Device for electrical discharge dispersion of metals in the bulk layer

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: in powder metallurgy. The inventive device consists of a dielectric vessel with a hole at the bottom for feeding the working fluid, placed over the hole of the flat electrodes and the vertical dielectric septum between them, causing electrical discharge between the electrodes chain of granules bulk layer to round the top wall, extending thereby the discharge circuit. When this partition is set to move it up and down, and the device is equipped with a device for moving the partition up and down and adjust the height of her performances over the edges of the electrodes. This gives the possibility to adjust the electrical resistance of the discharge circuit and to coordinate with the source of electric pulses. In addition, we offer the lower edge of the dielectric septum to do acting for the bottom edges of the electrodes to a length exceeding the thickness of a partition at any position within height-adjustable performances walls over the edges of the electrodes. This lengthens the path of electric current leakage of the working fluid under the wall, and the mind is rgii, in particular, to devices for obtaining powders, powder slurries and pastes EDM dispersion of metals.

The known device for electrical discharge dispersion of metals in the bulk layer, designed to obtain powders of metals, carbides, oxides and hydroxides using as raw material granulated or chopped into small pieces of metal and chips and other loose scrap. It is known device [1] for electrical discharge dispersion of metals consisting of a dielectric vessel with a hole in its bottom for submission to the vessel fluid, on which is installed an additional mesh bottom of the dielectric material in the vessel is lowered to rest on the mesh bottom two electrodes are installed at an angle to the bottom 70-85about.

Through the orifice in the lid of the vessel in his sleep granules of metal to be EDM dispersing, and the electrodes serves pulses of electric voltage. Between the electrodes of the electrical discharges occur in chains of granules in contact with each other and with the electrodes. At the points of contact of the granules with each other and with the electrodes arise intrinsically the points of the EDM field are carried by the flow of the working fluid pumped through the vessel from the bottom up. This thread performs the mixing layer of granules over the net additional bottom that prevents it from compacting and welding, leading to short circuits in the load power supply. High efficiency mixing is achieved by the fact that in diverging up the space between the sloping electrodes occurs naturally flowing fluidized bed of granules.

A disadvantage of this device is quick and erosive wear of the electrodes under the action of the spark discharges occurring at their surfaces.

To reduce erosive wear of the electrodes [2] proposed the dielectric vessel between two flat electrodes, installed vertically in parallel to each other, the separator into three compartments by two flat vertical walls, installed parallel to the electrodes. In the lower part of the walls is perforated, allowing the granules adjacent compartments to communicate with each other through openings in the partition. Loading pellets of metal in the middle compartment carry to the height of their layer, less than the height of the layer of granules in the two outer compartments adjacent to elect the de layer of granules less compressed their weight. And in the end compartments granules are pressed against the electrodes and to each other under the weight of a thicker layer of granules. Here spark discharges occur less frequently. As a result of erosion wear of the electrodes is reduced, thereby prolonging their service.

A disadvantage of this device is that through the holes in the perforated walls of the granules is not always possible to come into contact, which reduces the performance of electrical discharge dispersion. In addition, in the two extreme compartments arise stagnant zones in which compaction and adhesion of the layer of granules in clumps, the edges of which facing the perforated partition, after their erosive wear longer to reach granules, located on the opposite side of the perforated partition. Then the dispersion process is terminated.

The closest known to the claimed technical solution (prototype) is a device for electrical discharge dispersion of metals [3]. It consists of a dielectric vessel with a hole in the bottom to feed upwards of working fluid and mounted horizontally above this hole for more bottom formed by two flat the partition, which protrudes above the surface of the electrodes to a height less than the upper level of the layer of granules, subject EDM dispersing and pour into the vessel through the orifice in the lid.

