The sensing element
(57) Abstract:Usage: a device and apparatus for measuring or dosing of bulk materials. The inventive sensor element contains the source and receiver of the infrared radiation (ISR), mounted coaxially in made from transparent to IKI material cylinder. Between source and receiver set screen with a reflective surface facing the source and located obliquely to the optical axis. Emitted by the source stream IKI gets on the screen and is reflected from it in the direction of the outer surface B of the cylinder. When the bulk material stream IKI reflected from it, gets to the receiver, which generates a signal of the presence of the material. 1 C. p. F.-ly, 2 Il. The invention relates to measuring technique and is intended for use in devices for level measurement or metering of bulk materials such as cement, flour, sugar, grain, and other materials.Known sensitive elements containing the source and receiver of the infrared radiation, the optical axes of which are arranged in one plane, and a protective element made of transparent Infrakrasnye solution is sensitive element, which contains mounted on the panel of absorbing infrared radiation material source and an infrared receiver, the optical axes of which are arranged in one plane, and a protective element transparent to infrared radiation material.A disadvantage of the known sensor element is the following.The source and receiver of the infrared radiation in this element must be perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the element. This structural arrangement of the source and receiver increases the dimensions of the sensing element width, as in this case, these dimensions are determined by the longitudinal dimensions of the source and receiver of infrared radiation.The purpose of the invention is to create a compact sensing element.Goal is achieved by improving the well-known sensitive element containing the source and receiver of the infrared radiation, the optical axes of which are arranged in one plane, and a protective element made from transparent to infrared radiation material.The improvement consists in that the sensor element is supplied location is the radiation source and located obliquely to the optical axis.In addition, the reflective surface of the screen may be a conical surface with the vertex lying on the optical axis of the source of infrared radiation, the source and the infrared receiver are facing each other and are located on the same axis.The above implementation of the sensing element allows you to position the source and receiver of the infrared radiation parallel to the longitudinal axis of the element, which gives the opportunity to reduce its dimensions in width.In addition, the execution screen of the conical reflecting surface allows radially distribute the flow of infrared radiation in the direction of the outer surface of the protective element. This allows for increasing the area of the reflective surface to increase the flux of the reflected infrared radiation falling on the receiver, and thus increase the sensitivity of the element.In Fig. 1 and 2 show embodiments of the sensing element. The arrows show the direction of the rays of infrared radiation.Sensitive element contains the source 1 and the receiver 2 of infrared radiation, optical axes of which are arranged in one plane, the example of the protective element is designed in the form of a cylinder 3 with aligned openings 4 and 5, in which are installed facing each other, the source 1 and the receiver 2 of infrared radiation. Between the source 1 and the receiver 2 of infrared radiation in the cylinder 3 has a screen 6 with the reflecting surface facing the source 1. The size of the screen 5 are chosen in such a way that it completely prevented the ingress emitted by the source 1 flow of infrared radiation on the receiver 2. In the sensitive element, an embodiment of which is shown in Fig. 1. the screen 6 is a metal plate located at an angle = 25-45aboutto the optical axis of the source 1. In the sensitive element, an embodiment of which is shown in Fig. 2, the screen 6 is a metal cone with the vertex lying on the optical axis of the source 1 and the angle at the vertex = 50-90about.The sensing element operates as follows.Emitted by the source 1, the flow of infrared radiation is directed onto the screen 6. In the sensitive element shown in Fig. 1, is incident on the reflective surface And the screen 6, the flow of infrared radiation is totally reflected from it in the direction of the outer surface of the cylinder 3. In the absence of controlled material problade is a small part, reflected from the illuminated area of the outer surface of the cylinder 3, gets to the receiver 2. Thus generated by the receiver 2 output signal is practically zero. When controlled granular material in the working area of the sensing element passed through the cylinder 3, the flow of infrared radiation reflected from the granular material falling on the receiver 2, which generates an output signal.In the sensitive element shown in Fig. 2, is incident on the conical reflecting surface of the screen 6, the flow of infrared radiation radially reflected from it. When the controlled material flow of infrared radiation reflected from the annular section of the outer surface of the cylinder 3. Thus by increasing the area of the reflective surface increases the total flux of the reflected infrared radiation falling on the receiver 2, which leads to an increase of the output signal from the receiver 2 and, consequently, to increase the sensitivity of the element. (56) USSR Author's certificate N 11631400, CL G 01 F 23/22, 1988. 1. The SENSITIVE ELEMENT containing the source and receiver of the infrared radiation, the optical axes of which are arranged in one plane, and protective the outer surface, placed between the source and the receiver of infrared radiation at an angle to the optical axis of the source of infrared radiation, is 25 - 45owhile reflecting surface facing the radiation source.2. Item under item 1, characterized in that the reflecting surface is made conical with the apex lying on the optical axis of the source of infrared radiation, and forming a component with an optical axis of the radiation source angle , the source and the infrared receiver are aligned.
