Turbine

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: to produce mechanical energy due to the energy flow of the moving medium. The invention is: in a stationary housing is located the shaft with the impeller. Rotary blade is mounted behind the impeller and placed three radial rows relative to the shaft for rotation relative to the wheel axis parallel to the axis of the shaft. The blades of each row kinematically linked to its mechanism of management of their position relative to the housing. Fixation, preventing rotation of the blades relative to the housing, and the elements released oriented relative to the housing. Each control mechanism made in the form mounted on a fixed axis with rotation of the disk, kinematically associated with the blades of one series and interacting with elements of fixation. 5 C.p. f-crystals, 21 ill.

The invention relates to hydropower and can be used to produce mechanical energy due to the energy flow of the moving medium in rivers, deep currents and the like.

Known horizontal hydrodynamic engine that uses the energy of the flow of liquid ends of these frames have a vertical axis, have vertical blades that are installed in the flow through a system of rods and levers so that the fluid pressure on the blade on one side of the axis of rotation of the frames was greater than the fluid pressure at the blades on the other side of the axis. When you stop the engine blades are installed in planes parallel to the direction of flow. The disadvantage of this engine is reduced capacity due to permanent stay of most of the blades in position with a deviation from a perpendicular position relative to the direction of flow.

Known multicell water engine, which is powered by the pressure of flowing water on the blade. Engine vanes rigidly attached to multiple parallel rod sections, the ends of which are pivotally connected with mnogochlenami shaft with uniformly shifted by equal angles knees, which provides a uniform rotation of the crankshaft. However, this multiple-engine limited opportunities to use the water flow, because the flow is part of the blade, and the other part at this time raised above the surface of the water, which complicates the use of deep currents.

Known gidron fixed blade using samariterstrasse pair, which allows the rotation of the blade longitudinal position in a transverse position to the stream. This rotation is caused by the flow of the asymmetric profile of the blades, the fluid flow. To the lower end of the blade is rigidly attached to the plate, perpendicular to the working plane of the blade. The disadvantage of this engine is its limited capacity, due to the fact that the provision on the same shaft a few blades difficult to ensure synchronicity and rotation of the longitudinal position in the cross, and therefore they exert an inhibitory influence each other. Therefore, the engine is limited by the presence of one of the blades.

Widely known for various turbines used to convert the energy of the fluid flow into mechanical rotation. Thus, known ladle, Kaplan and Francis turbines, diagonal turbine and the like, used for hydropower. These turbine require for their work create a specific static set that requires the construction of dams or other structures. Also known capsular turbine units for work in areas of the tides, which does not require the creation of a large static pressure. In low.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result to the proposed turbine is containing a shaft with impeller placed in a stationary housing. The disadvantage of this turbine is a low efficiency when working without the static head.

The purpose of the invention is increased efficiency.

The objective is achieved by the fact that in the turbine, comprising a fixed housing and a shaft with impeller located therein, in accordance with the invention, the turbine is provided with blades, mechanism for controlling the position of the blades relative to the housing with fixation and released, with the blades mounted on the impeller and posted at least three radially spaced rows relative to the shaft for rotation relative to the impeller axis parallel to the axis of the shaft, the blades of each row kinematically connected with its control mechanism of their position relative to the body, and the fixation that prevents rotation of the blades relative to the housing, and the elements released oriented relative to the body.

Due to the fact that the blades are mounted for rotation relative to the impeller axis parallel to the axis of the shaft, a relatively new body fixation to prevent rotation of the blades relative to the rotor and oriented relative to the body elements of the released blade, provides automatic installation of the blades relative to the fluid flow, which is the case in the most advantageous position. This is achieved by increasing the turbine efficiency when working in the stream without the static head.

The significance of differences is to create a turbine mechanism controlling the position of the blades, which provides a new property of turbine blades: the ability to work in a thread without the static pressure at almost symmetrical placement of the turbine casing relative to the flow axis, i.e., without the use of special guide device.

