The method of determining the rate of growth of semiconductor films and device for its implementation

 

(57) Abstract:

The inventive generator 9 synchronously with the rotation of podarkticules 4 generates pulses that unlocks the gun 5 fast electrons, which generates pulses with a period equal to the period of rotation of the substrate. Receiving optics of electrons registered by the detector 6. The filter 10 highlights from registered by the detector 6 discrete low-frequency signal component that carries information about the changes in the intensity of the diffracted electron beam, which is judged on the growth rate of the semiconductor film. 2 C. p. F.-ly, 3 ill.

The invention relates to the growing technology of thin films and can be used in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) to control the speed of the growth of semiconductor films.

One of the major trends of the modern stage of development of physics and technology of semiconductors is more extensive study and application of semiconductor thin film structures with hyperfine components of the layers produced by the MBE method, for example, heterostructures, and superlattices. Further progress in the technology of MBE due to the capabilities of the playback growing uniform is For reproducible cultivation must be provided with operational control of the rate of growth of the film over the entire area of the substrate at the level of 1 monolayer/s The homogeneity of the properties and thickness of the grown layer on the area of the substrate provides a process MBE on a rotating substrate.

There is a method of measuring the rate of epitaxial growth of semiconductor films, which consists in irradiating the surface of the film growth of high-intensity beam of light quantum energy near threshold photoemission and the measurement of the oscillation period of the photoemission current from the illuminated surface of the epitaxy [1] .

One oscillation period of the photoemission current corresponds to the build-up on the surface of a semiconductor single monolayer of atoms. If the duration of one oscillation period of T, then the rate of growth of Vp= 1/T the monolayer/C. This method allows you to measure the speed of MBE growth on a stationary substrate or in the center of the rotating substrate.

The disadvantages of the described method is the difficulty of measuring the growth rate distribution on the surface of the fixed substrate associated with the need for Ostrovityanova, high-intensity short-wavelength optical beam is moved over the surface of the substrate. In the case of the rotating substrate is measured in the center of the substrate due to the interfering signal, obuslovlennogo the fair adsorption of impurities from the atmosphere, the residual gases of the vacuum chamber installation MBE.

Closest to the invention is a method of measuring the rate of growth of semiconductor films, which consists in the irradiation surface growth by a fast electron beam, detecting reflected from the surface of the growth dimagiba - tion of the electron beam and the measurement of the oscillation period of the electric signal resulting from detection [2] .

A device for implementing the known method is a vacuum chamber with molecular springs, dampers and podarkticules with the substrate, which has a cannon of fast electrons, connected to the control unit, and a detector of the reflected electron beam (for example, a fluorescent screen and a photodetector), and cannon and a detector positioned relative to the substrate so that the electron beam falls on the surface of growth under grazing angle and provides the conditions Wolfe-Braggot, and the reflected receiving optics of the electron falls to the input of the detector (image of one of the reflexes of the pattern of diffraction of fast electrons (the RHEED) on the fluorescent screen is converted by the photodetector into an electrical signal, proportional to the intensity of the reflected electron beam). Output dete the electronic beam, and therefore, the signal at the output of the detector oscil - lerouet with period T equal to the time extension of one monolayer of atoms of the semiconductor. The growth rate is the same as in the first method of measuring, by using a recording unit (which can be used recorder, a digital oscilloscope or computing device).

The disadvantages of this method and device are limiting the field of application, due to the impossibility of measuring the growth rate on the surface of a rotating substrate (as in the rotation of the substrate irradiated by a beam of fast electrons are all different parts of the growing film), and contamination of the grown films associated with uncontrolled introduction of impurities (oxygen and carbon) in place of the radiation from the atmosphere of the residual gases of the vacuum chamber installation MBE,

The purpose of the invention is the expansion of the scope of the method by providing a measure of the rate of growth on a rotating substrate and improving the quality of the grown structures by reducing the uncontrolled introduction of impurities in the growing layers in the measurement process.

This is achieved by a method for measuring the growth rate of polypr the processes reflected from the surface of the growth of the diffracted electron beam, the measurement of the oscillation period of the electric signal obtained by detecting and determining from the measured period of the growth rate of the film, the exposure surface of the film growth produce a pulse with a period equal to the rotation period of the substrate, in the moments corresponding to the ingress of a beam of fast electrons on a controlled surface area growth of a rotating substrate, and the electric signal is limited by the width of the frequency spectrum range F = 0; Fband pulse duration of exposure tuand the cutoff frequency Fbchoose terms and conditions:

tu;

Fb= Vpmaxwhere d is the width of the reflected from the surface of the growth of the electron beam in the plane of detection;

l is the distance from the center of the substrate to the plane of detection;

Vpmax- maximum speed of film growth.

The device for implementing the method, containing a vacuum chamber placed in her molecular sources with butterfly podarkticules with the substrate, gun fast electrons, connected to the control unit, and a detector of the reflected diffracted electron beam connected to the block moderately, and the return to the gun fast electrons, and a lowpass filter input connected to the output of the detector, and the output connected to the input of the recording unit.

In Fig. 1 shows a functional diagram of the device of Fig. 2 - the time dependence of the intensity Iethe reflected diffracted beam; Fig. 3 - change in time of the voltage signal Uwithafter filtering.

The method is as follows.

Surface growth in a given place of the rotating substrate is irradiated by a beam of fast electrons in discrete moments of time corresponding to the conditions of the wolf-Braggot. The time dependence of the intensity Iethe reflected diffracted electron beam and its corresponding electrical signal after detection is in this case a sequence of pulses, the low-frequency component of the spectrum which carries information about the rate of growth as in the case of continuous irradiation surface growth.