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises locating extremums of the profile of spatial gradient of the heat exchange coefficient of the distributed sensor of a meter for measuring temperature profile, which is provided with a built-in heater, by repeatable heating of the sensor and measuring the current profile of the heat exchange coefficient from the formula
where mc, and S are the parameters of the sensor (m is the mass, c is the heat capacity, and S is the area of the outer side), P(z,ti) and P(z,ti+1) are the values of heating power, and are the profiles of temperature measured by the sensor, and are the profile of temperature derivatives at time ti and ti+1, and calculating the current profile of spatial gradient of the heat exchange coefficient . The location of the interface is assumed to be the location of extremums at this profile. The current profile of the heat exchange coefficient is determined from the formula proposed.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of locating and expanded functional capabilities.
1 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises setting heating and non-heating thermistors of meters for measuring temperature profile, determining current temperature profiles, calculating current profile of heat exchange coefficients of the thermistors from the formula
where P(z,t) is the current power of heating of the thermistor at point z; m, c, and S are the parameters of the meters for measuring temperature profiles (m is the mass per unit length, c is the heat capacity, and S is the area of the outer side); is the current profile of temperature of the heating thermistor; is the current temperature profile of the non-heating thermistor, and calculating the current profile of the spatial gradient of the heat exchange coefficient . The location of extremums zm at the profile is assumed to be the location of the interface.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of locating and expanded functional capabilities.
FIELD: test engineering; measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: indicator can be used as detector of presence of fluid in containers, in particular, in high-voltage discharge conduits of different purpose diesel engine. Indicator has housing, radiation source, reflector, radiation receiver and signal processing unit. There is working cavity in central part of the case. Reflector is disposed inside the cavity onto frame with two parallel channels. Radiation source is disposed in one channel and radiation receiver - in the other one. Radiation source and radiation receiver are connected with signal processing unit fastened to top part of plate. Plate is disposed inside case under frame. There hole for feeding fluid at lower part of side wall of working cavity. There is drainage hole in top part side wall of working cavity. Top cap of the cavity is made in form of screw. Frame is connected with case by thread.
EFFECT: simplified design; reduced cost.
FIELD: engineering of equipment for measuring height of liquid column in vessels filled with specific liquids, for example, sewage water.
SUBSTANCE: device for determining height of liquid column in a vessel includes vessel with pipe, measuring device and air feeding device. Also, one end of pipe is connected to air compressor, while another, open, one is provided with protective mesh and positioned inside the vessel near its bottom. Pipe is provided with locking valve and measuring device, for example, manometer, placed after the locking valve.
EFFECT: simplified construction, facilitated measurement of liquid column height.
FIELD: measuring technique; oil industry; chemical industry.
SUBSTANCE: method can be used for checking level of liquid in reservoirs, for example, at petrol stations. At least one measuring bar is placed in container; there are marks applied onto measuring bar. Image of measuring bar is transmitted by means of TV camera fixed to float (water-proof case of camera can be also made in form of float) through TV signal transmission channel to TV image introducing device and digital computing device, where calculation of level of liquid is performed on the base of digital representation of received original image. Float of waterproof case of TV camera made in form of float is capable of free movement in vertical direction when level of liquid changes. Signal received by TV camera does not depend on position (warps) of float as determination of level of liquid is performed on base of image of glowing areas on surface of light guide, which areas are disposed within field of view of camera. To perceive information, camera needs a small highlight, as camera is located close to measuring bar. When using light guides as measuring bars, highlighting is not required. Precision of result of measurement if defined by technological abilities of microscopic roughness application only with specified pitch onto surface of core of light guide and by resolution of chamber.