Each mechanism controlling the position of the blades relative to the housing can be mounted on a fixed axis with rotation of the disk, kinematically associated with the blades of one series and designed to interact with the fixation element.

With this design provides the most appropriate layout of the turbine. Fixation and released can be performed in a pair of elastic elements, fixed respectively on the fixed axis and the shaft, the disk is made with grooves for engagement respectively with the specified u interaction with the respective elastic elements.

The fixation element may be in the form of an elastic element mounted on a stationary axis, and the element is released in the form of at least one Cam fixed on the shaft for engagement with the elastic element, the disk is made of at least two slots for engagement with the elastic element and is equipped with an adjustable ring that is connected to it by a torsional spring and having two diametrically opposite groove, designed to engage with a retainer ring mounted on the shaft, a stationary axle mounted Cam for engagement with the retainer ring. This implementation provides a smoother transfer of the blades at the optimum position relative to the stream.

The mechanism controlling the position of the blades relative to the housing made in the form of a stationary axle with rigidly fixed on it the leading elements according to the number of rows of blades, each of which is kinematically connected with a freely rotating driven element of each blade of one series, the fixation device and the released blade with the tabs of the slave elements for connection of the latter with axes, and mounted on the housing element is intended for cooperation is Jena on its axis can be rotated in the plane where is this axis, and there are mechanisms in the number of blades in the row of rotating blades in this plane and the tabs of the blades the number of blades in the turbine to lock them in a rotated position and the casing has an element designed to interact with the tabs of the blades. In this implementation, the blades are not connected to each other. This variant is advantageous when a large diameter, the flow velocity over the cross section differ dramatically, and the transfer of the blades in the feathered position provides them adjust to any misalignment with the maximum effect of increasing efficiency.

In Fig.1 shows the proposed turbine housing, conventionally rotated by the section line a-a top view; Fig.2 shows the section a-a in Fig. 1; Fig.3 - section b-B in Fig.2; Fig.4 - section b-b of Fig.2; Fig.5 - section G-G in Fig.2; Fig.6 - section d-D in Fig.2; Fig.7 - section e-E in Fig.2; Fig.8 - section f-F in Fig.2; Fig.9 presents the proposed turbine, a variant of the construction execution, with case, conventionally rotated by the section line A'-A', a top view; Fig.10 shows the section A'-A' in Fig.9; Fig.11 - section B'-B in Fig.10 of Fig.12 - section B'-B' in Fig. 10 of Fig.13 - section G-G' in Fig.10 of Fig.14 - section D'-D in Fig. 10. in Fig. 15 - section E'-Yunogo run with the case, conventionally rotated by the section line A-A, top view; Fig.18 shows a section A-A ' in Fig.17; Fig. 19 - the node I in Fig.18; Fig.20 - node II in Fig.18; Fig.21 shows the cross-section B-B ' in Fig.18.

As shown in Fig. 1,2, turbine includes blades 1, placed on three pillars 2, installed symmetrically with respect to the Central fixed axis 3 in the case 4 (case 4 in Fig.2 is rotated by the section line a-a). The blade 1 mounted for rotation relative to the supports 2 on the axes of 5,5',5" which are kinematically linked by chains of 6,6',6" and stars 7,7', 7"with a Central stars 8,8', 8". These stars have disks (not labeled) with grooves 9,10,9',10',9",10", intended for interaction with elastic elements 11,12, 11',12', 11",12" respectively. Elastic elements of 11.11',11" are projections 13,13',13" to communicate with the grooves 9,9', 9", and elastic elements 12,12',12" - ledges 14,14',14" to communicate with the grooves 10,10', 10". Cams br15.15',15 'and 16,16',16" are provided for interfacing respectively with elastic elements to 11.11',11" and 12,12',12" and appropriately oriented relative to the housing, and hence relative to the fluid flow (indicated by arrows in Fig.1).

All supports 2,2' and 2" is rigidly fixed on my turbine for the serial connection, and the axis 3 also has flanges 18 for connection with a fixed axis adjacent the turbine. The shaft 17 is mounted for rotation in the housing 4 and appropriately oriented relative to the flow.