A layer of granules poured into the vessel, tightly presses his weight pellets to the bottom horizontal surface of the flat perforated electrodes. And the surface of the bulk layer of the granules is less compressed and even slightly move upward flow of the working fluid pumped through the device. Therefore, when applying to the electrodes of the pulses of electric voltage spark discharges occur mainly in the surface layer of granules on the vertical wall and near its surface. And the lower the granules are pressed against the electrodes, electric current passes almost without sparking at the contact points with each other and with the electrodes. This is achieved by reduction of erosion wear of the electrodes. Products the EDM field are carried upward flow of the working fluid from the device.

A disadvantage of this device is the lack of regulation of electric resistance of the load during the transition from one commodity to another and when you change the size of the granules, download the height of the dielectric walls, optimal for this raw material. The absence of the possibility of smooth adjustment of the height of the partitions is not possible to quickly find the optimal load resistance, and even more to revise it during operation of the device, according to the specified output parameters of the source of pulses of electric voltage and current. All this reduces the efficiency of the device.

Another drawback of the known device are large energy losses when used as a working fluid of water or other conductive liquids. These losses due to leakage of electric current from one electrode to another through the working fluid under a dielectric wall, where the distance in the fluid between the edges of the electrodes is equal to the thickness of this partition.

The aim of the invention is to increase the efficiency of the device for electrical discharge dispersion of the metal bulk layer.

Another goal is to reduce leakage of the electric current on the working fluid from one electrode to another.

This objective is achieved in that in the known device for electroerosion dispersed through the working fluid, installed over the hole of the flat electrodes and the vertical dielectric wall between them, according to the present invention, the partition is installed with the possibility of moving it up and down, and the device is equipped with a device for moving the partition up and down and adjust the height of her performances over the edges of the electrodes.

The second goal is achieved by the fact that the bottom edge of the dielectric septum at any position within height-adjustable performances walls over the edges of the electrodes according to the present invention, is placed at the bottom edge of the electrode to a length exceeding the thickness of a partition.

The establishment of partitions can move it up and down allows you to easily change the height of the performances of the walls above the bottom edges of the electrodes and thus without changing the structure of the device can easily be changed in wide ranges load resistance discharge circuit device (the resistance of the discharge current through the chain of granules, going from one electrode to the other, skirting the wall at the top). While supply device device to move the partition up and down and regulation razryadnoi circuit during operation of the device, without interrupting electrical discharges therein. Moreover, you can easily automate the process of lifting and lowering the partition, if you supply this device is electrically operated from the sensor signals of load power source power. This allows to automatically maintain the optimum performance electrical discharge dispersion of the resistance value of the load and thereby improve the efficiency of the device.

Ensuring the performance of the lower edge of the dielectric walls at the lower edges of the electrodes to a length exceeding the thickness of a partition at any position within height-adjustable performances walls over the edges of the electrodes, for any position of the partition to store the large length of the electric circuit for the working fluid leakage current from one electrode to the other, along the bottom wall. And the great length of this chain provides greater resistance to leakage current and reduction of energy losses on these leakage currents.

In Fig. 1, 2 shows two projections of the proposed device with a horizontal arrangement of the electrodes of Fig. 3 - in the two projections of the proposed device with the slope of the UDA 1, having in its bottom an opening with a nozzle 2 for submission to the vessel fluid. Above this hole has two flat electrode 3. When executing device according to the scheme (Fig. 1, 2) electrodes 3 is set horizontally, and across their square holes of the perforation for the passage of the working fluid. When executing device according to the scheme (Fig. 3) the electrodes 3 is set obliquely to each other diverging ends up. In this case, the electrodes do not have perforation holes. To the electrodes 3 connected to the conductors 4, going to the source of pulses of electric voltage (Fig. not shown).

Between the mating edges of the electrodes 3 is set to vertical flat dielectric wall 5, having the ability to move up and down in a vertical guide grooves made in the side walls of the dielectric vessel 1. When executing device according to the scheme (Fig. 1, 2) the edges of the electrodes 3 approaching close to the partition wall 5. While the embodiment of the device according to the scheme (Fig. 3) between the lower edges of the electrodes 3 and the partition wall 5 left gaps having a width smaller than the minimum size of metal granules, subject EDM dispersing in the described device. ment in the top cover 7 of the dielectric vessel, where installed drive nut 8, fixed with locking washers 9. Drive nut 8 can be provided with electric drive (Fig. not shown) for mechanization and automation move partitions 5.

Other variants of devices to move the partitions 5, for example, the hydraulic drive rod 6. It is recommended to set the value of the vertical motion of the partition 5 so that the lower edge of the partition 5 at any position of the partition within its stroke in the guides played for the bottom edges of the electrodes 3 in the length, the greater the thickness of the partition walls 5. To do this, it is recommended that the distance from the electrode 3 to the 2 holes in the bottom of the vessel a large height partitions 5, and the height of the partitions 5 detail lesser distance from the electrode 3 to the lid of the vessel 8, but the greater thickness of the layer of filling granules dispersible metal in the vessel 1. In one of the side walls of the vessel 1 near its lid 7 has a rectangular hole 10 for discharge from the vessel of the working fluid with the EDM field.

The proposed device operates as follows. Subject EDM dispersing the metal granules are loaded into the vessel 1 through the orifice in the lid 7. Provenby when the device number of the spark discharges at the surface of the electrodes 3 was minimal, but at the same time, so that the upward flow of the working fluid in the stratum granulosum exercised their stirring and/or mixing. When the thickness of the layer of pellets is not recommended to take more than half the distance from the surface of the electrode 3 to the lid of the vessel 7.

The device serves the working fluid through the pipe 2, gradually increasing the flow rate up until the granules in the layer begins to move. In the device (Fig. 3) there is flowing fluidized bed of granules, providing mixing of the granules between the electrodes. After that, the electrodes serves the voltage pulses from the power supply. When this occurs the electrical discharges between the electrodes 3 on the chains of granules in contact with each other and with the electrodes. These chains round wall 5 above. At those points of the chain, in which the granules are loosely in contact with each other, there are sparks in the liquid conducting wire EDM dispersion of the metal granules. Surface electrodes 3 to which the adjacent granules are pressed by the force of gravity of the layer of granules, spark discharges occur most often. And over the top edge of the dielectric walls 5, where the granules are the most mobile of EDM dispersion of the metal granules.

When the thickness of the layer is loaded in the device granules and in high density metal granules bottom layer pellets can be so tightly compressed by the force of the weight of the layer of granules that lost their mobility and may occur unwanted adhesion, welding and clumping of the layer of granules, preventing the normal passage of electric current on the bit chains. The value of electrical resistance of these chains electric current discharge depends on the length of these chains, which is determined by the height of the performances of the dielectric walls 5 over the mating edges of the electrodes 3. Changing the height, adjust the value of the electrical load resistance, selecting her most appropriate mains voltage and the power supply source.

After selecting the optimal height of the performances of the partitions 5 it is fixed in this position before changes in operating conditions affecting the performance of electrical discharge dispersion and the power supply. You can control its measuring devices. In the presence of an automated drive mechanism for lifting and lowering the partition 5 managing the process of lifting and treerose metal pellets and electrodes (fine powder and gases, resulting from pyrolysis of the working fluid) are removed from the vessel 1 by the flow of working fluid through the opening 10 in the side wall of the vessel 1, located near the lid of the vessel 7.

P R I m e R 1. Dielectric vessel 1 (Fig. 1, 2) made of Plexiglas and has a size in terms of 100x100mm. It has two horizontally flat electrode 3 from a sheet of titanium with a thickness of 3 mm electrodes on all of them square-drilled holes with a diameter of 1 mm with a step of 10 mm between the holes. Between the electrodes 3 with the vertical partition 5, is made of textolite thickness of 5 mm Full height partitions 5 is 60 mm, the Partition wall 5 can move up and down in the guide grooves, vertirosan in the side walls of the vessel 1. The height of the performances of the partitions 5 over the edges of the electrodes 3 manually adjust the rotation of the arms running nuts 8.

