The way we produce leather

 

(57) Abstract:

The essence of the invention: production of leather is carried out in the same tank. After retanning chrome tanning agent semi-finished product is subjected to the first stage of dyeing with acid dyes at a temperature of 20 - 30C, doublenaut synthetic tanning agent, which is injected aluminum alum in the amount of 0,15 - 0,35, counting on alumina, and formiate-alcohol plasticizer in the amount of 0,05 - 0,12%, counting on the dry matter, by weight of the semifinished product. This is followed by neutralization and the second stage of dyeing with direct dyes at a temperature of 55 - 60C and greasing. table 2.

The invention relates to the production technology of leather, namely, dyeing and greasing processes skins chrome method tanned uppers and linings of shoes, haberdashery, clothing, gloves and suede from different leather materials.

In the leather industry faces the challenge of improving the quality of skin in their production, which is determined by the condition of the painted surface, especially when forming a thin coating film on the front skins. The quality of the skin depends on a number of pogledovalnik processes: retanning chrome tanning agent and sintet the exercise of these processes.

There is a method of generation of leather, including retanning chrome tanning agent, rinsing, neutralizing, washing, dyeing and greasing [1].

The disadvantages of this method is uneven coloration of the surface of the skin, low intensity of color, a large number of leaching, increasing the complexity of the technology. The loss of intensity of color (up to 60%) due to the need to use organic tanning agent for filling prefabricated.

There is a method of generation of leather, enclosing retanning chrome tanning agent followed by treatment of potassium alum, after which the semi-finished product is washed, neutralized, washed, it is greased, washed, carry out the dyeing in the presence of ammonia followed by treatment of the chrome tanning agent [2].

Due to the fact that the dyeing is performed after fatliquoring, the latter significantly affects the course of the dyeing process and may not provide uniform coloration of the front surface of leather and high quality. Use of toxic chromium tanning agent at the final stage of the process after dyeing and ammonia, the execute method is also time consuming.

There is a method of generation of leather, including retanning chrome dubitation the second stage is carried out at a temperature of 55-60aboutWith greasing. The leather obtained according to the method, characterized by the disadvantages which are inherent in almost all ways, providing dyeing after retanning synthetic tanning agent, i.e., there is a decrease in the intensity and uniformity of the color of the front surface and grade of the skin, defining quality.

The purpose of the invention is improving the uniformity of the colors of the skin and improving its quality.

This objective is achieved in that in the method of manufacture of leathers, including retanning chrome tanning agent, neutralization, retanning synthetic tanning agent, two-stage dyeing, and the second stage of the dyeing is carried out with creasing at a temperature of 55-60aboutWith, the production of leather is carried out in the same tank. The first stage of the dyeing carried out with acid dyes at a temperature of 20-30aboutAfter retanning chrome tanning agent, and the second direct dyes after neutralization, the last exercise after retanning synthetic tanning agent, which is injected aluminum alum in the amount of 0,15-0,35% , counting on alumina by weight of the semifinished product, and masking additive. As the masking additives used formiate-alcohols of the structure with the prototype in the proposed method the first stage of dyeing with acid dyes carry between processes retanning chrome tanning agent and synthetic tanning agent. In the bath in addition to synthetic tanning agent is injected aluminum alum and masking additive, which gives the aluminum alum resistance to alkalization. Due to this, carry out the neutralization process after retanning synthetic tanning agent, and then without washing prefabricated conduct the second stage of dyeing with direct dyes on the treated solution in the same tank.

As the masking additives used plasticizer format-alcohol (SFC) - THE 84-1067-85 representing a byproduct of the production of pentaerythritol. The introduction of SFC with aluminum alum in the spent solution of the synthetic tanning agent contributes to a more uniform color surface fewer dyes and its resistance to dry and wet friction, more elastic skin, which significantly improves their quality.

