Method of prevention of respiratory diseases in calves

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: the invention relates to veterinary prevention of respiratory diseases in calves. The invention consists in the fact that allogeneic immune serum and furagin sprayed from the calculation of 15-30 ml/m and 1-3 mg/kg weight of the animal three times for 3-5 min every 20 min, and the interval between two subsequent treatments is 14 days.

The invention relates to veterinary aerotolerance.

Known methods of prevention of respiratory disease in calves:

a) inhalation aerosol serum of convalescents at a dose of 15 ml/goal. with tetracycline at a dose of 3 thousand units/kg of body weight, three times, with an interval of 2 days, the session is 60 minutes

b) inhalation aerosol serum of convalescents and nonspecific gammaglobulin dose of 2-3 ml/m3, three times with an interval of 10-12 days, the session is 60-90 minutes, directly in the premises which provides calves with an area of 2400 m3(E. C. Andreev, M. D. Bakumenko, L. B. Weinstein, V. A. Golovko, veterinary science, vol. 50, Kiev, "Harvest", 1979 , S. 9-13).

However, the known methods have the following disadvantages:

this method includes the use is of croorganisms;

it is known that antibodies found in the serum of convalescents, the introduction of animals from prevention to remain in the body for up to two weeks, and therefore the interval of 2 days is not advisable.

b) this method requires a single inhalation of large amounts of serum and jet aerosol generator;

in areas such volume without sealing, it is difficult to create a proper concentration of aerosols serum;

inhalation of large amounts of serum, a few ink jet aerosol generator to provide the desired dispersion of aerosols requires a powerful compressor.

Known technical solutions closest to the technical nature of the claimed object is a method of prevention of respiratory disease in calves by inhalation of aerosols serum of convalescents at a dose of 15 ml per head in combination with tetracycline at a dose of 3 thousand units/kg of body weight, three times with an interval of 2 days, with exposure 60 minutes as donors used recover from acute respiratory diseases of cattle. The selection, preservation, evaluation, sterility, safety and activity of a series of sera was performed by standard methods.

The use of serum-patients with prophylactic dose of 15 ml per head, three times, with an interval of 2 days, with exposure 60 min, also has several disadvantages: 5) if inhalation was carried out directly in the housing, due to the large volume of space and poor integrity, is the overuse of the drugs used; 6) to create the necessary concentration in the air will require a few ink jet aerosol generator; 7) to provide the desired dispersion of aerosols will need a powerful compressor that creates in each ink jet aerosol generator pressure, not less than 4 atmospheres. If inhalation conducted by the chamber method, the disadvantages of 5-7 points exclude what ralom 2 days - minimum.

The aim of the invention is to increase the efficiency of preventive measures in the fight against respiratory disease of young cattle and reduce material and labor costs.

This goal is achieved by the fact that in the proposed method of prophylaxis of respiratory diseases in calves, allogeneic immune serum ingaliruut in the chamber in combination with furagin three times, with an interval of 20 min, 3-5 min, the interval between two successive inhalations is 14 days, and allogeneic immune serum ingaliruut at a dose of 15-30 ml/m3and furagin 1-3 mg/kg body weight.

Under allogeneic immune serum (AIS) team understood the serum of donor animals, containing a complex of specific antibodies, reflecting the dynamics of the interaction between macro - and microorganisms in this herd. The drug has a high gameactive properties, contains chemical factors of nonspecific humoral protection, including complement, specific antibodies against viruses and bacteria. The use of AIS based on long-term preservation of a certain level of neutralizing antibody in serum-reconvalescence blood.

It is generally accepted that the half-life of antibodies passively introduced into the animal organism, is equal to an average of 14 days, and therefore to save the AIS is advisable to re-enter it through this period. In addition, AIS, introduced into the body, inhalation prolong its action. Studies show that AIS not only enhances the immune status of animals, but also has a lasting positive effect on biochemical processes in the body. Specifically, that the increase of the content in blood of healthy calves total protein, gamma globulin, vitamin C, glutathione, increased bactericidal activity of blood serum and opsonophagocytosis reaction after a single inhalation, AIS at a dose of 20 ml/m3lasts up to 7, 10-day, followed by a gradual decrease.

To rescue the lungs in combination with AIS used the drug nitrofuranovye series - furagin. Furagin has a strong bactericidal action. Effective against microorganisms resistant to antibiotics and sulfonamides. Antimicrobial activity furagin associated with its ability to inhibit the activity of enzymes involved in the transport of hydrogen, i.e., causing oxidation in the Oia bactericidal properties furagin.

For hygienic classification of chemical substances, furagin belongs to the class of low-toxic compounds. According to GOST 12.1.007.76 it belongs to the 3rd class of toxicity.

Is the data trace in dynamics for 4 years, the education stability of staphylococcal strains to furagin and tetracycline. If furagin not formed a single resistant strain, to tetracycline with 1.9% in the first goal up to 19.8% for the fourth year. In addition, furagin, like all drugs nitrofuranovye series is the cheapest antibacterial drug. Furagin with a single inhalation dose of 3 mg/kg of body weight, has a positive effect on the body healthy calves, increasing the content in the serum total protein, gamma globulin, albumin, carotene, CA and P, increasing the bactericidal activity of blood serum and opsonophagocytic reaction. Furagin, inhalation introduced into the animal organism, more long circulates in the blood, exerting a bacteriostatic effect for 2 days.

One of the criteria for determining the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic drugs is their effect on the formation of immune reactions. Furagin does not change the title of compost RES increases by 50% . There is a pronounced plasmocytoma reaction, there is a noticeable strengthening opsonophagocytosis reaction. Introduction furagin in different periods of formation postvaccinal immunity increases the resistance of animals to re-infection with homologous culture.

The solvent furagin used propylene glycol and distilled water in the ratio of 1: 4. Furagin soluble in this solution when heated to boiling, the solution thus becomes dark brown in color. Propylene glycol in an aerosol state also has a bacteriostatic effect. Due to the presence difficult to overcome barriers to the penetration of serum antibodies in the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract evolution of vertebrate organisms created additional strong immune system, called local secretory immune system. Although General and local humoral immunity clearly differentiated according to their anatomical localization and origin, they operate in close interaction with each other. Reduction of immunobiological reactivity of the organism leads to a decrease in the nonspecific defense factors and local secretion of immunitaires conditionally pathogenic and pathogenic microflora.

Using prophylactic inhalation of aerosols AIS in combination with furagin, there is an increase nonspecific resistance in calves. AIS is inherent not only the specific properties associated with the presence of antibodies, but also non-specific properties associated with impurities, biologically active substances: vitamins, enzymes, hormones. Contents biological key active substance in the preparation is of course small, but their effects cannot be evaluated only quantitatively, because most of them can participate in reactions as initiators or catalysts of biochemical processes.

As you know, proteins in the body perform plastic, enzymatic and energy functions, and especially important are the first two. When the separate and combined with the introduction of the AIS and furagin increases the amount of total protein, gammaglobulin and albumin in the blood serum of calves. The increased content of gammaglobulin can be associated with irritation RES and primarily with irritation star kupperbusch cells and other mesenchymal cell elements. Increased levels of albumin can be considered as a positive impact on dps is tissue proteins perform enzymatic functions, it can be assumed that the activity of many enzymes in the appointment of AIS in combination with furagin increases. In the experience of watching the growth of content restored glutathione and vitamin C in parallel to increase the protein content in the body of healthy calves.

It is experimentally proven that interaction of bactericidal factors serum and antibiotics is not antagonism, and synergism. Depending on the conditions of experience on the foreground there is the increased sensitivity of the bacteria to the serum after treatment with an antibacterial drug, increased sensitivity to drugs after exposure to serum. Under the simultaneous action of both agents is noted, usually synergenic effect as is achieved by the use furagin in combination with AIS.

The primary enforcement mechanism of bactericidal activity of blood serum and activation opsonophagocytosis reaction is that antibodies passively introduced into the body as AIS, process, surface antigen, making it more convenient for "presentation" Mariage, i.e. formed immune complexes on the surface of the particulate antigen, fixing complement. Complement plays an important the same activates opsonophagocytic reaction, that was confirmed by studying the Alp activity of macrophages - nonspecific enzyme intensity of energy metabolism and protein synthesis in cells, it was increased in the presence of furagin at all doses. In addition, we cannot ignore antimicrobial activity furagin that facilitates the body's fight against microbial factor.

Analyzing the above, we can say that a single inhalation introduction of AIS in combination with furagin, stimulates protein synthesis, as evidenced by the increase of the glutathione content of the recovered because glutathione is an active group of proteins that accelerate the body's redox reactions, increases the content of vitamin C in the blood, activates cellular and humoral factors of resistance of the organism. Aerosol treatment of calves AIS in combination with furagin quickly and provides them with immunity to the infection, which allows better control of respiratory diseases.

The analysis comparing the proposed method with the prototype revealed the following common features:

the use of aerosols serum in combination with antimicrobial drug;

exposure treatments 60 min;originem;

inhalation during the procedure, three times for 3-5 minutes, every 20 min;

the interval between successive inhalations is 14 days.

