(57) Abstract:The invention relates to automation and computer engineering and can be used in highly reliable control systems, working in hard real time. The aim of the invention is to improve the reliability of operation. Redundant device contains four case five elements of comparison, nine switches, the adder, the output register, three threshold element, the six elements, OR. The essence of the invention is to increase the reliability by eliminating hard partitioning on the pair of redundant blocks and the ability to move from arithmetic processing information to logical failures of redundant blocks. 2 Il. The invention relates to automation and computer engineering and can be used in highly reliable control systems, working in hard real time.In control systems source the information comes from multiple sensors. This provides increased system reliability through redundancy, and improving the accuracy of parameter changes in the external environment. The location of the sensors in different locations (e.g. the meter. This raises the problem, along with redundant channels, determine the most accurate values of the measured parameter. The most effective solution to this problem is the elimination of the reviews parameter values, to the greatest extent different (larger or smaller), and the average value generated by the other channels).The closest in technical essence and the achieved positive effect to the proposed device is the organ of decision machines, which contains four registers and the three elements of the comparison, and outputs the first, second, third, fourth registers are connected to the inputs of the first and second elements compare, respectively, the outputs of reliable values of each pair of registers formed first, second and third, and fourth elements of comparison that are connected to the inputs of the third element of comparison.The disadvantage of this device is the low reliability of operation, which consists in the following. In the device of the redundant blocks rigidly divided into pairs and failure in each pair one processor failure is all the device. The Device Cheney. The device is not able to move from the logical mode of information processing to the arithmetic mean (average value) failure of the redundant blocks.The aim of the invention is to improve the reliability of the operation.The essence of the invention is to increase the reliability by eliminating hard partitioning on the pair of redundant blocks and the ability to move from arithmetic processing information to logical failures of redundant blocks.In certain control computing systems because of the action of external causes values issued by the redundant blocks may differ significantly in the normal functioning of all units. In such systems it is advisable to use along with arithmetic and logical processing of information. The processing algorithm can be the following.With proper operation of all the redundant block is the arithmetic processing of the values issued by them. The maximum and minimum of the four values are ignored, and the two middle values are averaged and the average value is issued to the subscriber. Drop the maximum and minimum values allows bol what their reasons may significantly exceed or do not reach the true.Failure of one of the redundant blocks, the device moves to the logical processing of information and the subscriber is given the average of the three valid values. With the failure of two of the four redundant block device again returns to the arithmetic processing information and gives the subscriber the average of two values, issued a working redundant blocks. Failure of three redundant blocks the caller is given the value of a single operable unit.The implementation of this algorithm in the inventive algorithm is as follows.Four values form pairs. Each pair is determined by the greater or lesser value. Then compares the two large and two smaller values, resulting in a determined maximum and minimum values, and the two middle values, which are averaged. After the failure of a single channel is also defined by two middle values taking into account the fact that the code is faulty channel zero. But of the two middle values is issued to the subscriber more, because it is the middle of three serviceable. Failure of channels is defined by two large values, and they are averaged (provided that the failed channels give zero codes).In Fig.1 bring the contains in the first to fourth registers 1-4, the output register 5, the first five elements 6-10 comparison, the adder 11, the first to seventh switches 12-18, the first to sixth elements OR 19-24, the first through third threshold elements 25-27, first-fourth informational inputs 28-31 device, the first to fourth inputs 32-35 failures of redundant blocks, the input 36 sync, input 37 of the control information output 38, 39 eighth, ninth 40 switches, the fourth threshold element 41, the output 42 of failure.Registers 1-4 are designed to fix the codes issued by the redundant devices (sensors) for informational inputs 28-31. The account codes in the registers 1-4 are performed simultaneously on the trailing edge of the pulse from input 36. The inputs 32-35 receives signals about the failures of the respective sensors. In the presence of a single signal at the input 32 (33, 34, 35) corresponding register 1 (3, 4, 5) is held in the zero state and outputs a zero signal.Register 5 is designed for storing code values calculated by the device in the previous step. Write code in the register 5 is provided on the trailing edge of the signal input 37. The signals at the input 37 should come with a delay relative to the signals from input 36 for the duration of the transient processes in the device.Elements 6 and ignal output "more" item 6 (7) comparison appears in the case, when the code stored in register 1(3), more code stored in the register 2(4). Otherwise, a single signal is the output of "less" of item 6(7) comparison.The elements 8, 9 comparisons are used to compare the codes coming from the outputs of the switches 12, 14 and 13, 15, respectively, to determine the maximum and minimum of the codes recorded in the registers 1-4. From the outputs of the switches 12, 14 to the inputs of the element 8 comparison received two codes of large numbers of pairs of numbers, written in the registers 1, 2 and 3, 4. On the input element 9 comparison of act codes of the two smaller numbers of pairs of numbers, written in the registers 1, 2 and 3, 4. 