The ac voltage regulator

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: in the voltage regulation devices, the speed of various objects, temperature, brightness (for example, low-voltage incandescent lamps). The inventive device comprises a thyristor chopper circuit 1 AC, threshold node 7, node 8 smooth on and off the load and the switch 9. With increasing voltage power source connected to the leads 5 and 6, decreases the power at the load 4 by reducing the operation time of the thyristor 3. This increases the current through transistor 34 and there is an increase in operation voltage threshold of node 7, is proportional to the transmission coefficient of the divider of the resistors 29 and 30 and the Zener diode 33. This leads to compensate for the change in power in the load 4. 1 C. p. F.-ly, 1 Il.

The invention relates to electrical engineering and can be used in the voltage regulation devices, the speed of various objects, temperature, brightness (for example, low-voltage incandescent lamps).

Known voltage regulator that contains the power switch in the form of thyristors in the diagonal of the bridge, and the governing body with the limiter in the form of a Zener diode, unapredjenja (1).

The disadvantage of this controller is the instability of the power dissipated in the load zone of the phase angles 150-180 al.grad., due to the instability of the ignition angle of the thyristor, caused by drift operation voltage transistor and the low slope of the signal accumulation capacitor.

The closest to the technical nature of the proposed solution is dimmer (2) containing the switch, the bulb, is included in the network in series with the thyristor chopper circuit, a trigger circuit containing the reference Zener diode, tokodai resistor, a storage capacitor and a comparator consisting of two transistors, the output of which is connected to the control input of the circuit breaker, the circuit of smooth on-and off-load containing the transistor, the current control through the switch from RC-circuits, and the load of which is the lamp of the optocoupler, the inside of which is included in tacosalad chain threshold circuit, a power supply circuit for smooth on and off is supplied from the rectifier.

The disadvantage of this controller is that it is impossible to use it to power low-voltage lamps, as it does not provide the required you who ogboi scheme, low slope of the signal at its input and current on charge storage capacitor from the supply voltage, which shifts the ignition angle of the thyristor.

The aim of the invention is to increase the stability of the power on the load fed through the voltage regulator when the voltage fluctuations in the mains. This goal is achieved by the fact that the AC voltage regulator contains a thyristor circuit breaker AC, made in the form of a rectifier bridge in the diagonal DC which included the thyristor, and the diagonal AC to the rectifier bridge are connected with leads to connect power source and load, the threshold node, an output connected to the control electrode of the thyristor, the node a smooth on and off the load and the switch, and the threshold node on the first, second, third resistor and the first capacitor, the first conclusions which are connected with the positive output of the rectifier bridge, the first Zener diode, the cathode of which is connected to the second output of the first resistor and the anode to the base of the first transistor, the second transistor, the base of which is connected to the collector of the first transistor and the first output of Chiyoda fourth resistor, to the second output of the third resistor to the first output of the fifth resistor to the cathode of the second Zener diode and to the first output of the second capacitor, the third Zener diode, the cathode of which is connected to the second output of the second resistor, and the anode - base of the third transistor.

The transistor collector is connected to the second output of the fifth resistor and to the anode of the first diode, the fourth transistor, the base of which is connected to the cathode of the first diode and the first output of the sixth resistor, and the collector with the first output of the fourth resistor and the second diode, the cathode of which is connected to the second findings of the first capacitor and the sixth resistor, the emitters of the first, third, and fourth transistors, the anode of the second diode, the anode of the second Zener diode and the second terminal of the second capacitor is connected with the negative output of the rectifier bridge, and a host of smooth connection and disconnection of the load is performed on the third diode, the anode of which is connected to the positive terminal of the rectifier bridge, and the cathode through the rectifier is connected to the first output of the third capacitor and the first output of the seventh resistor, an eighth resistor, a first output which is connected to the second output of the seventh resistor, n is atod of which is connected to the second output of the eighth resistor, on the fifth transistor, the base of which is connected to the second output of the variable resistor, and the collector to the second output of the first resistor, while the second findings of the third and fourth capacitors, the anode of the fourth diode and the emitter of the fifth transistor is connected with the negative output of the rectifier bridge, and the stabilization voltage of the first Zener diode is less than the voltage stabilization of the third Zener diode.