When the above-described device, the blades 1-1" placed in radial relation to the shaft 17 lines and rotate relative to the impeller (supports 2-2") relative to the axis 5-5 located parallel to the axis of the shaft 17 of the impeller. The blades are 1-1 in each row kinematically connected(6-6", 7-7", 8-8") its mechanism 10-16; 10'-16" control the position of the blades 1,1' and 1", respectively, relative to the housing 4. Each of these mechanisms has disks (not labeled) with the slots 9-9 and 10-10" rigidly United with stars 8-8",mounted for rotation on the Central axis 3. In addition, each of these mechanisms has a fixation to prevent rotation of the blades 1-1" relative to the impeller formed by the supports 2-2", and oriented relative to the body elements of the released blade 1-1".

Fixation is made in the form of elastic elements 11, 13; 11',13'; 11", 13", rigidly mounted on a stationary axle 3, and the elements released in the form of elastic elements 12, 14; 12',14'; 12",14", hard is mounted on the shaft 17, and lugs 16-16", is rigidly fixed on the axis 3, therefore, oriented relative to the housing 4.

The above-described turbine operates as follows.

When exposed to the turbine wheel of the fluid flow fluid pressure on the blade with the force

W=CF, where C is the coefficient of the blades;

F - the area of the fuselage mid-section of the blades (m2);

the density of the medium (kg/m3);

V - velocity of the medium (m/s).

Turbine wheel (bearing 2,2',2") starts to rotate when the total area of the fuselage mid-section of the blades 1, located on one side of the axis 3, more square fuselage mid-section of the blades, located on the other side of the axis 3. This situation constantly mechanisms to control the position of the blades.

Looking at the turbine of Fig.1 of the flow (shown by arrows), you can see that one bearing 2" is located along the fluid flow and the blade 1 of this support at the moment in the rotation of the impeller turbines do not participate. Two elastic supports are located on opposite sides of the axis of rotation, the blade 1 support 2 to the right of the axis of rotation is rotated so that the area of their fuselage mid-section Bilisim. In this case, the turbine wheel is rotated counterclockwise.

During the rotation of the impeller of the turbine blades supports, falling within the area to the right of the axis of rotation, take the position of their maximum fuselage mid-section relative to the fluid flow, and remain in this position during the entire period while they are on the right from the axis of rotation of the impeller of the turbine. The blade supports, falling to the left relative to the axis of rotation zone, take a position their minimum fuselage mid-section in respect of the fluid flow. The force developed by the blades to the right of the axis of rotation, is transmitted to the supports 2-2 and from them through the shaft 17, for example, to the generator.

In the moment of contact with the supports in the right area of the blade of this support are fixed by the elastic element 11 relative to the stationary axis 3 by sticky tabs 13 in the groove 9 of the drive sprocket 8 and remain in this fixed position for the entire period of the blades of a given support in the right area. This allows you to save maximum fuselage mid-section of these blades in the right about the axis of rotation zone. The protrusion of the fixing element 12 at the time of getting support in the right area wyloway Cam 15 is pressing element 11 is released, bringing his ledge 13 of the groove 9 and the protrusion 14 of the fixation element 12 enters the groove 10. At this point is fixing the position of the blades 1 of this support is stationary relative to it. While the blade 1 support 2 is located in the left relative to the axis of rotation zone, the plane remains perpendicular relative to the radius of the rotating impeller of the turbine. When moving this support is in the right about the axis of rotation zone is prefixal blades, and the cycle described above is repeated for each foot.

In the design shown in Fig.9-16, the turbine is arranged as described above, and all similar parts are denoted by the same positions as in Fig.1-8. The difference is that the elements released made in the form of elastic elements 19,20; 19',20';19",20",mounted on a stationary axle 3, and the elements released in the form of at least one (for each engine) Cam 21,21',21" (Fig.11,13,15) to interact with the resilient members 19,19',19". Each drive sprocket 8,8', 8" is made of at least two slots 22,22',22" to interact with the tabs 20,20', 20" of the respective elastic elements 19,19',19" and has a rotary ring 23,23',23", United with him in the spring 24,24',24" kruchenaya with lock 27,27',27" rings (Fig.10,12). The latch 27,27',27" fixed on the shaft 17, and on a stationary axle 3 has a Cam 28,28',28" to interact with the tab 29,29',29" release 27,27',27".

The above-described variant of the design of the turbine is similar to the turbine, is described with reference to Fig.1-8, with the only difference that a part of the efforts developed by the blades to the right of axis 3, is transmitted to the torsion spring and twists them.

By the time hit the supports 2 in the right about the axis of rotation zone of the mechanism controlling the position of the blades 1 of a given support 2 expands out so that the plane of the blades of this support was established perpendicular to the fluid flow, i.e., the blades 1 have the largest middle section and remain in this position all the time while they are in the right about the axis of rotation zone. At the transition of support from the right area in the left Cams 21 of the mechanism controlling the position of the blades of a given support bump on the element 19 is released and remove the lug 20 from the groove 22 of the drive sprocket 8 (this happens as many times as Cams 21 and grooves 22). For the period of released sprocket 8 under the action of the spring 24 rotates about the axis 3 and through the circuit 6 and the drive wheel 7 rotates the blade 1 of a given support to ensure minimal side, resulting from the rotation of the impeller. At the moment of transition of support from the left about the axis of rotation in the right area of the blade of this support is rotated so as to provide maximum fuselage mid-section in relation to the main flow. The following cycle is repeated for each support 2.

During the rotation of the impeller turbines (supports 2,2',2"), each bearing 2,2', 2" are alternately located in the right, the left relative to the axis of rotation zone. Thus, when the bearing 2 with the blade 1 is in the right about the axis 3, the mechanism controlling the position of the blades 1 are secured, and in the left area of this mechanism deploys the blade 1 support 2 at an angle of 180about. Thus, for the full rotation of 360aboutthe blades are deployed only 180about. Thus the spring 24 for the full rotation of 360abouttwisted 360about. Need simple means to relieve the tension of the spring is proportional to the rotation of the impeller 180aboutby rotating the impeller 360about. This is achieved in that the second spring end attached to the ring 23, which rotates together with the impeller, but once per revolution restoratives when hitting the Cam 28 on the ledge 29 of the latch 27, bringing the ledge FIC the other. Disinhibited ring 23 rotates in the direction opposite to the twisting. At this point, the Cam 28 is rolling off the ledge 29 and the latch 27 is pressed against the outer side surface of the ring 23. By turning the ring 23 180aboutbefore the latch 27 is a second groove 26 of the ring 23. Ring fixed to the stationary relative to the impeller (supports 2). Energy storage in the spring and disinhibition, as described above, then repeats.

It should be noted that inhibition of the rings 23,23',23" occurs when the transition supports 2,2',2" from the left area to the right, to use the maximum value of the accumulated springs kinetic energy to turn the blades of 1,1',1".

In this embodiment provides a more gradual reversal of the blades into a position that creates minimal resistance to rotation of the impeller, turbine, and it is useful for turbines of medium size, for example, to medium rivers.

In the variant of the proposed turbine shown in Fig.17-21, similar parts are denoted by the same positions as in Fig.1-8. Asterisks 8-8" is rigidly fixed on a stationary axle 3 and are the leading elements according to the number of rows of blades 1-1" (they are called leading conditionally). Each lobe, chain 6-6". Each mechanism controlling the position of the blades has a fixation device and the released blade. The fixation device and the released blade has tabs 30,30',30" (Fig. 19) in the form of brackets with tabs 31,31',31", hinged on axes 5,5',5" blade 1,1',1". The tabs 31-31 are slots 32-32" stars 7-7"(Fig. 17-20) for rigid connection of the sprocket with the axes and to ensure joint rotation. To display tabs 31-31" locked (from the slots 32-32) serve pushers 33-33", sitting freely on the axis 5-5 and has a bevel in contact with the beveled surfaces of the projections 34,34', 34" floaters, 35,35',35". One end of each of the slide 35-35 is intended for interaction with the Cam 36 of the housing 4 (Fig.18), and the other rests on the shaft 17 through the spring 37,37',37", which serves to return the slide to its original position.

Each blade 1-1 is installed on the axis 5-5" can be rotated in the plane in which lies the axis. To this end, the axis of 5,5',5" has a longitudinal slot 38,38',38" (Fig.20), and the blade 1,1',1" is installed in this slot and reinforced hinged on the pin 39,39',39". Blades 1,1',1" are fixed from rotation in its plane retainers 40,40',40" of the blades (e.g., paired) by the number of blades in the turbine (Fig.18 the slide plates 35,35',35" and rests on the shaft 17 through the spring 44,44',44", and pushers 45,45',45", free sitting on the axes of 5,5',5" and having a beveled surface for engagement with the beveled surface protrusions 43,43', 43" sliders 42,42',42". The tabs 40,40', 40" tied springs 46,46', 46" and is hinged on axes 5,5', 5", by means of pins 47,47',47". It is obvious that the blades 1,1',1" have corresponding holes 48,48',48" to receive tabs tabs 40,40',40".

To turn the blades 1-1" in the directional position are the mechanisms by number of blades 1-1 in each row. Each mechanism has an l-shaped lever 49 (Fig.17,18,21) mounted to rotate on an axis 50, is fixed in the housing 4 (Fig.18). This lever cooperates with a plug 51 (Fig.21), bogatoi spring 52. The lever 49 is preloaded by a spring 53, is fixed in the housing (Fig.17,18,21). On supports 2,2',2" fortified Cams 54,54',54", interacting with the plugs 51 to release the l-shaped levers 49 after you install the blades 1-1" in the feathered position. On the housing 4 fortified Cam 55 (Fig. 18) to influence floaters 42-41" to return the blades 1-1 in the initial position of the feathered position. On the axes 56 of the blades 1-1" are elastic diametral protrusions for engagement with the lugs 57 of the housing 4.

This type of design that is but of the fluid flow (Fig.17), the protrusions 31 of the clamps 30" (Fig.18,19) sink into the groove 32" stars 7",so that the axis 5 are rigidly connected with stars 7" therefore, be rigidly connected through the circuit 6 with the leading element 8 (Fig.18), i.e., the blades remain in such position that their middle section relative to the flow remains constant during the passage of the arc 180aboutin the right about the axis of rotation zone (1"-1). This Zapadnye protrusions 31 in the grooves 32" is provided by rotation of the blades 1", as will be described below. In addition, if this does not happen, the blade is forcibly rotated by the interaction of Cams 54"with the lugs 57 of the housing 4 (Fig.18), which guarantees their fixation.

After turning from the specified position 180aboutthe Cam 41 is pressing the slider 42 (Fig.18), so that the protrusions 43 of the act on the tabs 40 that extend from the holes 48 of the blades 1, blade 1 rotates the pins 39 in the directional position due to the fact that they rest with their free ends in l-shaped levers 49. Then the projections of the tabs 40 again sink into the other hole 48 of the blades 1. Next, the Cams 54 bump on the fork 51, releasing the levers 49, which rotates on the axis 50 and propose, and the fork 51 under the action of spring 52 is fixed to the levers 49 in this position. Simultaneously, the slider 35' runs over the Cam 36 (Fig.17.18) and their projections 34' moves the pushers 33', which displays the tabs 31' clamps 30' from the slots 32' 7 stars'. When this happens the clutch sprocket 7' with the axis 5', and the blades are free to samoustraniajutsia relative to the fluid flow in the feathered position.

After rotation of the impeller turbines (supports 2-2") 180aboutis the impact of the RAM 42 on the Cam 55 (Fig.18). The slider 42 moves, and the protrusions 43" affect the pushers 45", which displays the tabs 40 from the holes 48' of the blades 1, which rotate on pins 39"from the feathered position in normal, and the tabs again sink into the center hole 48 of the blades 1". Forced rotation of the blades is guaranteed by the protrusions 56 interacts with lugs 57, as indicated above.