8 comparison produces a single output signal "more" when the code number received from the output of the switch 12, more than the code number received from the output of the switch 14. Item 9 comparison produces a single output signal "more" when the code received from the output of the switch 13, more code coming from the output of the switch 15.Element 10 comparison determines the larger of the two codes coming from the outputs of the switches 16, 17. The signal at the output of "more" appears when the code from the output of the switch 16 more code from the output of the switch 17. In the ia average of numbers arriving at its inputs. He performs arithmetic addition codes from the outputs of the switches 16, 17, and the code outputs to the input of the switch 18 without LSB. The result is the division of the total code in two. Thus, the corresponding input of the switch 18 receives the code, equal to the average from the codes issued by the switches 16, 17.Switches 12, 13 are designed to missing codes from outputs of the registers 1, 2 in accordance with the control signals from the outputs of the switches 39, 40. Control signal to the switch 12 is the output of "more" item 6 comparisons. If the single output signal (code in register 1 more code in case 2), the switch 12 is open for a pass code from the output of the register 1. If "more" item 6 comparison of the zero signal (code in register 1 less code in register 2), then through the switch 12 is skipped code from the output of the register 2. Thus, at the output of the switch 12 is always present code the larger numbers recorded in the registers 1, 2. Control signal to the switch 13 is output "under" item 6 comparisons. If the single output signal (code in register 1 less code in register 2), the switch 13 otra 2. At the output of the switch 13 is always present code the smaller of the numbers recorded in the registers 1, 2.The switch 14 performs functions identical with the functions of the switch 12, only for registers 3, 4. The switch 15 performs functions identical to a switch 13, only for registers 3, 4.The switch 16 is designed to pass the code smaller of the two codes, arriving at its inputs from the outputs of the switches 12, 14. The inputs of the switch 16 receives two large code from codes stored in registers 1 to 4, and the signals from the outputs of the element 8 of the comparison is passed through the switch 16 to the lesser of these codes. The switch 17 is designed to pass a larger code of the two codes, arriving at its inputs from the outputs of the switches 13, 15. The outputs of the switches 13, 15 are issued two smaller code from codes stored in registers 1 to 4, and the signals from the outputs of the element 9 of the comparison is passed through the switch 17 more of these codes. Thus, the outputs of the switches 16, 17 are issued two medium code written in the registers 1-4.The switch 18 codes to numbers from the outputs of the switches 16, 17 and adder 11 in accordance with the mode of operation of the device. If the device receives signals about the waiver mutator 18 issued code of the average value from the output of the adder 11. If the device receives signals about the failure of one or three sensors, it is logical majorityowned, so skipped the outputs or switch 16 or switch 17.Elements OR 19-22 designed for pairwise Assembly of the signals from the outputs of the elements 8, 9 and comparison with the output element OR 23. The element 23 generates a single signal when the device receives signals bounce from two or three sensors. In this case, there is no more than two reliable codes recorded in the registers 1-4, in which the device is raised on different switches 16 and 17. Therefore, when opening the switches 16, 17 for the passage of any information there is no distortion of reliable codes, because they are logically summed with zero codes. The element 24 is designed to generate a single signal when the device receives signals bounce one or three sensors. In this case, the logical majorityowned input codes, so the switch 18 is closed for the passage of secondary code from the output of the adder 11.Threshold elements 25, 26 and 27 are designed to issue a single signal about the failure of one, two and three sensors, respectively.The device operates as follows.In the initial state registers 1-5 zeroed. Information from the sensors is fed to the inputs 28-31. The inputs 32-35 receives signals about the health of the respective sensors. Individual signal corresponds to a sensor failure. A single signal about the failure of the sensor is fed to the input set to the zero state of the corresponding register, and holds it in the zero state until Vosstania edge of the next pulse from input 36 is written into the corresponding registers 1-4. Next is a pairwise comparison of the codes. Codes with output registers 1, 2 are compared on the item 6 of the comparison, and outputs of registers 3, 4 - on element 7 comparison. It should be noted that the switches 39, 40 are open for the passage of direct signals "more" and "less" with the output element 6 comparisons. The signals from the outputs of the elements 6, 7 comparisons allow the passage through the switches 12, 14 codes of large numbers of compared pairs, and through the switches 13, 15 codes of smaller numbers. Thus, the inputs of the element 8 comparison received two codes of large numbers of the four recorded in the registers 1-4, and the output element 8 comparison of the codes of the two smaller numbers recorded in the registers 1-4. Through the switch 16 is skipped lesser of two large codes received at its data inputs. If the minor code is supplied from the output of the switch 12, the output element 8 comparison of individual signal is the output of "less" and it allows the passage of this code through the switch 16. If the minor code is supplied with the output switch 14, a single signal is the output of "more" item 8 comparison. This signal allows the passage of the code from the output of the switch 14 to the output of switch 16. Similarly, the switch 17 is thrown the larger of the two smaller to the basic mutators 16, 17 act two middle of the code values that are recorded in the registers 1-4. Smaller and more codes in this mode the device does not participate in generating the output code.The value from the outputs of the switches 16, 17 are received at the inputs of the adder 11, where it is arithmetic addition. But to the input of the switch 18 receives the code from the output of the adder 11 without the Junior category (it is not connected to the input of the switch), ie, a code division by two. Thus, at the input of the switch 18 receives the average of the two averages codes recorded in the registers 1-4. This code through an open switch 18, on the next sync pulse input 37 is recorded in the register 5.In another embodiment, operation of the device, when one of the sensors generates a fault signal, the output of the corresponding register will be zero signal, and the output of the threshold element 25 is isolated. As in the case described above, the device defines two medium code taking into account the fact that the zero code (faulty sensor) the smallest. But as the device has received only three reliable code, then averaging the information in this mode does not occur, and given the average of the codes. Happens I pass information from the output of the adder 11 and opens the other two information inputs of the switch. On the element 10 comparison code compares the two outputs of the switches 16, 17. It is smaller and the average of the three reliable codes recorded in the registers 1-4. You must issue the output of the switch 18, the average code. Therefore, if the average code comes from the output of the switch 16, the output of the "more" item 10 comparison of a single signal, which allows the passage through the switch 18 of the code from the output of the switch 16. Otherwise, a single signal is the output of "less" of item 10 of comparison and allowed the passage of the secondary code from the output of the switch 17. The result in the register 5 contains the average of the three reliable codes stored in the registers 1-4.The following variant of the device when the two failed sensors. A single signal at the output of the threshold element 26. If the two largest code was issued for a single item 8 comparison to determine the maximum, in this case should not do so, because the adder 11 is necessary to give both a non-zero code. Therefore, a single output signal of the threshold element 26 closes the switches 39, 40 pass direct values of the outputs of the element 6 comparison and allows the passage of inverse values. In fact, going back the information inputs of two different switches 16, 17. Single output element 26 opens the switches 16, 17 for the passage of two information codes. But as one of the inputs of each of the switches 16, 17 enters zero code output register of the failed sensor, the outputs of these switches turns unchanged value of the two codes. Further, these codes are received at the inputs of the adder 11, and outputs the average value through the switch 18 to the input of the register 5.When the device receives signals about the withdrawal of three of the four sensors, the signal appears at the output of the threshold element 27. The origin of the only true (non-zero) code with output registers 1-4 to the outputs of the switches 16, 17 are similar to those described above for option. Next, the output of one of the switches 16(17) would be valid code, and the output of the other 17(16) is zero. These codes are compared to the element 10 of comparison and as in the case of failure of one sensor to the input of register 5 receives more (reliable) code.The inputs 36, 37 act two sequences of pulses, which have the same frequency equal to the desired period of delivery of the information to the subscriber from the sensors, but shifted relative to each other during the transition about the 9 comparison is combined with the input equal to. The logic of information processing in this case is not broken. REDUNDANT DEVICE containing three elements of comparison, four of the case, the group of information inputs of which are the corresponding information input device, the group of outputs of the first and second registers connected respectively to the first and second groups of inputs of the first comparison element, and a group of outputs of the third and fourth registers are connected respectively with the first and second groups of inputs of the second comparison element, characterized in that the device entered ten switches, the adder, the output register, two elements of comparison, the six elements, OR four threshold element of the group of outputs of the first register connected to the first group of information inputs of the first and second switches, United second group of information inputs with a group of outputs of the second register, the group of outputs of the third register connected to the first group of information inputs of the third and fourth switches connected direct and inverse control inputs to the outputs, respectively, "More" and "Less than" the second comparison element, and the second group of information inputs - group vichai second group of information inputs of the fifth switch, and to the first and second group of information inputs of the third element of comparison, the United outputs "Less" and "More" with the first inputs respectively of