EFFECT: very high precision.
FIELD: control equipment.
SUBSTANCE: liquid level fiber-optic signaling device can be used for signaling on availability or absence of liquid inside area of measurement, which liquid is transparent for IR-radiation. Device has radiation source and receiver, feeding and removing optical fibers and sensitive element. The latter is made in form of rod having round cross-section; the element is made of optical transparent material, for which the following requirement is met: n0<nair.av<n1, where n0, nair.av and n1 are refractivity factor of liquid, air and rod correspondingly. Length L of rod is described by formula. R is radius of spherical segment of light-guide turned in the direction of media to be measured: 1,5dfe<=R<=2dfe, where dfe is diameter of envelope of optical fiber. R/L relation should meet specific conditions.
EFFECT: higher manufacturability of sensitive element's structure.
FIELD: measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: liquid level meter comprises cylindrical housing (2) whose inner space is in communication with the liquid through passages (5). Float (10) mounted in housing (2) is coated with a mirror layer. Emitter (11) and receiver (12) of radiation are connected with the space of cylindrical housing (2) through optical switch (13) made of a disk provided with ports. The surface of the disk is coated with a reflecting layer. The optical switch has corner reflector. Unit (15) is connected with the emitter (11) and receiver (12) of radiation and drive (14) for rotating the optical switch. The liquid level meter is additionally provided with step cylindrical nozzle (6) having base (7) for fastening to the neck of the reservoir, second corner reflector, and glass baffle (8) that separates hollow cylindrical nozzle (6) into stages. The small diameter stage receives tube (1) provided with housing (2) of the liquid level meter. The ring space between the tube and the housing is closed by baffle (3) with reflecting layer (4) on its inner side to prevent a contact with the liquid. The large diameter stage of cylindrical nozzle (6) receives optical switch (13) one port of which receives the first and second corner reflectors. Emitter (11) and receiver (12) of radiation and drive (14) of optical switch (13) are mounted on base (7) of the step cylindrical nozzle (6).
EFFECT: enhanced precision.
SUBSTANCE: given sign of product is determined by means of the first method of measuring at which the first physical properties of the product are explored, in addition the given sign is determined with, at least, the second method of measuring which is grounded on the second physical properties which differs from the first physical properties, odds of values of the mentioned given sign gained by means of both methods of measuring are determined, and the mentioned odds of values are compared to the given threshold and in case the specified odds of values exceeds the specified threshold, solution on infringement of integrity of the mentioned yield is made.
EFFECT: increase of reliability of product integrity determination.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: instrument engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to control and measurement equipment and can be used for measurement (control) of liquid level in reservoirs. Essence of invention: level gauge includes vertically oriented transparent tube (1) that communicates with controlled reservoir. Float (8) with light source (7) located in this tube forms narrow round (0.2÷0.3 mm) laser beam at some angle α. Round translucent tube there are long flat (planar) beam guides (9) that have two layers. The first layer forms dense semi translucent mirror coating (mirror is inside of beam guide). The second coating layer - light-tight - is complete coating from 3 sides of beam guide that forms cross line code screens (10) from the 4th side. On the one end of beam guides there are photosensors (photodiodes) (5) connected to decoders (3) with digital output through sharpener-amplifiers (4). Float light source (7) is fed by power transformed by high-frequency generator the output circuit (12) of which is wound over beam guide code sensors.
EFFECT: liquid level non-contact measurement, flow metre readings output is performed in digital form to indicators (2) that can be transmitted to computer (1), for instance for production of liquid level dynamic measurement (or pressure drop).
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electrothermics field, particularly it concerns to regulation of process variables at manufacturing of fused phosphates, calcium carbide in ore-thermal furnaces and can be used in non-ferrous metallurgy. Regulation method of melt level in bath of ore-thermal furnace includes regulation of phase voltage and electrode current. Additionally it is measured value of constant component of phase voltage, and level of melt at specified value of current is defined according to formula: H=K*Ucc, where H - melt level, mm; Ucc - value of constant component of phase voltage, mV, K - coefficient, depending on value of phase voltage, mm/mV.
EFFECT: achievement of high accuracy of measurement.
1 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex