Aerohydrodynamic engine stepanova

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: in the energy industry, in particular, in the engine that converts the energy of the flow of gas or liquid into the rotary motion of the drive shaft of the power machine. The inventive engine contains a vertical shaft rotating blades, symmetrically located around the shaft rotation, and stops connected with the latter and limiting the angle of rotation of the blades around the axis, each blade consists of two unequal-size parts, separated by a plane perpendicular to the side surface and passing through its axis, the lugs are placed in pairs on both sides of the axis of the propeller blades in planes passing through the axis of the blades and the shaft rotation, each of the parts of the blades are made with different weight with equality static moments of these parts of the blade about its axis, and a large part of the blades are made easier and is located between the axis of the blade and the shaft rotation. 11 Il.

The invention relates to fluidic engine that converts the energy of the translational motion of the gas or liquid environment, such as wind or water flow, during the rotation the pump, the lifting mechanism, etc.

Such engines include, for example, water wheels on patents Denmark N 156843, 1981, Sweden N 8601770, 1986, the wind turbine patent Holland N 7901145, 1979, Sweden N 434975, 1974, Austria N 382687, 1976, EUA N 0 00850, 1980, ed.St. USSR N 1377448, 1988 and other counterparts.

These fluidic motors contain a rotating body, the rotor, the bearing elements, interacting with the incident flow and the axis of rotation associated with the drive shaft of the power machine.

The main element of these engines that interact with the incident flow, are the blades or vanes, in the form of flat or corrugated plates, evenly and symmetrically located on the rotor and rigidly or pivotally connected with the axis of rotation. In this case, the rotation axis may coincide with the direction of flow (e.g. from wind turbines in class. F 03 D 1/00), or perpendicular to the flow direction (for example in wind turbines with a vertical axis of rotation CL F 03 D 3/00).

The motor on CL F 03 D 1/00 blades are perpendicular to the axis of rotation, and their side surfaces are rotated at an angle to the velocity vector flow. To rotate the axis of rotation on the flow when the AC/00 blades are positioned along the axis of rotation, and their side surfaces perpendicular to the direction of flow, either on the part of lopasti isolated from flow effects, such as casing or stationary blades are provided with dampers, valves, etc. for the corresponding changes in flow direction, or the blades are made in the form of "translucent" blinds, opening in the same direction.

Also known engine according to the French patent N 8019387, 1980 - prototype having a vertical axis of rotation perpendicular to the velocity vector flow, the blades are symmetrically located about the axis of rotation and pivotally installed it axes parallel to the axis of rotation, and stops for limiting the angle of rotation of the blades around their own axes.

The disadvantages analogs and prototypes are: low ratio of the power output and passive weight of the structure, due, in particular, the need to place the axis of rotation at a distance from the surrounding objects that are larger than the radius of obitaniya (scope) of the blades, the presence of load-bearing structural elements for the appropriate placement of the axis of rotation, a device for tracking the rotation axis direction of the flow, for example, a weather vane for wind turbines, to the mouth and so on; the presence of "dead" zones, changing the direction of flow, for example, when the instantaneous change in the wind direction, when due to the inertia of the design of the directional device does not have time to deploy the axis of rotation on the flow and the blades no longer create rotational torque; a relatively low amount of torque generated by the blade is rotated at an angle to the incident flow, the presence of aerodynamic braking torque when the movement of the vanes toward the incident flow.

In particular, the disadvantage of the prototype, as shown by the analysis of its kinematic scheme is that when turning the axis of rotation of the blades around its own axis under the action of flow always occurs such mutual position of the blades relative to the flow direction, wherein the rotational aerodynamic moment is balanced by the aerodynamic braking torque, even if the engine is made in the form of a system with multiple axes of rotation of the associated transmission, and shifted by a certain angle, the initial positions of the blades of each individual axis of rotation.

The aim of the invention is to obtain higher power taken from a unit mass con, asdastweika on the blade.

This goal is achieved by the fact that, in Aero-hydrodynamics engine having a vertical axis of rotation perpendicular to the velocity vector flow, the blades are symmetrically located about the axis of rotation and pivotally mounted on axes parallel to the axis of rotation, and stops connected with the axis of rotation and limiting the angle of rotation of the blades around their own axes, chocks placed in pairs on both sides of the axis of the propeller blades in planes passing through the axis of the blades and the axis of rotation, and each blade made in the form of two unequal in size and weight of parts, separated by a plane, perpendicular to the side surface of the blade and passing through its axis, and the sum of static moments of these parts of the blade about its axis is made tends to zero, and a large part of the blade is located between the axis of the blade and the axis of rotation, and the large mass of the blades is located between the axis of the blade and fence, the most remote from the axis of rotation.

The invention is illustrated in the drawing, where Fig. 1 shows a fluidic motor, General view; Fig. 2 is a vertical projection of Fig. 3 is a cross széchenyi is - the Hema interaction of the blade as a physical body having mass, with a forced flow in different phases of its motion around the rotation axis and rotation around its own axis, and Fig. 10 and 11 the design scheme of the proposed technical solutions and turbine according to MCI F 03 D 1/00 with the axis oriented along the stream.

Aerohydrodynamic engine (Fig. 1 and 2) has an axis of rotation 1, the blade 2, the axis of the blades 3, the hinges 4, the lugs 5 and 6. The axis of rotation 1 is vertical to the surface of the Earth and perpendicular to the velocity vector flow. The blade 2 has a streamlined symmetrical profile (Fig. 3), composed of two unequal in size and weight of the parts 2 and 2 , separated by a plane a-a perpendicular to the side surface of the blade and passing through the axis 3. The sum of static moments of these parts of the blade 2 with respect to its axis 3 is made tends to zero. A large part of the blade 2 is located between the axis 3 and axis 1. Smaller part of the blade 2 is located between the axle 3 and the stop 6 and has a large mass compared to part 2 . The specified part of the blade can be made of materials of different density, for example, part 2 is made of metal, and part 2 - from plenny her and evenly spaced at equal distances from it. In planes passing through the axis 3 and axis 1 on the fastening elements 3 axes with the axis of rotation 1 is placed lugs 5 and 6, limiting the rotation of the blades 2 axis 3 angle 180about. The axis of rotation 1 is connected one of the known in the art methods, for example, through the clutch, gearbox and so on, with the drive shaft of the power of the machine, for example, a generator of electric current, CP propeller of a ship, etc.

The operation of the device is illustrated by a diagram (Fig. 4). Meeting with the surfaces of the blades 2, the incoming flow, indicated by arrow icon and having an arbitrary direction, due to the generated velocity head rotates, the blade 2 around the axis 3. In this part of the blade 2 on the right side of the plane which contains the axis of rotation 1 and the vector of the flow velocity, turns on hinges 4 around the axis 3 in the direction of flow, and part of the blade 2, which is to the left of said plane, turns around to touch the back focusing 5.

As a result of such rotations of the blade 2 located to the right of the axis of rotation 1 take with respect to the incident flow position, in which their Aero - or hydrodynamic resistance becomes minimum, and the blades 2, j is Tate this occurs the rotational moment attached to the rotation axis 1 and the latter acquires the angular velocity .

At that moment, when one of the blades 2 with its axis 3 passes the plane formed by the axis of rotation 1 and the vector of the flow velocity V"" (the point at (Fig. 4, 7 and 8), the stream begins to affect the blade from the back side and turn the blade around its own axis 3, so that the blade turns 180about, rises along the stream and begins to experience minimal Aero - or hydrodynamic resistance. This process is repeated with the passage of each subsequent blades 2 through point B. This ensures the consistency of the direction of rotation axis 1.