In the vessel 1 is loaded pieces of titanium with sizes ranging from 2 to 5 mm, having the form of fragments of rectangular or round shape. Download pieces of titanium is carried out until the level is above the upper edge of the partition 5 10-20 mm Through pipe 2 serves in the vessel 1 kerosene, gradually increasing his consumption until then, until the pieces of titanium in the vessel 1 in the top t to the electrodes 3 pulses of electric voltage with amplitude 500V from a source of pulses of electric voltage power of 10 kW, repeat with a frequency of 1 kHz. Thus between the electrodes 3 electrical discharges occur in the chain from contacting with each other and with the electrodes of the pieces of titanium in kerosene.

At those points in these chains, in which the pieces are not very tightly in contact with each other or with electrodes, spark discharges occur in kerosene. Their glow can be seen through the transparent wall of the vessel 1. The most intense luminescence is observed above the upper edge of the partition 5. Sparks perform EDM dispersion of metal pieces and electrodes. Powdered products the EDM field are carried by the flow of kerosene through the drain hole 10. Then they separated from the liquid by sedimentation and centrifugation and weighed. According to the results of weighing powder and scrap pieces of titanium electrodes in the vessel 1 determine the productivity dispersion and the specific energy consumption. The parameters and results of the experiments are summarized in table. 1.

P R I m m e R 2. The device is made as in example 1 with the difference that the electrodes 3 are made of lead, and the device loaded with lead shot sizes from 1 to 3 mm, the height of the wall 3 is 70 mm Device RA is ltati experiments are summarized in table. 1.

P R I m e R 3. The upper part of the vessel 1 (Fig. 3) has a size in terms h mm Two side walls of the vessel with verterbrae them in vertical grooves to move the dielectric walls made of plexiglass and mounted vertically. In the vessel is lowered flat rectangular electrodes 3 made of steel St3 thickness of 10 mm, the Angle of the solution between the electrodes 45about. The distance between the lower edges of the electrodes 3 is 12 mm Between them inserted a vertical partition 5, is made of fiberglass with a thickness of 10 mm, It has a height of 300 mm

The partition 5 is moved up and down manually rotating the driving nut 8. In the device implementing EDM dispersion in water of iron ore-rich ones (reduced in hydrogen pellets having dimensions specified in the table. 2. For this purpose, the electrodes of the device serves the pulses of the electric voltage of 600 V At a repetition rate of 2 kHz and the average time a power of 40 kW. The parameters and results of the experiments are summarized in table. 2.

P R I m e R 4. The device is made in the same way as in example 3 with the difference that the drive nut 8 is equipped with electric operated from sensors averaged power agroenviron iron ore iron-rich pellets in drinking water. The device works in the same way as in example 5 with the difference that in the neck of the cover 7 as the consumption of pellets in the vessel 1 continuously add new portions of the granules in amounts of productivity dispersion in the device. And a partition 5 almost continuously move up and down (scan) 5-10 mm relative to its optimal position with electrically controlled by signals from sensors power in the load current source.

Decreasing the load capacity of the wall drops down to 5-10 mm decreases by 10-20 mm, the average length of the chains of the discharge on the layer of granules and decreases the resistance of the discharge circuit, and the work included a larger number of bit circuits in the granules. This increases the load power and productivity dispersion. When the load power exceeds the optimum for a given power source, the partition 5 is automatically lifted by means of the same drive 5-10 mm and the intensity of the discharge in the vessel 1 is reduced. This ensures continuity of operation of the device in an optimal manner and increase the overall performance. The parameters and results of the experiments are summarized in TA is elektricheski vessel with a hole at the bottom for feeding the working fluid, flat electrodes installed in the vessel above the hole, and the vertical dielectric wall between them, characterized in that it is provided with a device for moving partitions up and down and adjusting the height of the excess over the edges of the electrodes.

2. The device under item 1, characterized in that the bottom edge of the dielectric septum at its position within the adjustable height exceeding the walls over the edges of the electrodes installed with a protrusion at the lower edge of the electrodes on the length exceeding the thickness of a partition.

 

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