Wire autograph electric two

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: the supply of electric power receivers DC or single phase AC. The inventive wire contains two solid or stranded metal wires, for example, steel with insulation. The shape of the cross section of each conductor wire is a semi-ring with rounded edges and a base parallel to the base of each of the other strands. 1 C. p. F.-ly, 4 Il.

The invention relates to the supply of the electric power receivers DC or single phase AC.

At the present time these receivers are supplied with electric energy to electric circuits, composed of either two-wire or two bare or insulated wire with a circular cross-section lived, with the same design and electrical parameters. On heating wires (or cables) consumed a large portion of the electrical energy transmitted from the generator to the receiver. The analysis of energy losses in the various parts of the electrical system carried out in the Moscow energy Institute, showed that in the wires, cables and tire sdah and cables of power supply lines is an important technical and economic problem.

Under given load and the length of the line to reduce energy losses in the line are the following activities: increasing electrical line voltage, increase the power factor of the line, increase wire sizes, the choice of material wires with low specific electric resistance, improving daily and annual load profile line.

The aim of the invention is the reduction of energy losses in the power line receiver DC or single-phase alternating current by use of the dependence effect of active resistance of the conductor wires from the magnitude of the magnetic flux inside the conductor and applying appropriate to the design of two electric wires (cables).

The essence of the proposal is the following. Energy losses in the wires of an electric circuit is directly proportional to the active resistance of these wires. To reduce energy losses should decrease the resistance without changing the cross-sectional area and material of the wires of the circuit. Resistance of a conductor at low frequencies can be put equal to the electrical resistance of the conductor DC. The latter is determined by the ratio elektriskie fundamentals of electrical engineering. M. : Higher school, 1981, S. 25). Given that the current I and the electric charge free particles Q, passing through the cross-section at time t, connected by the relation I = Q/t, the dependence (1) can be represented as follows:

R = U/I = Ut/Q = /Q, (2) where = Ut - magnetic flux inside the conductor.

From (2) that the electric (active) conductor resistance R is numerically equal to the ratio of the magnetic flux inside the conductor to the electric charge Q of the free particles that have passed through the cross-section at time t. This provision is consistent with the known from the physics of the facts.

Thus, the electrical resistance of an ideal dielectric is endless. This corresponds to the case when in (2) Q = 0 and R = /Q= .

In superconductors the magnetic field inside the conductor is absent and the electrical resistance of a superconductor is zero. This corresponds to the case when in (2) Q 0 and = 0: R = /Q = 0. (Kalashnikov, S. Electricity. M. : Nauka, 1985, S. 315).

From (2) it follows that if 0 and Q 0 is the electric resistance of the conductor the less, the less the magnetic flux inside the conductor and the greater the charge particles passing through the cross-section tionale resistivity of the conductor material, and the magnetic flux inside the conductor is directly proportional to the relative magnetic permeabilityrthe conductor material. Taking this into account, from (2) we can conclude that in the practice of conductive material with lessrmust match less .

Indeed, one applied in practice as the material of the conductors has the lowest silver and copper (diamagnetic, r< 1), has several large aluminum (paramagnetic,r> 1) and higher - steel (ferromagnetic,r>> 1. Accordingly, when equal currents in the conductors and other conditions being equal, the magnetic flux conductors inside of diamagnetic materials (silver, copper) is weaker than the inside conductors of para - and ferromagnetic materials (Kalashnikov, S. Electricity. M. : Nauka, 1985, S. 219).

From the above it follows that reducing the magnetic flux inside the conductors forming an electric circuit which passes current to the receiver, it is possible to reduce the electrical resistance of this circuit and, accordingly, to reduce energy losses in this circuit. This raises the possibility to extend the scope of application of steel wire to replace the wire from the non-ferrous metal is tion of the circular cross section of two-wire, selected as a prototype. In Fig. 1 the current in conductor 1 is directed away from the reader behind the plane of the drawing, and in period 2, on the contrary, to the reader. Direction of magnetic lines (lines of magnetic induction) is defined by the rule of the right screw (corkscrew). The vectors of magnetic induction IN1and IN1lIN1llcorrespond to the magnetic field of the current in conductor 1, and the vectors IN2IN2land IN2ll- field current in conductor 2. As can be seen from Fig. 1 the magnetic field in the outer half lived prototype attenuated (vector1and IN2lland IN2and IN1llin the opposite direction) and the magnetic field in the inner half lived prototype increases (vector1and IN2land IN2and IN1lthe same direction). In Fig. 2 shows a picture of the magnetic field inside lived cross-segment cross-section two-wire, instead of the prototype. In Fig. 2 wires 1 and 2 of the wires are separated by a layer of electrical insulation. In period 1 the current is directed away from the reader behind the plane of the figure, in the vein 2 - on the contrary. The direction of the magnetic lines are defined as in Fig. 1. The vectors of magnetic induction In index 1 correspond to the field current in conductor 1, subsets oppositely directed field current of a neighboring core. As a result, as shown above, the electrical resistance lived with currents of opposite directions are reduced, resulting in reduction of energy losses in the veins of the wires.

The number of wires in the veins of the wires does not affect the essence of the considered physical processes, so the two-wire line can have both single-and multi-stranded wires.

Veins offer two wires can be made of steel or non-ferrous metal. Steel wires have a smaller magnetic resistance than the wires of non-ferrous metal, so the effect of decreasing the electric resistance appears sharper.

In Fig. 3 shows a diagram of the proposed design two electric wires, where 1 and 2 - conductor wire having a segmental cross-section; 3 - electrical insulation; 4 - General electrical wire insulation. Edge segments veins have rounded necessary to align the electric field at these edges.

In Fig. 4 shows a diagram of another proposed construction of two electric wires, in which veins in cross section have the form of half rings with rounded edges. Designations in Fig. 4 souvestre, when working on veins of the wires are held in mutually opposite directions with equal magnitude currents.

New in the present invention is the use of the dependence effect of active resistance wires lived on the magnitude of the magnetic flux inside these veins and the proposed construction of a two-wire, providing conditions to reduce energy losses in the wire.

Technical and economic efficiency of the proposed solution is determined by the value of electricity saved in the lines made by the wire of the proposed design, as well as the savings of non-ferrous metals due to the expansion of applications of steel wires.

1. Electrical conductor wire with single or stranded metal insulated conductors, for example of steel, characterized in that, in order to reduce energy losses in the wire when passing through it an electric energy to the receiver DC or single-phase alternating current, the shape of the cross section of each conductor wire is a semi-ring with rounded edges and a base parallel to the base of half the other veins.

2. Wire under item 1, characterized in, th is

 

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