From the diagram shown in Fig. 4, it is seen that the change in flow direction at angles of + 90 degrees or more causes corresponding rotation of the blades around their axes, leaving the direction of the rotation axis 1 unchanged. So, at the direction of the flow velocity vector V"" (Fig. 4) front-to-flow blades will be rotated around their axes in the direction of flow, while the left lobe rotates to contact with the corresponding stop 5, and the blade located on the back side of the vector V""" (Fig. 4).

Stop 6 serves to prevent accidental rotation of the blades around 2 axes 3 360aboutbecause it could result in a change of the direction of rotation axis 1, invalid or undesirable for certain machinery and equipment, which can be used, we offer Aerohydrodynamic engine.

The described device, the blade 2, consisting of two unequal parts 2 and 2 , provides the possibility of using technical solutions not only in terms of the impact of low-speed flow of gas or liquid, but also in conditions of blowing a forced stream of air at a velocity of 50 m/s, under which substantially increases the impact on the kinematics of the device of the centrifugal forces acting on the blade.

So, is shown in Fig. 5-8 and 9 images of different phases of movement of the blade 2 around the axis 1 shows that at any point of the trajectory on the blade in addition to the Aero - or hydrodynamic forces Facentrifugal force, creating a tipping Maboutand regenerating Minthe moments about the axis of the blade 3, is proportional to the mass of q1and q2parts of the blade.

Without complicating the mathematical expression given angular positions lo the UB>< / BR>
Moq2(r-l2)2l2where q1and q2- the mass of the parts 2 and 2 blades;

l1and l2the distances from the axis of the propeller blades to their respective centers of mass;

r is the radius of rotation (distance from axis 1 to axis 3);

- the angular velocity of the rotation axis 1;

Due to the fact that r>l1, l2you can write:

Minq1r2l1< / BR>
Moq2r2l2< / BR>
For blades made in accordance with the invention, the direction of the moments Minand Maboutwill be as shown in Fig. 5-9, opposing, mutually balanced, thus ensuring the fulfillment of the condition "controllability" of the blade oncoming flow:

Min-Mo= q1r2l1-q2r2l2= r2(q1l1-q2l2) -> 0; because according to the formula of the invention the sum of the moments of the parts of the blade about its axis is made tends to zero.

Thus from the above description of the principle of the proposed hydrodynamic engine should, under the action of blades flow arbitrary direction, the axis of rotation becomes constant angular velocity is CLASS="ptx2">

Due to the lack of a prototype of an approximate evaluation of the technical effect produced by the technical solution, schematically depicted in Fig. 10 carried out in comparison with the turbine axis of rotation directed downstream and with the blades facing at an angle to the incident flow, schematically depicted in Fig. 11.

Compare designs consist of two blades that have the same size, thickness and breadth.

Baseline data for evaluation: the length of the blade H 1.0 m; the width of the blade of 0.25; the thickness of the blades 0.05 m; wingspan blades 2R 2.0 m; lateral area of the blades SsideH x h=0.25 m2; the cross-sectional area of the blade SpN x =0.05 m2; the position of the center of pressure taken in the center of the side surface of the blade; the velocity of flow V"" =10 m/s; air density =0,125 kg2/m4.

Aerodynamic coefficients: Cx1= 0,04 - plate parallel to the flow; Cx2= 1,15 - plate, perpendicular to the stream; (Cy= 0,66 - plate, rotated at 45aboutto the stream.

For technical solutions (Fig. 10) received the following calculated values of the torque Fandand retarding Ftaerodynamic forces, rotational M
Fa= C Sside= 1,15 0,25 = 1,797 kg;

Ft= C Sp= 0,04 0,05 = 1,012 kg;

MBP= Fa(R- ) = 1,7971 - = 1,572 KGM;

Mt= FtR = 0,0121 = 0,012 KGM;

M=MBP-Mt=1,572-0,012=1,56 KGM.

