Method of recovering platypodinae of the reforming catalyst
(57) Abstract:Usage: in petrochemistry and oil refining, in particular in the catalytic production. The inventive method provides for the recovery platypodinae catalyst hydrogen-rich recycle gas in two stages: first at a pressure of 0.5-1.0 MPa, with a gradual increase of temperature up to 300-380S, then at a pressure of 2-4 MPa and a temperature of up to 400-500 C. In the temperature range 280-300C catalyst sulfiderich, dosing in a stream of hydrogen containing gas dimethyl disulfide. table 1. The invention relates to methods for recovery Latinoamerica reforming catalysts and can be used at the enterprises of oil refining and petrochemical industries.Known methods of recovery of reforming catalysts containing platinum or platinum and promoters, namely, that the catalyst is treated with hydrogen or a hydrogen-containing gas at an elevated pressure and a gradual rise of temperature (1,2). The restoration is subjected to both fresh and regenerated catalysts in industrial conditions, the recovery of the catalyst can be combined with its drying and St. lower than the pressure which further exploit the catalyst, although there is also known a method in which the catalyst is restored when the pressure exceeds the pressure of the process (3). A common symptom known methods - conducting recovery of the catalyst at a constant pressure of hydrogen gas (hydrogen-rich).Closest to the invention is a method, according to which after the oxidative activation of the catalyst is restored by processing it all in two stages: initially for 0.5-2 hours at a temperature of 343-400aboutC, then the temperature was raised to 482-540aboutWith and recover an additional 5-15 hours the pressure is really constantly throughout the recovery and is 0.5-4.0 MPa (4-prototype). Restoration in two stages helps to form the catalyst, the reforming process which proceeds with improved yields of hydrogen and reformate compared with recovery in only one stage at a temperature of 510aboutC. Improved the stability of the catalyst, resulting in a smaller rate of rise of temperature to maintain the desired octane number of the reformate. The results achieved are not high.Nadota the invention provides for increasing the selectivity of the reforming catalyst.This result is achieved by the proposed method, recovery platypodinae of the reforming catalyst by the two-stage process of circulating the hydrogen-containing gas at a pressure of 0.5 to 4.0 MPa and a gradual increase in temperature up to 500aboutWith, and at the first stage, the treatment is carried out at a pressure of 0.5-1.0 MPa and the temperature is raised to 300-380aboutWith, on the second stage at a pressure of 2.0-4.0 MPa and the temperature is raised to 400 to 500aboutC.Salient features of the proposed method are the restoration of the reforming catalyst in two stages at different pressure circulating SIV; restoration initially at a pressure of 0.5-1.0 MPa, and then at 2.0-4.0 MPa; the gradual rise in temperature in the first stage to 300-380aboutC. on the second - to 400-500aboutC.Thus, the claimed method meets the criteria of the invention of "novelty."In the proposed method, the catalyst can be both fresh and after oxidative regeneration. In industrial environments, often simultaneously with the restoration of conduct drying of the catalyst. In the case of recovery of catalysts containing along with platinum rhenium, additionally, for example, the BA, that is, when the pressure of everything of 0.5-1.0 MPa and the temperature rises to 300-380aboutC.The positive effect of increasing the selectivity of the reforming catalyst when using the proposed method, might be related to the dependence of adsorption properties (5) and physico-chemical characteristics (6) of the catalyst from the pressure of everything when it's restored.Found by the authors of the recovery mode, probably contributes to the formation of the catalyst with higher selectivity for the target reforming reactions, resulting in increased yields of reformate and hydrogen in the calculation of the processed raw materials.Analysis of the known technical solutions to restore Latinoamerica reforming catalysts allows to make a conclusion about the absence of these symptoms that are similar to the essential distinguishing features of the claimed method, therefore, this invention meets the requirement of inventive step.Pilot test of the proposed technical solution showed that the implementation of the method, the pressure at both stages over the claimed interval does not increment a positive effect, while lower - to lower selectivity ka is Stanovlenie.The proposed method is as follows.The restoration is subjected to fresh industrial catalyst containing, by weight. % : platinum 0,3; rhenium 0,3; chlorine 1.3 on gamma-alumina (TU-38.50161-86).Restore spend circulating dry everything with a concentration of 92 mol. % H2(the rest are hydrocarbons WITH1-C4in two stages, the ratio of circulation everything is 1200 m3/m3a catalyst.In the first stage at a pressure of everything 0.8 MPa in the temperature is gradually raised from the initial (30about(C) to 360aboutWith 20-40aboutWith in the hour. When the temperature of 150-200aboutWith released from the catalyst water catch desiccant with zeolite NaX. When 280-320aboutWith the catalyst sulfiderich submission of ethyl mercaptan in the stream everything a rate of 0.1% sulfur by weight of the catalyst.In the second stage the pressure of the circulating SIV raise up to 2.5 MPa, temperature up to 420aboutWith and maintain the catalyst in these conditions 2 hRaw materials recovered catalyst is served at 420aboutWith, then gradually raise the temperature to the desired value of the octane number of the reformate. Raw material is straight-run gasoline fraction, wikipeida from 90 to 185aboutWith the sulfur compounds in the raw material does not exceed 0.5 mg/kgIn the receive mode of the reformate octane number by the research method (IOC) 96 points the hydrogen yield of raw materials amounted to 2.7 wt. % reformate to 88.7 wt. % .Start the same catalyst, but with recovery at constant pressure SIV (2.5 MPa) results in a catalyst with a lower selectivity, the yield of hydrogen is only 2.4 wt. percent and reformate - 88,2 wt. % . An additional positive effect of the proposed method is to obtain everything with a higher concentration of hydrogen therein.The advantages of the proposed method are illustrated in the following examples, the main results are given in the table.P R I m e R 1. Reforming catalyst containing 0.3 wt. % platinum, 0.3 wt. % rhenium and 1.3 wt. % chlorine gamma-alumina, prepared by impregnation of industrial aluminium oxide A-64 with a specific surface area of 190 m2/g aqueous solution of hexachloroplatinic, rhenium and hydrochloric acids. After impregnation the catalyst is dried at 90aboutWith, calcined in air flow at 500aboutWith one hour.The calcined catalyst in a quantity of 25 g load on the pilot plant, where it was rebuilt, sulfidic and ispitivawe: initially at 0.8 MPa, the temperature is gradually (30aboutWith in hours) up to 360aboutWith, then the pressure up to 2.5 MPa, and the temperature was brought up to 420aboutWith exposure at this temperature for 4 h In the temperature interval 280-300aboutWith the catalyst sulfiderich, dosing in the flow of everything dimethyl disulfide in an amount of 0.1 % sulfur by weight of the catalyst. Reforming the recovered catalyst is performed at a pressure of 1.5 MPa, the space velocity of the feedstock 1.7 h-1, the molar ratio hydrogen: hydrocarbon equal to 5. The test duration is 7 days, in order to maintain each of reformate 98-99 points as necessary to raise the average temperature. Raw material is a gasoline fraction containing hydrocarbons (wt. % ): aromatic 9; naphthenic 42; paraffin 49, as well as the impurity sulfur - 0.5 mg/kg and nitrogenous compounds 1 mg/kg Fractional composition of raw materials: N. K. -90aboutWith about 10. % boils at 107aboutWith about 50. % - 125aboutWith about 90. % - 156aboutWith, K. K. - 185aboutC.The yield of the target product reformate in an average testing time was by 89.8 wt. % and the hydrogen yield of 3.1 wt. % . Both indicators show high selectivity of the catalyst reduced in two stages under the proposed method.P R I m m e R 2. Katany way similar to example 1, is loaded into a pilot installation in the amount of 25 g, where it was rebuilt, sulfidic and experience.Recovery of electrolytic hydrogen is carried out in two stages: the first stage catalyst restore at a pressure of 0.5 MPa and the temperature rises to 380aboutWith, the second at a pressure of 2.6 MPa and rise of temperature up to 410aboutWith exposure to these conditions for 3 h In the temperature interval 280-300aboutWith the catalyst sulfiderich feed in a stream of hydrogen dimethyl sulfide in an amount of 0.1 % sulfur by weight of the catalyst.Reforming the recovered catalyst is carried out in the conditions described in example 1, and using the same raw materials. The yield of reformate to missing raw materials costal 89,0 wt. % , and hydrogen - 2.8 wt. % , which is higher than in the method according to the prototype (approx. 8).P R I m e R 3. The reforming catalyst specified in example 2, loaded into a pilot plant in the amount of 25 g, where it was rebuilt, sulfidic and experience.The restoration carried out by hydrogen in two stages: initially at a pressure of 0.8 MPa with increase of temperature up to 360aboutWith, then at a pressure of 2.0 MPa and a temperature of 400aboutWith aged 4 hours At the first feed at a rate of 0.1% sulfur by weight of the catalyst.Reforming the recovered catalyst is carried out with the use of raw materials and the conditions described in example 1. The yield of reformate made up of 89.2 wt. % , and hydrogen - 2.9 wt. % , which indicates a higher selectivity of the catalyst than when the recovery by a known method.P R I m e R 4. Reforming catalyst containing 0.6 wt. % platinum and 0.7 wt. % chlorine on gamma-alumina, prepared by impregnation of alumina A-64 aqueous solution of hexachloroplatinic and hydrochloric acids, followed by drying at 90aboutC and calcining at 500aboutWith the current air 1 hThe calcined catalyst in a quantity of 25 g load on the pilot plant, where it was rebuilt and experience.Hydrogen reduction is carried out in two stages: initially at a pressure of 1.0 MPa and the temperature rises to 300aboutAnd then at a pressure of 3.2 MPa and the further rise of temperature up to 420aboutWith subsequent exposure for 4 hThe reforming is carried out with the use of raw materials and the conditions described in example 1. The yield of reformate for raw materials stood at 88.9 wt. % , and hydrogen - 2.8 wt. % .P R I m e R 5. The reforming catalyst described in example 4, the loading is carried out with hydrogen in two stages: the first stage catalyst restore at a pressure of 0.8 MPa and the temperature rises to 370aboutWith, the second at a pressure of 4.0 MPa, and the further rise of temperature up to 500aboutC. After one-hour exposure temperature was lowered to 420aboutWith and served on the catalyst raw materials.The reforming is carried out with the use of raw materials and the conditions described in example 1. The yield of reformate and hydrogen in the calculation of the missing raw materials was 88,8 and 2.8 wt. % respectively.P R I m e R 6 (for comparison). The reforming catalyst, the composition and technology of which is given in example 1, is loaded into a pilot installation in the amount of 25 g, where it was rebuilt, sulfidic and experience.The recovery is carried out in two stages at different hydrogen pressure, but in a sequence opposite than the proposed method. In the first stage, the catalyst restore at a pressure of 2.5 MPa and the temperature rises to 360aboutC. In the temperature interval 280-300aboutWith the catalyst sulfiderich in accordance with example 1. In the second stage, the pressure of hydrogen is reduced to 0.8 MPa, the temperature is gradually raised to 420aboutWith exposure at this temperature for 4 hThe reforming is carried out with the use of raw materials and the conditions described in example 1. The yield on raw materials for R is atom, the essential feature of this method is the sequence of stages of recovery.P R I m e R 7 (for comparison). The reforming catalyst, the composition and technology of which is given in example 1, is loaded into a pilot installation in the amount of 25 g, where it was rebuilt, sulfidic and experience.Unlike example 1, the recovery is carried out at constant pressure, equal to 2.6 MPa.Sulfatirovnie catalyst and test in the reforming process is carried out in the same conditions as in example 1.The output of the average sample for raw materials thus made 86.2 wt. % and the hydrogen yield is 2.3 wt. % , which is significantly lower than in example 1.Thus, recovery in two stages at different hydrogen pressure increases the selectivity of the catalyst.P R I m e R 8 (prototype). The reforming catalyst, the composition and technology of which is given in example 1, is loaded into a pilot installation in the amount of 25 g, where it was rebuilt, sulfidic and experience.The recovery is carried out in two stages by a known method: initially, when the hydrogen pressure of 0.5 MPa, the temperature was raised to 370aboutWith exposure for 2 h, then PR is the catalyst sulfiderich analogously to example 1. After holding the temperature was lowered to 420aboutWith and served on the catalyst raw materials.The reforming is carried out with the use of raw materials and the conditions described in example 1. The yield of reformate and hydrogen missed raw materials are 88,5 and 2.6 wt. % , which is lower than during recovery in accordance with the proposed method.Thus, the recovery platypodinae of the reforming catalyst according to the described method allows to increase its selectivity, the yield of reformate for raw materials increases by 0.3-1.3 wt. % and the yield of hydrogen is 0.2 - 0.5. % .