Obtained by detecting an electrical signal in discrete form limit on the width of the frequency spectrum, resulting in it is converted to continuous The growth rate is determined by the formula:

Vp= , where T is the period of oscillation of a continuous electrical signal measured after filtering.

The pulse frequency of the radiation is determined on the basis of the sampling theorem (4), which determines the condition for exact recovery of the continuous signal, represented by its reference in discrete moments of time. In particular, for a precise reconstruction of the sinusoidal signal with a period of T samples should be taken at least 2 times per period of oscillation. Therefore, at a maximum speed of Vpmaxthe sampling rate and, hence, the frequency f of the pulses of radiation must satisfy the condition

f 2Vpmax(1)

The value of Vpmaxhas physical limitations, deriving from the principle of MBE, and is determined by the particular design of the particular installation MBE - diameter substrate, and distance her from molecular sources. The value of VR.maxusually no more than ~ 1 .

Thus during rotation of the substrate at any point on the substrate conditions of diffraction can be performed at least once per rotation of the substrate, therefore, the rotational speed of the substrate fBPmust be equal to the pulse frequency of the radiation, so the situation substrate the reflected receiving optics crosses the reception area of the detector electrons, and which is determined on the basis of the angular speed of rotation of the substrate = 2nfBP, the distance l from the center of the substrate to the receiving area of the detector, the width d of the reflected electron beam in the plane of detection (the width of the receiving area of the detector in the azimuthal plane we assume equal to the width of the reflected electron beam), in other words, the duration of tupulse is defined as the time when the rotation of the substrate with angular velocity = 2 fBPthe end of the reflected electron beam on the landing of the detector will make a way in an arc of radius l equal to twice the width of the reflected electron beam (twice the width of the reflex in the picture of the RHEED); tu= or tu. (2) the Lower limit for the pulse duration of exposure tulimited sensitivity and speed detector of electrons.

The device for implementing the method (Fig. 1) includes a vacuum chamber 1 with its molecular sources 2, the flaps 3, podarkticules 4 with the substrate, cannon 5 fast electrons and the detector 6 of the reflected diffracted beam. To the cannon of fast electrons is connected, the control block 7, polictial - clock input 8 output coloroado detector 6 is connected in series connected filter 10 of the lower frequencies and the block 11 of the Desk.

The device operates as follows. After predmostovoy preparation of the substrate enables the rotation of podarkticules 4 and is opened to start the growth of the flap 3. The synchronizer 8 associated with podarkticules 4 (optically or mechanically, etc.,) at points in time corresponding to the penetrating beam of fast electrons on a controlled surface area growth, once per rotation of the substrate generates the synchronization signals, which are fed to the input of the pulse generator 9. The latter synchronously with the rotation of podarkticules 4 generates pulses that unlocks the gun 5, which at discrete points in the selected location of the substrate irradiates the surface of the growth of the fast electron beam.

Reflected dragirovaniya electron beam (corresponding to the reflex of the RHEED pattern on the fluorescent screen) at the moment of action enabling pulse reaches the input of the detector 6. since the output of which is a discrete electrical signal to the input of the filter 10 of the lower frequencies, which converts the signal from the discrete to the continuous form. The output signal from the lowpass filter to the input of the recording unit, by which the period of oscillation of the continuous signal measured by the growth rate.to maintain an electrical signal. In accordance with the Nyquist theorem (4) its cut-off frequency is selected:

Fin(g)= Vpmaxwhere Vpmax- the maximum rate of growth during epitaxy.

Setting installation options MBE:

Vpmax= 1 ,

l = 250 mm

d = 1 mm

Find:

Frequency

pulse

exposure f 2VR. max< / BR>
Choose f = 3 (-1)

Number

speed

podlozhkoi-

gates fBP= f = 3 (-1)

The duration

pulse

exposure tu= = 0,410-3(3)

Frequency

filter cutoff

the lower frequency Fb= V.max.= 1 (Hz)

Minimum

growth of ml-

aqueous monolayer Tmin= = 1 (c)

The duration of the pulse of radiation is only a small part time capacity of one monolayer

= = 810-4(4)

Therefore, the impact of the introduction of impurities from the atmosphere, the residual gases of the vacuum chamber MBE on the quality of the grown semiconductor in place of the radiation decreases.

Thus, the proposed method and device for measuring the rate of growth of epitaxial films allow for the expense of pulse irradiation surface Rossa in growing layers in the measurement process ultimately, improves the quality of the grown epitaxial thin-film structures.

1. The method of determining the rate of growth of semiconductor films in the process of building on a substrate, which consists in irradiating the surface of the growing film by a fast electron beam, detecting reflected from the surface of the growth of the diffracted electron beam, the measurement of the oscillation period of the electric signal at the output of the detecting device and determining from the measured period of the growth rate of the film, characterized in that, to ensure measurement of the rate of growth of the film by rotating the substrate and reduce the uncontrolled introduction of impurities in the growing layers in the measurement process, the irradiation surface growth provide a pulse with a period equal to the rotation period of the substrate, the electrical signal at the output of detecter filter, restricting the width of the frequency spectrum range F = 0; Finand pulse duration of exposure tandand the cutoff frequency is chosen terms and conditions

tand; Fin= v, ,

where d is the width of the reflected from the surface of the growth of the electron beam in the plane of detection;

l - distance from the city centre 2. A device for determining the rate of growth of semiconductor films in the process of building on a substrate containing a vacuum chamber, which has a molecular springs with dampers, polictial, gun fast electrons, connected to the control unit, and a detector of the reflected diffracted electron beam connected to the recording unit, characterized in that it is provided with a synchronizer associated with podarkticules, pulse generator, whose input is connected to the synchronizer, and the return to the gun fast electrons, and the low pass filter, whose input is connected to the output of the detector, and the output is connected to the recording unit.

 

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