the first and second elements OR outputs connected to respective control inputs of the fifth switch, the group of outputs of the second and fourth switches connected respectively to the first and second group of information inputs of the sixth switch and to the first and second group of information inputs of the fourth element of comparison, the associated outputs "Less" and "More" with the first inputs respectively of the third and fourth elements OR connected the outputs to the first and second control inputs of the sixth switch, the group of outputs of the fifth switch is connected with the first group of information inputs of the seventh switch, with the first group of information inputs of the fifth element of comparison and adder connected to the second group of information inputs to the group of outputs of the sixth switch and the second group of information inputs of the seventh switch connected to the third group of information inputs with a group of outputs of the adder, the first direct managing input of the first group and the first direct upravlyaemogo - with a group of information inputs of the output register, the entry permit records and the group of outputs of which are respectively managing input and information output devices, input reset first, second, third and fourth registers connected to respective inputs of the first, second, third threshold element and the fourth threshold element whose output is the output "Failure" of the device, the output of the first threshold element associated output to the first input of the fifth element OR output connected to the second direct control inputs of the first and second groups and to the inverted control input of the seventh switch, a second input to the output of the third threshold element and to the first input of the sixth element OR connected to a second input with the output of the second threshold element, and the output from the second inputs of the first, second, third and fourth elements OR, the inverse, with the first, second and third direct control inputs of the eighth switch connected respectively to the first direct, the first inverse informational inputs to the output of the "Greater than" the first element of comparison, the second inverse and the second direct information input - output "Less" percomputer, and the second output to the second forward and second inverted inputs of the first switch, the enable inputs write first to fourth register are synchronization input device inputs reset first to fourth register are the corresponding signal inputs of the device serving to connect the outputs "Failure" of the corresponding redundant blocks.
FIELD: computer science.
SUBSTANCE: device has comparison circuit, two system generators, two starting setting circuits, two identical channels, each of which has microprocessor unit, commutation device, Or circuit, error counter, pulse generator, time analyzer of intactness, trigger, OR-NOT circuit, outputs of commutation devices of both channels are combined and are output of device.
EFFECT: higher reliability.
FIELD: engineering of reserved device for discontinuous equipment, possible use for creation of various reserved devices for processing of discontinuous information.
SUBSTANCE: multi-channel adaptive device has M identical channels with control system in each of these, power keys, control block and results block. Control block - digital machine with memory, has direct and reverse connections to all device elements, and also to external information sources, functioning determining reliability level, amount of concurrently operating reserved channels, periodicity of their commutation. Control block has logical assembly, memorization assembly, logical circuit. Results block has M-1 identical comparison circuits and M multi-digit multiplexers. Some of result block outputs are connected to output of device. Control system is a system for inbuilt hardware serviceability control of channels based on checking of excessive codes.
EFFECT: savings of working resource of device while maintaining required functioning reliability level.
FIELD: automatics and computer engineering, possible use during construction of highly reliable devices and systems, for example, redundant systems for processing unit-counting codes in automatic locomotive signaling unit.
SUBSTANCE: device has three identical functional redundancy elements, connected in parallel and performing processing of incoming input signal, three logical elements AND of the same name, connected to outputs of aforementioned redundancy elements, with one channel at output, and executive element, where each logical element AND is connected to output of functional redundancy element of the same name and is made on basis of two-contact relay with galvanically isolated contacts, which simultaneously close on excitation of relay under effect from signal at outputs of functional redundancy elements of the same name and connected in accordance to majority selection circuit "two out of three", in which power to executive element is fed through three parallel electrical circuits, formed by serially connected contacts of logical elements AND in such a way, that in first circuit connected serially are first contact of first relay and first contact of second relay, in second circuit - second contact of first relay and first contact of third relay, and connected serially in third circuit are second contact of second relay and second contact of third relay. Logical elements AND may be made in form of two-transistor optoelectronic couples or other devices of similar type. Therefore, in case of failure of any single functional element, and also one of three logical AND elements, for example, a relay or its contacts, device will continue functioning normally, sending signal to executive element, resulting in increased fault tolerance of device. New feature of device, described above, is achieved due to introduction of AND elements to majority selection circuit.