In addition, the ratings of the seventh and eighth resistors and a fourth Zener diode, forming a voltage divider selected from the conditions of ensuring the relationship of the ratio of the voltage divider when the deviation of the supply voltage from the nominal voltage to the transfer ratio of the voltage divider when the normal voltage is equal to 0.33.

The drawing shows a schematic diagram of AC voltage regulator.

The AC voltage regulator contains a thyristor circuit breaker AC 1 made in the form of a rectifier bridge 2; diagonal DC which included the thyristor 3 and the diagonal AC to the rectifier bridge are connected to the load 4 and pins 5 and 6 for connection to a source pitaluga load and the switch 9, moreover, the threshold node on the first 10, second 11 and third 12 resistors and a first capacitor 13, the first conclusions which are connected with the positive output of the rectifier bridge 2, the first Zener diode 14, the cathode of which is connected to the second output of the first resistor 10 and the anode to the base of the first transistor 15, the second transistor 16, the base of which is connected to the collector of the first transistor 15 and to the first output of the fourth resistor 17, the emitter is used as the output threshold of node 7, and the collector is connected to the second output of the fourth resistor 17, to the second output of the third resistor 12, to the first output of the fifth resistor 18, to the cathode of the second Zener diode 19 and to the first output of the second capacitor 20, the third Zener diode 21, the cathode of which is connected to the second output of the second resistor 11 and anode - base of the third transistor 22, the collector of which is connected to the second output of the fifth resistor 18 and to the anode of the first diode 23, the fourth transistor 24, the base of which is connected to the cathode of the first diode 23 and the first output of the sixth resistor 25, and the collector with the first output of the fourth resistor 17, and the second diode 26, the cathode of which is connected to the second findings of the first capacitor 13 and the sixth resist is abilityone 19 and the second terminal of the second capacitor 20 is connected with the negative output of the rectifier bridge 2, and a host of smooth connection and disconnection of the load is performed on the third diode 27.

The anode of the third diode connected to the positive terminal of the rectifier bridge 2, and the cathode through the switch 9 is connected to the first output of the third capacitor 28 and the first output of the seventh resistor 29, the eighth resistor 30, the first output of which is connected to the second output of the seventh resistor 29, to the first output of the fourth capacitor 31 and to the first output of the variable resistor 32, the fourth Zener diode 33, the cathode of which is connected to the second output of the eighth resistor 30, the fifth transistor 34, the base of which is connected to the second output of the variable resistor 32, when this second findings of the third 28 and fourth capacitors 31, the anode of the fourth Zener diode 33 and the emitter of the fifth transistor 34 is connected to the negative output of the rectifier bridge 2, and the stabilization voltage of the first Zener diode 14 is less than the voltage stabilization of the third Zener diode 21.

In addition, the ratings 29 seventh and eighth resistors 30 and the fourth Zener diode 33, forming a voltage divider selected from the conditions of ensuring the relationship of the ratio of the voltage divider when the deviation voltage source pewnym 0,33.

The device operates as follows.

When the supply voltage on input pins 5 and 6 between positive and negative findings of the rectifier bridge 2 you receive a full-wave rectified voltage (hereinafter rectified voltage), which, through the resistor 12 charges the capacitor 20 to a voltage stabilizing Zener diode 19. Rectified voltage during his rise charges the capacitor 13, the charge current which is passing through the resistor 25 and the transition base-emitter voltage of transistor 24, holds it open, the first half of each half-cycle of the supply voltage. The same rectified voltage exceeding the voltage stabilizing Zener diode 21, causes the current through the resistor 11, the Zener diode 21 and the transition base-emitter voltage of transistor 22, which keeps the transistor 22 in the open state until the second half of the half-cycle of the rectified voltage will drop to a voltage stabilizing Zener diode 21 and the transistor 22 will be closed.