(56) Maslansky, N. , Shapiro R. N. Catalytic reforming of gasolines. - Chemistry and technology. L. : Chemistry, 1985, S. 202-206.Skipin Y. A. , Marichev Century B. , kurilin Century A. feature of the start of the reforming unit with polymetallic catalysts. - Refining and petrochemicals. M. , 1983, N 9, PP 4-7.U.S. patent N 3838039, CL 208/108, published. 1974.U.S. patent N 4539307, CL 01 J 27/02, published. 1985.Bickle G. M. , Do, D. D. , Effect of pretreatment conditions on the activity and selectivity values of Pt/Al2O3reforming catalysts. React. Kinet. and Catal. Letter. 1990, 42, N 1, p. 61-66.Guenin, M. , Rreysse M. , R. Frety , Activity and selectivity values of Pt-Al2O3in n-hexane conversion: effect of hydrogen pressure cluring precursor activ who eat two-stage process of circulating the hydrogen-containing gas at a pressure of 0.5 to 4.0 MPa and a gradual increase in temperature up to 500o, Characterized in that in the first stage, the treatment is carried out at a pressure of 0.5 - 1.0 MPa and the temperature is raised to 300 - 380oWith, on the second stage at a pressure of 2.0 - 4.0 MPa and the temperature is raised to 400 - 500oC.
FIELD: chemical industry, in particular method for production of value products from lower alkanes.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes passing of gaseous reaction mixture containing at least one lower alkane and elementary chlorine through catalytic layer. Used catalyst represents geometrically structured system comprising microfiber with diameter of 5-20 mum. Catalyst has active centers having in IR-spectra of adsorbed ammonia absorption band with wave numbers in region of ν = 1410-1440 cm-1, and contains one platinum group metal as active component, and glass-fiber carrier. Carrier has in NMR29Si-specrum lines with chemical shifts of -100±3 ppm (Q3-line) and -110±3 ppm (Q4-line) in integral intensity ratio Q3/Q4 from 0.7 to 1.2; in IR-specrum it has absorption band of hydroxyls with wave number of ν = 3620-3650 cm-1 and half-width of 65-75 cm-1, and has density, measured by BET-method using argon thermal desorption, SAr = 0.5-30 m2/g, and specific surface, measured by alkali titration, SNa = 10-250 m2/g in ratio of SAr/SNa = 5-30.
EFFECT: method of increased yield.
3 cl, 4 ex
FIELD: chemical industry, in particular method for production of value monomer such as vinylchloride.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes passing of reaction mixture containing dichloroethane vapor trough catalytic layer providing dehydrochlorination of dichloroethane to vinylchloride. Catalyst has active centers having in IR-spectra of adsorbed ammonia absorption band with wave numbers in region of ν = 1410-1440 cm-1, and contains one platinum group metal as active component, and glass-fiber carrier. Carrier has in NMR29Si-specrum lines with chemical shifts of -100±3 ppm (Q3-line) and -110±3 ppm (Q4-line) in integral intensity ratio Q3/Q4 from 0.7 to 1.2; in IR-specrum it has absorption band of hydroxyls with wave number of ν = 3620-3650 cm-1 and half-width of 65-75 cm-1, and has density, measured by BET-method using argon thermal desorption, SAr = 0.5-30 m2/g, and specific surface, measured by alkali titration, SNa = 10-250 m2/g in ratio of SAr/SNa = 5-30.
EFFECT: method with high conversion ratio and selectivity.
3 cl, 2 ex
FIELD: chemistry, in particular utilization of chlorine-containing waste.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes passing of organochlorine compound vapors blended with oxygen-containing reaction gaseous mixture through catalyst layer providing oxidation of starting organochlorine compounds. Said catalyst represents geometrically structured system from microfibers with length of 5-20 mum. Catalyst has active centers which are characterized by presence of absorption band in absorbed ammonia IR-spectrum with wave number ν = 1410-1440 cm-1; contains platinum group metal as active ingredient; and glass fiber carrier. Said carrier in NMR29Si-spectrum has lines with chemical shifts of -100±3 ppm (Q3-line) and -110±3 ppm (Q4-line) in integral intensity ratio of Q3/Q4 = 0.7-1.2; in IR-spectrum it has hydroxyl absorption band with wave number ν = 3620-1440 cm-1 and half-width of 65-75 cm-1; has specific surface, measured by BET using argon thermal absorption: SAr = 0.5-30 m2/g; surface area, measured by alkali titration: SNa = 10-250 m2/g, wherein SNa/SAr = 5-30.
EFFECT: selective oxidation of starting organochlorine compounds to safe and easily utilizing substances without toxic by-product formation.
3 cl, 4 ex
FIELD: precious metal technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for preparation of novel platinum-containing materials, which find always increasing demand in national economy, in particular in heterogeneous catalysis. According to invention, platinum is sublimated on high-temperature glass cloth with preliminarily deposited calcium oxide layer. Thus prepared material is a composite constituted by high-temperature glass cloth with deposited calcium oxide layer bearing (Ca,Si)O2 rods on its surface, said rods having oxidized platinum on their ends and metal particles 3-20 nm in size in underlayer.
EFFECT: enabled preparation of novel platinum-containing material with platinum in finely dispersed state.
7 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: industrial organic synthesis.
SUBSTANCE: invention is dealing with catalysts showing high catalytic stability in production of chloroform from carbon tetrachloride via catalytic dehydrochlorination reaction. Catalyst containing γ-alumina-supported platinum is characterized by that platinum in the form of particles 1 to 12 nm in size is distributed throughout the bulk of microspheric γ-alumina particles having median diameter 30 to 70 μm and pore volume 0.3 -0.6 cm3/g. Preparation of catalyst involves impregnation step accomplished via spraying γ-alumina with aqueous platinum compound solution used in amount equal to or less than alumina pore volume followed by platinum compound reduction step, wherein this compound is deposited onto γ-alumina with aqueous solution of formic acid or alkali metal formate.
EFFECT: achieved retention of high catalyst activity and selectivity over a long time period without being preliminarily activated.
9 cl, 2 tbl, 4 cl
FIELD: textile, paper and chemical industries; protection of environment in production of bleachers, biocides and components of oxidizing processes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed catalyst contains one or more metals of platinum group used as active component, one or more polyolefines and activated carbon carrier. It is preferably, that polyolefines have molecular mass above 400 and are selected from ethylene homopolymers and ethylene copolymers with alpha-olefines, propylene homopolymers and propylene copolymers with alpha olefines, butadiene homopolymers and copolymers with styrene and other olefines, isoprene homopolymers and copolymers with other olefines, ethylene-propylene copolymers, ethylene-propylene diolefine three-component copolymers, thermoplastic elastomers obtained from butadiene and/or isoprene and styrene block-copolymers, both hydrogenized and non-hydrogenized. Hydrogen peroxide is produced in presence of said catalyst from hydrogen and oxygen in reaction solvent containing halogenated and/or acid promoter. Proposed catalyst makes it possible to increase degree of conversion and selectivity of process, to obtain aqueous H2O2 solutions at content of acids and/or salts at level of trace amount.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
48 cl, 1 tbl,18 ex
FIELD: industrial organic synthesis catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmentally friendly processes for production of isoalkanes via gas-phase skeletal isomerization of linear alkanes in presence of catalyst. Invention provides catalyst for production of hexane isomers through skeletal isomerization of n-hexane, which catalyst contains sulfurized zirconium-aluminum dioxide supplemented by platinum and has concentration of Lewis acid sites on its surface 220-250 μmole/g. Catalyst is prepared by precipitation of combined zirconium-aluminum hydroxide from zirconium and aluminum nitrates followed by deposition of sulfate and calcination in air flow before further treatment with platinum salts. Hexane isomer production process in presence of above-defined cat is also described.
EFFECT: increased catalyst activity.
5 cl, 2 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: gas treatment catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention provides catalyst consisted of inert carrier and catalytic coating containing platinum, rhodium, and oxide substrate, wherein catalytic coating includes: (i) at least one first substrate material selected from group consisted of first active aluminum oxide enriched with cerium oxide; mixed oxide, which is cerium oxide/zirconium dioxide; and zirconium dioxide component; provided that catalytic component in at least one first substrate material is first portion of the total quantity of catalyst platinum, wherein concentration of the first portion of the total quantity of catalyst platinum lies within a range of 0.01 to 5.0% of the total mass of catalyst-containing materials; and (ii) a second substrate material containing second portion of total quantity of platinum and rhodium as catalytic component, said second substrate material being second active aluminum oxide, wherein concentration of platinum plus rhodium on the second substrate material lies within a range of 0.5 to 20% of the total mass of the second substrate material. Method for preparing above catalyst is also provided.
EFFECT: increased catalytic activity and reduced catalyst preparation expenses.
17 cl, 3 dwg, 5 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: chemical industry; methods of manufacture of the building structures.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the chemical industry, in particular, to production of the nitric acid, nitric fertilizers, the cyanhydric acid, the nitrites and nitrates and to other productions of chemical products, where the flow sheet of production provides for the catalytic conversion of ammonia up to the nitrogen oxides with usage of the platinoid mesh catalytic agents. The platinoid mesh catalytic agent formed in the form of the catalytic package produced out of the layer-by-layer stacked wire catalytic meshes and weaved out of the wires with the diameter of 0.06-0.1 mm consisting of the alloys of platinum with rhodium, palladium, ruthenium and other metals of the platinum group differs that the catalytic package consists of two different in the geometry of the braiding types of the meshes sequentially alternating in the height of the package. At that the geometry of the braiding of the first type of the catalytic meshes is characterized by the number of the wires interlacing per 1 cm2 in the interval of 1024-450, and the geometry of the braiding of the second type of the catalytic meshes is characterized by the number of the wires interlacing per 1 cm2 in the interval of 400-200. The technical result of the invention is the increased conversion of ammonia and the decreased share of the platinoids included in the mesh catalytic agent production processes providing for the catalytic conversion of ammonia in the flow sheet of the chemical goods production.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased conversion of ammonia and the decreased share of the platinoids included in the mesh catalytic agent production processes providing for the catalytic conversion of ammonia in the flow sheet of the chemical goods production.
FIELD: chemical industry; methods of preparation of the platinum hydrophobic catalyst used for separation of the isotopes of hydrogen and water.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the methods of preparation of the platinum hydrophobic catalyst used for separation of the isotopes of hydrogen in the columns of the isotope exchange of hydrogen with water. According to the offered method platinum is deposited at the room temperature from the solution of hexachloroplatinum acid H2PtCl6·6H2O in the mixed solvent (the mixture of acetone and mesityl oxide containing 10÷90 vol. of % of mesityl) on the hydrophobic spherical granules of the copolymer of styrene with divinylbenzene (DVB), in which the contents of paradivinylbenzene is no more than 15 mass %, the total contents of the all forms of DVB makes 10-70 mass %, and the mean size of the pores in the granules of the carrier is no less than 300 Å. After ageingin the impregnating solution the carrier is dried and restored with the help of hydrogen. The prepared catalyst possesses the high catalytic activity (the exchange constant кe ˜ 10÷20 s-1), stability (no less than three years), radiation resistance (up to the dose of the irradiation - 100 Mrad). At that the quantity of platinum makes 0.4-1.0 mass %, and the size of the spherical granules lays in the interval of 0.5÷1.0 mm.
EFFECT: the invention ensures, that the prepared catalyst possesses the high catalytic activity (the exchange constant кe ˜ 10÷20 s-1), stability (no less than three years), radiation resistance (up to the dose of the irradiation - 100 Mrad).
4 cl, 10 ex, 6 tbl, 2 dwg
FIELD: hydrogenation-dehydrogenation catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: palladium-containing hydrogenation catalyst, which can be used to control rate of autocatalytic hydrogenation reactions, is prepared by hydrogen-mediated reduction of bivalent palladium from starting compound into zero-valence palladium and precipitation of reduced zero-valence palladium on carbon material, wherein said starting material is tetraaqua-palladium(II) perchlorate and said carbon material is nano-cluster carbon black. Reduction of palladium from starting compound and precipitation of zero-valence palladium on carbon material are accomplished by separate portions.
EFFECT: increased catalytic activity, enabled catalyst preparation under milder conditions, and reduced preparation cost.
1 dwg, 1 tbl, 12 ex
FIELD: petrochemical processes.