The first stage of dyeing only acid dyes after retanning semi-finished chrome tanning agent and maintaining the SFC in the spent solution after retanning synthetic tanning agent allows to exclude from the process of washing the semi-finished product produced by the skin and perform in the same tank not worked dissolve the Oia with the prototype.

Dyeing with acid dyes is carried out at a temperature of 20-30aboutC. This temperature is optimal to ensure good testing acid dye and its diffusion in the thickness of the semi-finished product. If the temperature is less than the 20aboutWith the absorption of the dye intermediate product is reduced and it remains in the working solution, which hinders subsequent processes. The temperature rise of more than 30aboutWith leads to rapid absorption of acid dye, the fixation surface of the semifinished product and a non-uniform intensity of coloration due to the acceleration process. The selected temperature range creates conditions for high-quality of the dyeing process and the formation on the surface of the semi-finished durable intense color. The choice of the number of aluminium alum 0,15-0,35%, counting on alumina by weight of the semi-finished product, is in a relationship with masking the addition of SFC in the amount of 0,05-0,12%, counting on the dry matter by weight of the semifinished product.

If aluminum alum to take in the amount of < 0.15% of aluminum oxide, and SFC less than 0.05% of dry residue mass of the semi-finished product, the effect of uniform color surface, its intensity and Zelenoglazoe while absorbing dye, on the intensity of its color and softening effect on the semi-finished product. If aluminum alum to add more than 0.35%, counting on alumina, and the SFC more than 0.12%, counting on the dry matter by weight of the semifinished product, the direct dye is not sufficiently absorbed by the semi-finished product and, therefore, remains in the working solution is unused, and this reduces the color intensity of the semi-finished product and its quality. The choice of consumption of aluminium alum 0,15-0,35%, counting on alumina by weight of the semifinished product, and the corresponding number of SFC in the range 0,05-0,12%, counting on the dry matter by weight of the semi-finished product, ensures a uniform, intense and strong colouring the surface of the skin, the higher their grade and elongation stress of 10 MPa, which significantly improves the quality of finished leather.

The method is as follows;.

P R I m e R 1. As a semifinished product for the production of leather, chrome tanned for Shoe uppers use a blue light, and clothing for skin - kozlina import (from Pakistan). Each semi-finished product is loaded into a separate drum, fill in water at the rate of 1 l per 1 kg of semi-finished product (LC-1), give chrome tanning agent, the amount of which is specified in the table.1. In table.1 pre is influenced by different leathers in accordance with examples 1-5. Next, the drum is put into rotation, and the process is carried out at a temperature of 25aboutC. After 30 min from the beginning of the retanning chrome tanning agent during continuous rotation of the drum through the hollow shaft fill 10% solution of sodium bicarbonate in two doses with an interval of 10 minutes the First stage of the dyeing is carried out with acid dyes. To do this in the spent solution after 20 min after the injection of the second portion of sodium bicarbonate during the rotation of the drum fill is dissolved in water (1:10), the temperature of which 65aboutWith, and filtered dye acid black C. the duration of the dyeing in the first stage, 15 minutes at a temperature of 25aboutC. then spend retanning semi synthetic tanning agent, which used a mixture BOPD (OST 17-4-70) and N 2 (TU 38-10271-78) in a ratio of wt.h. 1:1 which depending on the waste liquid in the form of an aqueous solution concentration of 200 g/l, counting on tanning. The rotation of the drum continues for 30 minutes Then the solution was added potassium alum and SFC in the dry state and after 30 min to neutralize the semi-finished product in the course of the drum through the hollow shaft fill 10% solution of sodium bicarbonate in two doses with an interval of 10 min; pH spent the actu spent solution is drained (to LCD = 0.5) and bring the LCD up to 2.0-2.5 water temperature 75aboutWith rotation of the drum. Through the hollow shaft to move the drum impose dissolved 1: 10 in water at a temperature of 65aboutC and filtered solution of direct dyes direct black 3. After 30 min of continuous rotation is introduced into the drum emulsion fattening substances of any structure, which provides a corresponding method of production. The consumption of fattening substances depends on the type of raw materials and the destination of the skin. In the examples used emulsion sulfated fish oil and synthetic fat grade a (TU 38-1016-92-79), prepared with water (1:10) at a temperature of 60aboutIn the presence of 5% nonionic surfactants, which are used neonol (TU 3850724-87). After 40 min of treatment during the rotation of the drum through the hollow shaft fill a 5% solution of acetic acid and continue the rotation for 20 minutes