EFFECT: increased fault tolerance of system.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: physics, measurement.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of metering equipment and may be used to monitor rotation frequency of turbine impeller. In device according to invention, two parallel subdevices are provided, which have three signal inputs to obtain redundant registration of two out of three signals of rotation frequency. Every subdevice comprises calculating unit used to calculate rotation frequency of machine rotating part. Besides every subdevice has signal input for generation of rotation frequency calculated by appropriate computing unit. Corresponding signal inputs of subdevices are loaded parallel to output signals of rotation frequency detector. In case of error device function, according to invention, may fully be taken by one of subdevices so that both erroneous output signal of rotation frequency detector and failure of one subdevice are permitted.
EFFECT: higher reliability of control.
23 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: information technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to computer engineering and can be used particularly in distributed computer systems. User information is entered into a host module through a network using software and hardware tools. This module is assigned the principal module and a control process is initiated in it. A data processing task or modelling process is formed. The task is broken down into subtasks. Host and analytical modules which are going to process information in accordance with subtasks are determined. A data processing or modelling process is initiated and controlled. Failure of host and analytical modules is detected. The data processing or modelling process is corrected or separate stages are repeated. Failure of the control process is detected. A new principal module is selected and the control process is initiated in it. Current parametres of data processing or modelling are transferred to the new principal module. Control of data processing or modelling continues until completion. A report of data processing or modelling results is made and sent to users.
EFFECT: increased reliability and fault tolerance of distributed modelling system.
SUBSTANCE: in proposed method active object operates at temperature, which is normal for it, and identical reserve object is switched off. As active object fails, it is substituted with a reserve object, which is heated up to specified temperature of annealing of radiation defects of its semiconductor devices, but which does not result in irreversible fault of this object; additionally a substitution signal is generated as permissible level of active object elements degradation is achieved, then, using this substitution signal, reserve object is cooled down to temperature normal for operation of active object, and active object is substituted with cooled reserve object. Substituted active object is used as reserve object.
EFFECT: increased reliability of systems of semiconductor objects redundancy by reduction of degradation of reserve object is the technical result of invention.
FIELD: information technology.
SUBSTANCE: method is characterised by using standard estimation of processor resources used when executing a task. Upon achieving a certain threshold value of the resource used by the processor or processor core, and also upon achieving the time delay threshold for executing the task, execution of the task is interrupted and its solution or analysis of the occurring cyclicity is redirected to another processor or processor core. Threshold values of the time delay and execution of the task are set by the user or are formed based on standard estimation of hang-up of the task on time delay of execution and the threshold value of the resource.
EFFECT: preventing hang-up caused by cyclic logic of application programs, their deadlock, modification with malware, maintaining working capacity of the computer during hang-up due to physical reasons and higher security from unlicensed use of programs and from malware.
3 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: information technology.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus for controlling and backing up an information system has three backup units, seven units of AND elements, a unit of OR elements, an output register, three comparator units, a reconfiguration unit, three flip-flops, a breakdown detecting unit, "Normal", "Less reliable" and "Single-channel configuration" device outputs connected to each other as indicated in the claim. The apparatus enables to check for breakdown when several faults are detected. Breakdown checking is usually carried out three or five times. If it appears that breakdown is repeating after checking, the device is out of order.
EFFECT: high reliability of operation.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: information technology.
SUBSTANCE: fault-tolerant computing system with hardware-programmed function of fault-tolerance and dynamic reconfiguration has first, second, third and fourth computing machines connected by first, second, third and fourth serial data buses, first, second, third and fourth secondary power sources, first, second, third and fourth intermachine exchange controllers, first, second, third and fourth configuration management controllers.
EFFECT: faster operation and automation of the reconfiguration process in fault-tolerant systems.
FIELD: information technology.
SUBSTANCE: system includes a comparator circuit and two identical channels, each having a processor, three switches, a system generator, a flip flop, a NOR element, a pulse generator, an integrity time analyser, a fault counter, an initial setup circuit, an OR element, an emergency start-up device and memory.
EFFECT: shorter time for switching to a back-up channel and high reliability of the system owing to introduction of additional devices and connections.