SUBSTANCE: feedstock is brought into contact with preliminarily activated zeolite-containing catalyst, namely mordenite-supported Pt, at 250-300°C, pressure 1.5-3.5 MPa, hydrogen-containing gas-to-feedstock ratio 300-1000 nm3/m3, and feed flow rate 1.0-4.0 h-1. Preliminary activation of zeolite-containing isomerization catalyst is conducted in two successive steps: drying catalyst in inert gas flow; reducing catalyst in hydrogen-containing gas flow; and supplying feedstock and setting steady-state isomerization process. Drying of zeolite-containing catalyst in inert gas flow is effected under conditions of gradually raised temperature from 120°C at temperature raise rate 10-15°C/h and ageing for 2-5 h at 120°C to 350°C followed by ageing at this temperature, whereupon temperature is lowered to 130°C. Reduction of zeolite-containing catalyst in hydrogen-containing gas flow is effected at gradually raised temperature to 220-350°C at temperature rise rate 15-25°C/h and ageing for 2-6 h at 220-350°C, whereupon temperature is lowered to 180°C. Initial feedstock is supplied at 180°C in circulating hydrogen-containing gas flow, aged for 4 h at 180°C and then gradually heated to 250°C at heating rate 5°C/h, after which further heated at heating rate 5°C a day to achieve process characteristics meeting product quality requirements.
EFFECT: increased catalyst activity, selectivity, and working stability.
2 cl, 2 tbl, 17 ex
FIELD: petroleum processing and petrochemistry.
SUBSTANCE: catalytic system of hydrocarbon feedstock hydrofining is activated by circulating hydrogen-containing gas or mixture thereof with starting feedstock through layer-by-layer loaded catalysts in presulfided or in presulfided and oxide form at elevated temperature and pressure. Hydrogen is injected into circulating hydrogen-containing gas or mixture thereof with starting feedstock portionwise, starting concentration of hydrogen in circulating hydrogen-containing gas not exceeding 50 vol %. Starting feedstock consumption is effected stepwise: from no more than 40% of the working temperature to completely moistening catalytic system and then gradually raising feedstock consumption to working value at a hourly rate of 15-20% of the working value. Simultaneously, process temperature is raised gradually from ambient value to 300-340°C. Circulating factor of hydrogen-containing gas achieves 200-600 nm3/m3. Addition of each portion of hydrogen is performed after concentration of hydrogen in circulating hydrogen-containing gas drops to level of 2-10 vol % and circulation of hydrogen-containing gas through catalysts loaded into reactor begins at ambient temperature and further temperature is stepwise raised. Starting feedstock, which is straight-run gasoline or middle distillate fractions, begins being fed onto catalytic system at 80-120°C.
EFFECT: enabled prevention and/or suppression of overheating in catalyst bed.
5 cl, 6 tbl, 12 ex
FIELD: hydrocarbon conversion processes.
SUBSTANCE: process consists in catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbon-containing gas at elevated temperature and pressure 1 to 40 atm, catalyst being reduced ferromagnetic cured product isolated by magnetic separation from ashes produced in coal combustion process at power stations. The catalytic product represents spinel-type product containing 18 to 90% iron oxides with balancing amounts of aluminum, magnesium, titanium, and silicon oxides. Prior to be used, catalyst is subjected to hydrodynamic and granulometric classification.
EFFECT: reduced total expenses due to use of substantially inexpensive catalyst capable of being repetitively used after regeneration, which does not deteriorate properties of original product.
2 cl, 6 ex
FIELD: hydrogenation-dehydrogenation catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention provides copper and silica-based catalyst containing 22.5-53.0% copper. Catalyst is prepared by reductive thermal decomposition of copper silicate in hydrogen flow at 380-450°C. catalyst is used in dihydroxyalkane production processes carried out at 180-200°C.
EFFECT: increased activity and selectivity of catalyst.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: petrochemical process catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to preparation of supported Fischer-Tropsch catalysts and comprises treatment of supported Fischer-Tropsch catalyst precursor in the first step, which precursor is in pre-reduced state in the form of particles. Precursor contains cobalt-impregnated catalyst support and reducible labilized cobalt oxide in fired state selected from compounds depicted by formulas including CoOaHb, wherein a=1.7 and b>0, and monometallic hydrocalcite-type compounds Coii 0,74Coiii 0,26(OH)2,01(NO)0,21(CO)0,02×0,6H2O. Cobalt oxide is reduced with reducing gas, which is pure hydrogen, at the first volumetric velocity of supplied gas SV1 and first heating velocity HR1 to form partially reduced catalyst precursor. Resulting precursor is activated, in the second step, with reducing gas, which is pure hydrogen, at the second volumetric velocity of supplied gas SV2 and second heating velocity HR2, so that SV2<SV1 and/or HR2≥HR1 provided that, when SV2=SV1, then HR2≠HR1 and, HR2=HR1, then SV2≠SV1.