The method is as follows: before the pen of calves in the aerosol chamber with a volume of 15 m3prepare to work all the equipment. In one glass jet aerosol generator (SAG-1) AIS pour rate of 20 ml/m3as a stabilizer add glycerine 10% of the total. In another Cup, pour the solution furagin, which is prepared as follows: according to the standard technique of Professor Goloviznina Y. C. (Diagnosis and treatment of respiratory disease in calves. Methodical recommendations. Novosibirsk, 1981 , S. 21-29) calculate the total dose furagin, it is mixed with a solution consisting of 1 part of propylene glycol which acts as stabilizer for aerosols furagin, and 4 parts of distilled water, with a total volume equal to the volume of the AIS. For more rapid dissolution furagin, the solution is brought to a boil and alkalinized small amount of H. H. sodium hydroxide, and the solution becomes dark brown in color. SAG-1 tightly closed and strengthen in the center of the ceiling aerosol chamber, where retinova below 4 ATM, and not higher than 4.5 ATM. After filling the chamber with calves, her tightly closed. Observations of animal behavior and visual estimation of the density of aerosols, lead through the window in the door. In the camera, when conducting inhalation, burning light. Next to the aerosol chamber, vozduhovodnogo system is the valve, opening it to allow compressed air in SAG-1, located in the camera. Within 3-5 min intense filling of the volume of the chamber aerosol AIS in combination with furagin. Then tap block access of compressed air, repeating inhalations every 20 min for 3-5 min Time calves in the aerosol chamber 60 minutes Fractional inhalation aerosol drug we achieve: 1) a uniform content of aerosols drug for 60 min, allowing the calves to get a proper dose of the drug; 2) higher dispersion of aerosols, which favors the penetration of the drug into the deep lungs; 3) reduce sedimentation, longer stay in the air chamber of the aerosol of the drug. During inhalation, the lungs of calves filled with antelami specific microorganisms in this economy. There is a readjustment of the furagin lungs and the outside of the skin of calves. After ku, these animals spend 14 days. During this period, when a once-daily aerosol processing, based on 1 calf 1 m3camera, throughput camera is 200 heads, with 2-fold 400 heads and so on, the Second and third aerosol spraying is carried out, turning the calves of the boxes in the aerosol chamber. With distillation calves in the aerosol chamber and back into the box, easy to cope 2-3 people, spending no more than 10 min. away from the boxes to the aerosol chamber from 5 to 30 meters This method allows you two weeks to process all the calves in the calf once. Pronounced prophylactic effect of this method is confirmed by experience in manufacturing environment (see act test). 137 calves from the experimental group subjected to inhalation of the AIS, in combination with furagin, three times, with an interval of 14 days and observed for three months, ill 5 calves. 56 calves of the control group, 33 ill calves. In addition, the daily weight gain of calves from the experimental group were higher than in calves of the control group at 128, the Economic effect of this method of prevention was 3407 RUB, 1 RUB veterinary costs - 23,44 rubles. The incidence of calves dropped 14 times. Economic impact /SUB>) from the lower weight gain of calves

THE2= M3(INCINb) TC

THE2= 5(0,622-0,494)101,83 = 11,7 RUB

2) damage from one of the sick calf

TON1- U23 = 11,7: 5 = 2,34 RUB

3) the amount of the cost of veterinary activities (Cin) was 145,34 RUB;

4) veterinary costs per calf (KU2) was 1.06 RUB

5) prevented the damage from routine

PN1= MaboutTO1TOY-

PN1= 1370,172,34 - 11,7 = 42,8 RUB

6) the additional cost of obtaining by increasing the quantity and quality of products, as a result of preventive measures (Dwith)

Dwith= (INonINPE)n< / BR>
Dwith= (98,82 and 73.2)137 = 3510 RUB

7) economic effect (ein)

Ein= PN1+ Dwith- Cin= 42,8 +

+ 3510 - 145,34 = 3407 RUB

8) the economic effect of preventive measures on 1 RUB veterinary costs (ep)

Ep= Ein: Cin= 3407 : 145,34 = 23,44 RUB

"Methods of determining the economic efficiency of the veterinary activities", approved by the urinaria. The Handbook. Ed. 2, M. : Kolos, 1977, S. 380-400.

Ravil A. Z. and other Infectious diseases of farm animals. Sat. scientific papers, Novosibirsk, 1983, S. 72-73.

METHOD of PREVENTION of RESPIRATORY DISEASE IN CALVES, including the treatment of animals in indoor aerosols serum of convalescents in combination with an antimicrobial drug, characterized in that as the serum of convalescents use of allogeneic immune serum, as well as antimicrobial drug - furagin, which is sprayed into the chamber from the calculation of respectively 15 - 30 ml/m3and 1 to 3 mg/kg weight of the animal three times for 3 to 5 min every 20 min, and the interval between two subsequent treatments is 14 days.

 

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