):(8-12) with intrinsic viscosity in toluene 1.0-1.28 dL/g. In both cases, polymerization is carried out at 60-70% to monomer conversion close to 100%. Resulting latexes of low- and high-molecule weight copolymers are supplemented by stopper and antioxidant and then mixed with each other at "dry" weight ratio between 70:30 and 75:25 and coagulated intrinsic viscosity in toluene 1.0-1.28 dL/g. with electrolyte solutions to form polymer characterized by intrinsic viscosity in toluene 0.4-0.45 dL/g and polydispersity Mw/Mn, which ensures bimodal molecular weight distribution of copolymer. The latter has melting (spreading) point 125-137°C and softening temperature 70-75°C.
EFFECT: improved quality of electrographic printing.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: scope of invention covers stabilized water dispersions of curing agent suitable for coating preparation. Dispersion dispersed in water contains the following components: A1) at least one organic polyisocyanate with isocyanate groups connected in aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, araliphatic and/or aromatic manner, A2) ionic or potentially ionic and/or non-ionic substance, A3) blocking agent, B) stabilizer containing a) at least one amine with structural element of common formula (I) without any hydrazide group, b) substance with formula (IV) .
EFFECT: resistance to thermal yellowing increases.
6 cl, 5 tbl, 11 ex
SUBSTANCE: described is a fluoropolymer latex which contains a fluoropolymer and fluorine-containing emulsifier of formula (1): F(CF2)4OCF2CF2OCF2COOA, where A is a hydrogen atom, alkali metal or NH4. A method is also described for producing such latex, and a fluoropolymer, which is obtained by coagulating fluoropolymer latex. The fluoropolymer latex can be used as an agent for coating different materials, such as metallic substrates, inorganic oxide substrates, polymer substrates, synthetic fibre, glass fibre, carbon fibre or natural fibre.
EFFECT: fluoropolymer is useful as material with excellent heat resistance, oil resistance, chemical resistance, weather resistance, non-stickiness, anti-overgrowth properties, water-repellent properties, oil-repellent properties, solvent-repellent properties.
7 cl, 2 tbl, 14 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processes of separating polydisperse systems through vibroacoustic effect. The method of separating polydisperse solution of distillery stillage involves coagulation of colloidal and dissolved substances of a dispersed phase and subsequent separation of the solid fraction of the formed product from the solution with separation of the liquid fraction of the dispersed medium. The dispersed phase is coagulated in two steps by applying energy of acoustic vibrations on the solution in at least two spectra in the 1-18 kHz range, providing weakening of surface tension of colloidal and dissolved substances, and in the 80-400 Hz range, increasing their amplitude of vibration. Before coagulation of the dispersed phase from the solution through evacuation, volatile aromatic substances are separated in form of a condensate, and before the second step for applying energy of acoustic vibrations the solution is dehydrated by 20-50% in vacuum drying conditions with extraction of the water condensate.
EFFECT: invention provides environmentally safe non-waste technology of processing distillery stillage and widens the range of processed products.
SUBSTANCE: method is realised through granulation by stirring in water in the presence of a liquid organic solvent which is partially soluble in water. A polytetrafluoroethylene emulsion is added, as well as a coagulant for coagulation of the polytetrafluoroethylene emulsion in form of a surface layer of polytetrafluoroethylene granules containing filler.
EFFECT: obtaining granules with high looseness with low separation of filler, which prevents release of the polytetrafluoroethylene emulsion into liquid wastes.
12 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a novel aqueous polytetrafluoroethylene emulsion obtained using a special fluorinated emulsifying agent, and to fine polytetrafluoroethylene powder and porous material produced from said powder. Described is a porous material produced from polytetrafluoroethylene via extrusion of a paste of fine polytetrafluoroethylene powder which is obtained through coagulation of aqueous polytetrafluoroethylene emulsion obtained during emulsion polymeristion of tetrafluoroethylene in an aqueous medium using a fluorinated emulsifying agent of formula (I): CF3CF2OCF2CF2OCF2COOA, in which A is an alkali metal atom or an NH4 group taken in amount of 1500-20000 parts per million relative the final output of polytetrafluoroethylene, followed by stretching.
EFFECT: obtaining porous material with excellent various characteristics, made from polytetrafluoroethylene, having excellent processability during extrusion of the paste.
5 cl, 3 ex, 1 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing fine polytetrafluoroethylene powder, as well as fine powder obtained using said method. The method of producing fine polytetrafluoroethylene powder involves emulsion polymerisation of tetrafluoroethylene in the presence of an aqueous medium, a fluorinated surfactant and a radical polymerisation initiator to obtain an aqueous emulsion of polytetrafluoroethylene and coagulation thereof in the presence of at least one apparent density-reducing compound selected from a group consisting of ammonia, an ammonium salt and urea, in amount ranging from 0.4 to 10 pts.wt per 100 pts.wt polytetrafluoroethylene. The fine polytetrafluoroethylene powder obtained using said method has standard specific mass from 2.140 to 2.180 and paste extrusion pressure from 10 to 25 MPa.
EFFECT: method of obtaining fine polytetrafluoroethylene powder which is capable of paste extrusion at low pressure using a simple method.