The closing of the transistor 22 directs current going through the transistor 18 in the circuit of diode 23 and to move the base-emitter voltage of transistor 24, opening it. Transistor 24 during the open state from the end of each of the second potential at the collector of transistor 15, the base of transistor 16 and the gate electrode of the thyristor 3. Rectified voltage exceeding the voltage stabilizing Zener diode 14, causes the current through the resistor 10, the Zener diode 14 and the transition base-emitter voltage of the transistor 15, which keeps the transistor 15 is in an open state until the second half of the half-cycle of the rectified voltage will drop to a voltage stabilizing Zener diode 14 and the transistor 15 will be closed. The voltage stabilizing Zener diode 14 is selected slightly smaller than the voltage stabilizing Zener diode 21 and so close at the end of each half-period of the transistor 15 is slightly later than the opening of the transistor 24 and, therefore, on the base and the emitter of the transistor 16 and the gate electrode of the thyristor 3 zero voltage and the thyristor 3 is permanently closed.

After closure of the switch 9, the capacitor 28 is quickly charged to the peak value of the rectified voltage and begins a slow charging of the capacitor 31 and the core, respectively, the collector currents of the transistor 24, the collector current which flows through resistor 10 increases the voltage drop across it and, consequently, the value of the rectified voltage, which is open and is the more current of the transistor 34, which is set by variable resistor 32 in accordance with the required current voltage at the load. The slow increase of the current in the collector of transistor 34 corresponds to a gradual increase in voltage at the load. The increase in the supply voltage at a constant voltage tripping threshold of node 7 leads to the reduction of power on the load reduction of the operation time of the thyristor 3, which is compensated by the governing communication on the perturbation engaged with rising mains rising current through the transistor 34 and is proportional to the transmission coefficient of the divider of the resistors 29 and 30 and the Zener diode 33, the increase in the operation voltage threshold of node 7, which leads to compensation of power to the load 4.

Similar corrective action occurs when the decrease of the voltage in the supply network. When the break switch 9 is slow decrease in voltage at the load.

In the proposed controller AC voltage with a work area 140-180 al. grad. used automatic regulating the bond, which stabilizes the voltage at the load when the voltage fluctuations in the mains.

1. The REGULATOR AC VOLTAGE is anal DC which included the thyristor, and the diagonal AC to the rectifier bridge are connected with leads to connect power source and load, the threshold node, an output connected to the control electrode of the thyristor, the node a smooth on and off the load and the switch, wherein, to improve the stability of output power, threshold node on the first, second, third resistor and the first capacitor, the first conclusions which are connected with the positive output of the rectifier bridge, the first Zener diode, the cathode of which is connected to the second output of the first resistor and the anode to the base of the first transistor, the second transistor, base of which is connected to the collector of the first transistor and the first output of the fourth resistor, the emitter is used as the output threshold node, and a collector connected to the second output of the fourth resistor to the second output of the third resistor to the first output of the fifth resistor to the cathode of the second Zener diode and to the first output of the second capacitor, the third Zener diode, the cathode of which is connected to the second output of the second resistor, and the anode - base of the third transistor, the collector of which is connected to the second output of the fifth resistor and the anode of the first resistor, and the manifold - with the first output of the fourth resistor and the second diode, the cathode of which is connected to the second findings of the first capacitor and the sixth resistor, the emitters of the first, third, and fourth transistors, the anode of the second diode, the anode of the second Zener diode and the second terminal of the second capacitor is connected with the negative output of the rectifier bridge, and a host of smooth connection and disconnection of the load is performed on the third diode, the anode of which is connected to the positive terminal of the rectifier bridge, and the cathode through the switch is connected to the first output of the third capacitor and the first output of the seventh resistor, an eighth resistor, the first output of which is connected to the second output of the seventh resistor to the first output of the fourth capacitor and to the first output of the variable resistor, the fourth Zener diode, the cathode of which is connected to the second output of the eighth resistor, the fifth transistor, the base of which is connected to the second output of the variable resistor, and the collector to the second output of the first resistor, while the second findings of the third and fourth capacitors, the anode of the fourth diode and the emitter of the fifth transistor is connected with the negative output of the rectifier bridge is S="ptx2">

2. The regulator under item 1, characterized in that the nominal values of the seventh and eighth resistors and a fourth Zener diode, forming a voltage divider selected from the conditions of ensuring the relationship of the ratio of the voltage divider when the deviation of the supply voltage from the nominal voltage to the transfer ratio of the voltage divider at a nominal voltage equal to 0.33.

 

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