For the blades (Fig. 10) you can accept that it moves with the speed of flow, i.e., VOCD=V""hence the angular velocity of the axis of rotation of the engine:

= = = 11,43 1/c .

The shaft power drive:

N= M =1,56 11,43=17,83 KGM/s

For a wind turbine (Fig. 11) obtained the following values of the aerodynamic force Fandrotational aerodynamic moment Min, the angular velocity of the center of the blade and power on the shaft of the drive N:

Fa= nCySside= 2 0,66 0,25 = of 2.06 kg;

(n=2, because running a pair of symmetrical blades).

Rotational aerodynamic torque generated by the pair of blades (Fig. 11):

MBP=Fa0.5 N=2.06 to 0,5 1,0=1,03 KGM.

The angular velocity of the center of the blade:

= = = = 10 1/c ( = 45about)

The shaft power drive:

N=MBP=1,03 10=10,3 KGM/s

Thus, a comparative evaluation of the proposed technical solutions and wind turbine (Fig. 11) shows that Aerohydrodynamic dissocia values of torque (50%), angular velocity (14%), and specific power (75%) of the same size blades and the parameters of the flow.

Technical solution developed a working model of the engine, testing which confirmed the possibility of obtaining a technical effect that is specified in the claims.

The engine can be used in wind power and hydropower, in particular in river dam HPP, HPP, using wave energy, marine and river vessels with hard sails, and for the latter this engine creates the ability to move in any direction regardless of the direction of the wind, floating beacons and buoys as Autonomous energy source. Another positive quality of the engine is the ability to produce electricity in places where it is consumed, i.e., reduces the need for transmission lines and reduced energy losses due to resistance.

It should also be noted environmental cleanliness of the engine, no waste in his work, using them almost "eternal" energy sources. So, use the engine only 1% of wind energy, which is estimated for the territory SSRL, contains a vertical shaft rotating blades, symmetrically located around the shaft rotation and pivotally mounted on axes parallel to the shaft rotation, and stops connected with the latter and limiting the angle of rotation of the blades around the axis, each blade consists of two unequal-size parts, separated by a plane perpendicular to the side surface of the blade and passing through its axis, characterized in that to increase capacity and improve reliability by eliminating "dead zones" when you change the direction of flow, stops are placed in pairs on both sides of the axis of the propeller blades in planes, passing through the axis of the blades and the shaft rotation, each of the parts of the blades are made with different weight with equality static moments of these parts of the blade about its axis, and a large part of the blades are made easier and is located between the axis of the blade and the shaft rotation.

 

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FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to non-conventional power sources, and it can be used in plants using energy of wind, river, deep sea and other currents. Proposed plant contains one or several vertical shafts and horizontal rods with blades. Said hollow rods are installed on shafts for limited turning relative to their axes. Opposite blades of each rod are rigidly secured on rod square to each other and eccentrically relative to axis of rod. Shafts adjacent in horizontal direction are made for rotation in opposite directions.

EFFECT: provision of simple ecologically safe device operating at any direction of current in liquid and gaseous medium and at medium interface.

3 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device is designed for converting kinetic energy of small and medium rivers into elastic energy. Proposed hydraulic unit contains hydraulic turbine installed on frame with bearings on its shaft, generator mechanically coupled with hydraulic turbine, stream shaper and device in form of plates to protect hydraulic unit from floating debris. Hydraulic unit has intermediate vertically and horizontally installed shafts with bearings interconnected by conical gears. Vertical shaft is arranged in well built near bank and communicating with river by channel made under level of maximum possible thickness of ice cover. Part of horizontal shaft connected with hydraulic turbine is arranged in said channel. Upper end of vertical shaft is connected with generator through ground horizontal shaft and step-up reduction unit. Stream shaper is made in form of flaps installed on shaft for turning to direct water stream of river to its central part between which turnable gate is installed for contacting with one of flaps to direct water stream to right-hand or left-hand side of hydraulic turbine.

EFFECT: provision of reliable operation all year round.

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