10 cl, 1 tbl, 10 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of fluoropolymer powdered materials. A modified fluoropolymer powdered material is obtained. A suspension of solid fluoropolymer particles from a group comprising a fluoroethylenepropylene polymer and a polymer of perfluoroalkoxy compounds together with PTFE particles in an aqueous liquid carrier is obtained. The aqueous suspension is frozen. The frozen carrier is removed by sublimation at pressure below atmospheric pressure to obtain dry fluoropolymer particles, which are modified by presence of PTFE modifier in powder form.
EFFECT: method of obtaining fluoropolymer powdered materials is disclosed.
14 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to petrochemical industry, particularly production of butadiene-styrene rubber obtained by emulsion copolymerisation, and methods for filling thereof at a latex step, and can be used in producing industrial rubber articles. The method of producing filled butadiene-styrene rubber involves emulsion copolymerisation of butadiene with styrene in the presence of radical initiators, stoppering the process, degassing, adding an antioxidant and fibre filler - cotton, viscose, capron fibre or a mixture thereof, separating rubber from latex by coagulation in the presence of a coagulation agent and 2% sulphuric acid solution, washing and drying rubber crumbs. The fibre filler is used at the coagulation step in the composition of a compound coagulation agent consisting of 5-30% aluminium chloride solution, added in amount of 2.0-3.0 kg/t rubber, and fibre filler added in amount of 1.0-10.0 kg/t rubber.
EFFECT: method increases process efficiency, intensifies the rubber drying process, reduces consumption of the coagulation agent, stabilises the process of separating rubber from latex and reduces environmental pollution with products of producing rubber by emulsion copolymerisation.
1 tbl, 10 ex
SUBSTANCE: composition contains the following in %: a) 35-78% aromatic polycarbonate, b) 6-55% thermoplastic polyester - polyethylene terephthalate, c) 5-15% halogenated acrylate, d) 3-15% impact resistance modifier, e) 2-15% phosphate-containing compound and f) 0.05-0.5% fluorinated polyolefin. The acrylate contains repeating structural units of the following formula: in which R1, R2, R3, R4 and R5 denote hydrogen, alkyl or aryl, n ranges from 0 to 5, m ranges from 10 to 10000, and R denotes halogen. The phosphate-containing compound is selected from a compound of formula (III) O-P-[-OCH2C(CH2Br)3]3 (III) and compounds of formula , in which R1, R2, R3 and R4 denote C1-C8-alkyl, C5-C6-cycloalkyl, C6-C20-aryl or C7-C12-aralkyl, unsubstituted or substituted with alkyl, n equals 0 or 1, N equals 0.1-30, X denotes a mono- or polycyclic aromatic residue with C6-C30 or a linear or branched aliphatic residue with C2-C30.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain a composition with higher impact resistance and fire resistance.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a thermoplastic moulding composition which is flame retardant and impact resistant. The thermoplastic moulding composition for making moulded articles contains aromatic polyester carbonate, polyalkylene terephthalate, graft copolymer having a nucleus-shell morphology, having a graft shell which contains polymerised alkyl(meth)acrylate, and a nucleus made from composite rubber which contains interpenetrating and inseparable polyorganosiloxane and poly(meth)alkyl acrylate components in form of particles having size from 0.05 to 5 mcm and glass transition temperature lower than 0°C, and where the weight ratio polyorganosiloxane/poly(meth)alkyl acrylate/hard shell equals 70-90/5-15/5-15, and a phosphorus-containing compound (IVa), where R1, R2, R3 and R4 denote phenyl, R5 denotes hydrogen, n equals 1, q ranges from 1 to 2, Y denotes C(CH3)2 and fluorinated polyolefin.
EFFECT: high resistance to inflammation and impact strength.
8 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: composition contains (A) a bisphenol-based homopolycarbonate in amount of 10-90% of the weight of the composition (weight parts), B) 10-90 pt.wt first graft (co)polymer containing a graft copolymerisation base selected from a group consisting of polyurethane, ethylene-vinyl acetate, silicone, ethylene-propylene-diene rubber, ethylene-propylene rubber, acrylate rubber, diene rubber and polychloroprene. When the first graft copolymer contains 3-50% rubber component, and when the graft phase contains 49-96% polymerised monovinyl diene aromatic monomer and 1-48% monoethylene unsaturated polar monomer, wherein the percentage relates to the weight of the first graft (co)polymer. The composition also contains 1-20 pts.wt linear polymer (C) with glycidyl ester functional groups, containing repeating units based on one or more glycidyl ester monomers. The composition contains 1-20 pts.wt second graft (co)polymer (D) containing a nucleus and a shell. The molecular structure of the nucleus includes an all-permeating mesh structure made from poly(meth)alkyl acrylate. The shell is made by polymerising methyl methacrylate.
EFFECT: low light-reflecting power and high impact strength at low temperatures.