This variant is the most optimal from the point of view of minimizing the resistance to rotation of the impeller provided with blades, located on the left side of the axis of rotation, and it is most appropriate to use for large dimensions of the impeller, such as boldra reversal blades) without creating pressure.

1. TURBINE, comprising a fixed housing and a shaft with impeller placed therein, characterized in that the turbine is equipped with rotary blades, mechanism for controlling the position of the blades relative to the housing with fixation and released, with the blades mounted on the impeller and posted at least three radially spaced rows relative to the shaft for rotation relative to the impeller axis parallel to the axis of the shaft, the blades of each row kinematically linked to its mechanism of management of their position relative to the body, and the fixation that prevents rotation of the blades relative to the housing, and the elements released oriented relative to the body.

2.Turbine under item 1, characterized in that each control mechanism made in the form mounted on a fixed axis with rotation of the disk, kinematically associated with the blades of one series and interacting with elements of the commit.

3.Turbine under item 2, characterized in that the fixation and released made in the form of a pair of elastic elements mounted respectively on the fixed axis and the shaft, the disk is made grooves, vzaimodeistvuyushchimi with elastic elements.

4. Turbine under item 2, characterized in that the fixation element is made in the form of an elastic element mounted on a stationary axis, and the element is released in the form of at least one of the Cam rigidly mounted on the shaft with the possibility of interaction with the elastic element, the disk is made of at least two slots, which interacts with an elastic element, and provided with a rotatable ring, a torsion spring connecting the ring with the elastic element and the latch, when the rotary ring is made with two diametrically opposite grooves that interact with locking ring mounted on the shaft, and a fixed axis provided with an additional Cam interacting with the retainer ring.

5. Turbine under item 1, characterized in that the control mechanism made in the form of a stationary axle is rigidly mounted on it the leading elements equal to the number of rows of blades driven elements of the fixation device and the released blade with latches driven elements, connecting the past with the blades, and the item of trip with blades mounted on the housing and cooperating with the latches driven elements, each of the leading elements kinematically associated with the SS can be rotated in the plane of the location of this axis, the blades have mechanisms of rotation in this plane, equal to the number of blades in a row, and the tabs of the blades is equal to the number of blades in the turbine to lock them in a rotated position and the casing has an element that interacts with the locking tabs of the blades.

6. Turbine under item 5, characterized in that the axis of the blades is provided with diametrically projections and housing - stops on the number of blades interacting with these projections.

 

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SUBSTANCE: motor for fluid energy utilisation consists of a frame with an orifice. There are drums in the cylindrical chambers of the frame. They are installed on vertical shafts, which are cinematically coupled with electrical generators. Blades are attached to the external cylindrical surfaces of the drums along helical line so that front edge of each blade is shifted on one end of the drum in the rotation direction relative to the blade end on the second drum end by 1 or 2 intervals of blades arrangement on the drum. The width of orifice inlet is no less than the doubled blade width and no more than the drum diametre. The exit cone along flow axis is less than the inlet cone no less than in two times.

EFFECT: simple structure, improved reliability, increased efficiency factor and wide range of application.

5 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to designs of plants for transformation of sea current energy into electric energy. Generator that operates at sea current comprises cylindrical jacket 19 with inlet and outlet nozzles 20 and 21, two power generators 1 installed parallel to each other with cylindrical body 3 and external rotor 4, installed outside body 3, and hydrodynamic drive 2, made in the form of blades 9, which are radially installed on external surface of external rotors 4 in both power generators 1. Power generators 1 are arranged as birotating and are equipped with internal rotor 5, installed inside body 3. Internal and external rotors 4 and 5 are connected to each other by means of reduction gear 12, cavity of which is filled with lubricating liquid, which provides for opposite rotation of rotors 4 and 5, and blades 9 are arranged as flat.

EFFECT: invention is aimed at higher efficiency factor of plant with reduction of its dimensions and simultaneous increase of power.

2 cl, 2 dwg

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