P R I m e R s 2 and 3 represent the boundary values of the proposed intervals quantities of potassium alum, SFC and other reagents, and the temperature holding retanning chrome tanning agent, the first stage of dyeing, retanning synthetic tanning agent, neutralizing in example 2 is carried out at 20aboutWith, as in example 3 - 30aboutC.

P R I m e R s 4 and 5 otrajeny mode retanning chrome tanning agent, the first stage of dyeing, retanning synthetic tanning agent, neutralizing in example 4 is carried out when the 15aboutWith, as in example 5 - 35aboutC.

As materials for carrying out the method is used, in addition to the above, and other known synthetic tannins (plant), aluminum alum, for example alimohammadian, dyes and masking additives, such as sodium formate, phthalic anhydride, and others. However, as can be seen from the examples in the table.2, the masking additive SFC gives processed semi-finished higher plastic properties.

Development of skin on the prototype chrome tanned for Shoe upper was also a semi-rawhide light, and garment leather from goat imported. As the dyes in the first stage of dyeing, as provided by the prototype, used direct, wt.% semi: straight black 3-3,0; straight black KX - 1,2; direct dark green for the skin to 0.3. They were used on the second stage of dyeing, but three times smaller quantities. Greasing the cake mix was carried out by emulsion, the composition of which is given in example 1.

Qualitative indicators tanned leather for Shoe uppers from Yalova Vincent the data shows, implementation of the method according to examples 1-3 allows you to get soft skin, as for the uppers, and clothing with the elongation stress of 10 MPa at 17-19% higher than the same skins, obtained by the prototype, and surface colouring resistant gray scale standards for dry and wet friction, superior grade of 0.9-1.2 and 0.6-0.8%, respectively leather for Shoe upper and garment obtained from the same raw materials of the prototype.

Chrome leather produced according to example 4, have poorer color stability on a scale of gray benchmarks and grade than the leather obtained according to the prototype. Skin, designed for a Shoe upper according to example 5, have tensile strength of the surface layer under tension below the requirements of GOST 939-88 and skin clothing do not comply with GOST 1875-83 elongation at a voltage of 10 MPa.

The proposed method can be used in the process of making leather, chrome tanned uppers and linings of shoes, haberdashery, clothing, gloves and suede from different leather materials to get soft skin with a uniform, high intensity and durable surface colouring, higher quality. This method allows to reduce the production process production with the odd exception, the rinsing process; to reduce the consumption of direct dyes.

The METHOD of manufacture of LEATHERS, including retanning chrome tanning agent, neutralization, retanning synthetic tanning agent, two-stage dyeing, and the second stage of the dyeing is carried out at 55 - 60oWith, and greasing, characterized in that the production of leather is carried out in the same tank, the first stage of the dyeing carried out with acid dyes at 20 - 30oAfter retanning chrome tanning agent, and the second direct dyes after neutralization, the neutralization is carried out after the retanning synthetic tanning agent, which is injected aluminum alum in the amount of 0,15 - 0,35%, counting on alumina, and aspect-alcohol plasticizer in the amount of 0,05 - 0,12%, calculated on the dry matter, by weight of the semifinished product.

 

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EFFECT: facilitated procedure; increased amount of product.

1 tbl, 15 ex

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EFFECT: simplified process and increased product discharge degree.

1 tbl, 19 ex

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