17 cl, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: composition contains (A) about 10-80 wt % soft rubber-like resin based on a vinyl aromatic copolymer, (B) about 4-60 wt % rubber-modified resin based on a vinyl aromatic copolymer and (C) about 5-80 wt % resin based on a vinyl aromatic-vinyl cyanide copolymer. Resin (A) contains as a dispersion phase rubber particles with content of graft polymer of about 40-90%, and average particle diameter of about 6-20 mcm. The moulded article is made by moulding from said thermoplastic resin composition and has a soft surface touch with average surface roughness of about 400-800 nm.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain moulded articles with a pleasant low lustre and high impact viscosity.
16 cl, 5 dwg, 2 tbl, 10 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to composite polymer materials based on a highly processable butadiene-acrylonitrile elastomer, which can be used to produce vulcanisates with high tensile strength, tear resistance, good dynamic properties and heat-ageing resistance. The polymer composition based on butadiene-acrylonitrile elastomer (SKN-26) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is modified with aluminium oxide nanoparticles. The polymer composition based on butadiene-acrylonitrile elastomer (SKN-26) polyvinyl chloride (PVC) contains sulphur, captax, thiuram, stearin and aluminium oxide.
EFFECT: improved operational characteristics: strength and dynamic mechanical properties.
1 tbl, 17 dwg
SUBSTANCE: flame-extinguishing polymer composition contains a combustible polymer mixed with a bromated flame-extinguishing additive selected from one or more compounds given below: (i) a copolymer containing styrene and 2,3-dibromopropylmaleimide repeating units; (ii) a bromated polyester containing bromine atoms bonded with aliphatic groups; (iii) an allyl ether which is bromated on a novolac resin ring; (iv) 3-bromo-2-hydroxypropyl ether of novolac resin; (v) 2,3-dibromopropyl ether cresol-novolac resin, and (vi) a bromated polymer or a copolymer obtained via ROMP.
EFFECT: stability of the flame-extinguishing additive at high temperatures, low toxicity and avoiding significant loss of physical properties of the polymer during use thereof.
7 cl, 10 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to polymers that are suitable for use in making rubber articles, such as tyre treads. The method of producing a functionalised polymer involves conducting a reaction between a polymer with an active terminal group, which contains a diene monomer moiety, and a compound which contains a disilylamino group and a group which is capable of reacting with polymers with an active terminal group selected from keto, thioketo, epoxy and epithio groups. The polymer contains a diene monomer moiety and a terminal moiety which contains a disilylamino group and a residue of a group which contains a heteroatom. Said terminal moiety has the general formula , where values of radicals are given in the claim. Also disclosed is a vulcanisate which contains said polymer, and an article made therefrom.
EFFECT: said polymers and articles made therefrom are characterised by improved tensile properties, improved wear resistance and fatigue resistance and low hysteresis loss.
15 cl, 7 tbl, 22 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing a functional polymer. The polymer contains one or more types of polyene monomer moieties and at least one functionalising link which contains an aryl group, having at least one directly bonded OR group, where R is a hydrolysable protective group. The method involves: a) obtaining a solution containing an initiating compound and ethylenically unsaturated monomers which contain at least one type of polyene, at least one type of C8-C20 vinyl aromatic compound and an ethylenically unsaturated compound of formula CH2=CHR1, where R1 is an aryl group having at least one substitute, where R is a hydrolysable protective group; and b) facilitating anionic initiation with said initiating compound of polymerisation of said ethylenically unsaturated monomers to obtain a carbanionic polymer. At least one functionalising link is obtained from said monomer containing an R1 group.
EFFECT: obtaining functional polymers which improve interaction with filler.
16 cl, 19 tbl, 87 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a rubber-reinforced vinyl aromatic (co)polymer, a method for production thereof and use of such a polymer. The rubber-reinforced vinyl-aromatic (co)polymer contains a polymer matrix and a rubber phase consisting of diene rubber which is dispersed and/or grafted to the polymer matrix. Said rubber phase is selected from at least one rubber from: (i) linear diene rubber consisting of polybutadiene with solution viscosity from 40 to 70 cP, measured in a solution of said rubber in amount of 5 wt % in styrene at temperature of 25°C; content of 1,2-vinyl from 5 to 35 wt % and content of 1,4-cis links from 20 to 85 wt %; (ii) diene rubber with a partially radial structure with solution viscosity of less than 70 cP, wherein at the end, up to 15 wt %, preferably from 1 to 12 wt %, of the polymer chains a tetrafunctional binding agent is attached in order to form a radial terminal structure of the chains of the linear diene rubber; (iii) trifunctional diene rubber with solution viscosity of less than 70 cP, i.e., linear diene rubber consisting of polybutadiene with solution viscosity from 40 to 70 cP, measured in a solution of said rubber in amount of 5 wt % in styrene at temperature of 25°C; content of 1,2 vinyl from 5 to 35 wt % and content of 1,4-cis links from 20 to 85 wt %, bonded with the trifunctional binding agent; (iv) mixture of linear diene rubber (i) and diene rubber (v) with a radial structure with maximum ratio (i)/(v) from 99.5/0.5 to 85/15 with solution viscosity of less than 70 cP.
EFFECT: obtaining rubber-reinforced vinyl aromatic (co)polymers for making articles with high lustre and mechanical properties.
7 cl, 1 tbl, 10 ex