EFFECT: achieved maximum catalytic activity.
12 cl, 3 dwg, 5 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: hydrogenation-dehydrogenation catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention is dealing with development of effective catalyst for hydrogenation of unsaturated hydrocarbons (alkenes, alkynes) and a method for preparation thereof, which could be used in fine organic synthesis. Catalyst contains palladium compound and a modifying additive, the former being palladium bis-acetylacetonate and the latter phosphine (PH3) at molar ratio ranging from 1:0.1 to 1:1, respectively. Preparation of catalyst is based on reduction of palladium compound with hydrogen in presence of phosphine, which is introduced before reduction of palladium bis-acetylacetonate at catalytic system formation temperature: 70-80°C. Optimal time for molding of catalyst is 10-15 min.
EFFECT: increased catalytic activity when carrying out catalytic process under mild conditions (at room temperature and atmospheric pressure) and reduced catalyst preparation expenses.
2 cl, 5 tbl, 24 ex
FIELD: organic synthesis catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to catalyst for aromatization of alkanes, to a method of preparation thereof, and to aromatization of alkanes having from two to six carbon atoms in the molecule. Hydrocarbon aromatization method consists in that (a) C2-C6-alkane is brought into contact with at least one catalyst containing platinum supported by aluminum/silicon/germanium zeolite; and (b) aromatization product is isolated. Synthesis of above catalyst comprises following steps: (a) providing aluminum/silicon/germanium zeolite; (b) depositing platinum onto zeolite; (c) calcining zeolite. Hydrocarbon aromatization catalyst contains microporous aluminum/silicon/germanium zeolite and platinum deposited thereon. Invention further describes a method for preliminary treatment of hydrocarbon aromatization catalyst comprising following steps: (a) providing aluminum/silicon/germanium zeolite whereon platinum is deposited; (b) treating zeolite with hydrogen; (c) treating zeolite with sulfur compound; and (d) retreating zeolite with hydrogen.
EFFECT: increased and stabilized catalyst activity.
26 cl, 1 dwg, 5 tbl, 4 cl
FIELD: hydrogenation-dehydrogenation catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to novel ruthenium catalysts, method for preparation thereof, and to employment thereof for catalytic hydrogenation of mono- and oligosaccharides in production of corresponding sugar alcohols. Ruthenium hydrogenation catalyst contains ruthenium supported by amorphous silica-based carrier, content of ruthenium being 0.2 to 7% of the weight of carrier, while carrier contains at least 90% silica and less than 10% of crystalline silicon dioxide phases. Catalyst is prepared by single or multiple treatment of carrier material with halogen-free solution of low-molecular weight ruthenium compound and subsequent drying of treated material at temperature not lower than 200°C immediately followed by reduction of dried material with hydrogen at 100 to 350°C. Herein disclosed is also a process for liquid-phase production of sugar alcohols (excepting sorbitol) via catalytic hydrogenation of corresponding mono- and oligosaccharides in presence of proposed catalysts.
EFFECT: increased activity and selectivity of catalysts.
16 cl, 4 tbl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: palladium hydrogenation catalyst is described. It contains reduced palladium compound and modifier, where palladium bis-acetylacetonate is used as starting palladium compound and white phosphorus (Р4) is used as modifier, component ratio being as follows: palladium bis-acetylacetonate/phosphorus =1:0.1 to 1:1. Method to manufacture thereof is also described. The said method is based on reduction of the starting palladium compound with hydrogen in the presence of modifier. White phosphorus is used as modifier and is introduced prior to reduction of palladium (II) compound with hydrogen, palladium bis-acetylacetonate being used as starting compound, at optimum for catalyst system formation temperature of 80-90°С (353-363 К) and optimum for catalyst formation time of 25-30 minutes.
EFFECT: increase in catalyst activity, when catalytic process takes place under mild conditions.
2 cl, 5 tbl, 25 ex