A method of making hardboard
(57) Abstract:Use: manufacture of wood-fiber plates. The essence of the invention: plant materials used shredded banknotes with a beating degree of 40 SR, the electrolyte used flocculant, mainly 1,2-dimethyl-5-vinylpyridine the methyl sulfate concentration in an aqueous solution of 0.025 to 0.1% , while the pH is pH 6 to 9, the formation and dehydration of carpet vacuum degassing is carried out at a pressure of 0.09 0.1 MPa to a moisture content of 68 to 72% , and hot pressing at a temperature of 160 to 180 C and a pressure of 0.5 to 2.5 MPa to a moisture content of 0.5 to 1% . table 1. The invention relates to the woodworking industry and can be used in the manufacture of wood-fiber plates in the wet.A known method of manufacturing a wood-fiber plates on Veh. St. USSR N 1420092, class B 27 N 3/04, 1987 (bull. from. N 32, 1988). In this method of vegetable raw materials (wood chips) is treated with a mixture of acids is heated to 180aboutWith, grind in the fibrous mass, add water to a concentration of 2% and re-grind to the consistency of grind 24 DC, then enter a binder containing 1.5% of a phenol-formaldehyde resin and 1.2% of couples is 5 MPa. The heat treatment of the plates should be performed within 3 h at 160aboutC.A disadvantage of the known method of manufacturing fiberboard is spending the precious wood of deciduous and coniferous species, the use of toxic phenol-formaldehyde resin as a binder, the deterioration of ecological purity due to the content of volatile phenols and hit phenols in recycling and waste of water.There is also known a method of manufacturing a wood-fiber plates on Veh. St. USSR N 1381224, class B 27 N 3/04, 1986 (bull. from. N 10, 1988), in which the quality of plant raw materials used raw wood ground to the pulp with a beating degree of 23 DC in the aquatic environment. The resulting mass is served in the pulp pool and create an acidic environment of pH 4.0 to 4.5 by introducing the electrolyte solution. The concentration of the fibrous mass is 1.5% . Then form the carpet, conduct its dehydration to 92% by forced filtration vacuum at a pressure of 0.01 to 0.06 MPa. Impregnation of the Mat is carried out by application to the surface of the binder composition of phenolic resins and hydrophobic additives and subjected to hot pressing at 190-210aboutC and a pressure of 5 to 5.5 MPa. The heat treatment of the plates is carried out at temperleys a waste of valuable plant materials (hardwood and softwood) and the use of toxic binders - phenolic resins, as well as the violation of ecological purity due to the content of volatile phenols and hit phenols in recycling and waste water. The presence of additional process steps, such as coating the surface of the carpet binding and final heat treatment, complicates the technology of manufacture and increases the cost of the plates.When carrying out the inventive method of manufacturing a wood-fiber plates is achieved technical result consists in the saving of raw wood by use of secondary resources in the form of shredded money, saving spending binder, in reducing the toxicity of the plates due to the exclusion from the plates of phenolic resins, as well as to improve environmental cleanliness by eliminating from the process is applied on the plate of the binder. In addition, an additional technical result is simplifying the process and lowering the cost of the plates due to the exclusion of two technological operations - impregnation of the Mat binder and heat treatment.The achievement of the technical result is ensured by the fact that according to the invention a method of manufacturing D. the creators of the electrolyte, forming and dewatering a fibrous carpet vacuum, and hot pressing. New in the solution of the problem is that as the plant materials used shredded banknotes, the degree of grinding which lead up to 40-50aboutSHR, and the electrolyte used flocculant concentration in an aqueous solution of 0.025-0.1 percent . When the pH is pH 6-9. Forming a carpet vacuum degassing is carried out at a pressure of 0.09-0.1 MPa to a moisture content of 68-72% , and hot pressing is at 160-180aboutC and a pressure of 0.5-2.5 MPa to a moisture content of 0.5-1% . Best results are achieved when used as flocculant predominantly 1,2-dimethyl-5-vinylpyridinium methyl sulfate.As flocculant used as the electrolyte solution of aluminium sulphate.The proposed method of manufacturing a wood-fiber plates developed on the popular level and not obvious from the prior art, as in the manufacture of fiberboard has not been recycled materials in the form of money and it was not known. The element of creativity is that the authors identified manifesting the property of cellulose ethers that form the basis of the coupling of particles without the addition of binders.An unexpected effect was also helped found the authors use as a flocculant 1,2-dimethyl-5-vinylpyridinium methyl sulfate (PPP), the introduction of which into the fibre suspension in a quantity of 0.05-0.1% by weight of the absolutely dry fiber. S. C. ) increase the rate of dewatering of the fibrous mass and retention of small fibers in the mesh table casting machine.PPP refers to polymers whose molecules contain ionogenic groups. They are able to disintegrate in aqueous solutions of ions. Such high-molecular electrolytes are polyelectrolytes. With the introduction of water-soluble polymer in the fiber is manifested its ability to adsorb onto the surface of cellulose fibers. This is due to the strong camionnette polymer, which molecule has a positive charge. Its adsorption leads to a fall of potential (Zeta - potential) of the pulp, and after this comes coagulation, i.e. the aggregation of the fibers. The speed of the dewatering and retention of fine fiber on the mesh table casting machine increase.According to the technical conditions at PPP (TU 6-14-22-10-73) PPP is a gel - like mass of yellowish color with a concentration of 60% (mol. m 0,97 10
The PPP solution is injected in the amount of 0.09% by weight. C. C. Other operations as in example 1.P R I m e R 4. Similar to example 1. The PPP solution is injected into the fibre suspension in a neutral medium at pH 7. Other operations, as in example 1.P R I m e R 5. Similar to example 4. The PPP solution is injected into the fibre suspension with the alkaline medium of pH 9, which is achieved by the introduction of caustic soda.P R I m e R 6. Similar to example 3. The difference lies in the fact that, as a flocculant is used, the electrolyte is a solution of aluminum sulphate. When pH of the fibrous suspension is 4.5.Ready plates in examples 1-6 were tested according to GOST 4598-86. The test results for examples 1-6 are shown in table.Thus, the invention allows to obtain the material, on the strength properties are not inferior to the prototype, but without the use of binders, resulting in reduced toxicity plates and polychaete shredded money paper provides one of the main technical results, namely, the saving of valuable wood materials by removing them from production.The claimed method of manufacturing fiberboard is industrially applicable and can be used in industry, because the original components, which is a money waste paper, flocculant and water are public and for the price and material handling, and technology project simple and somewhat simplified due to the exclusion of conventional known process two operations - sizing binder and heat treatment.Tests of wood-fiber plates, produced by the claimed method, carried out in the Moscow order of the red banner of Labor scientific research Institute of hygiene them. F. F. Erisman, showed no toxicity plates.The possibility of carrying out the invention is confirmed by tests carried out in the Moscow scientific-research and design-technological Institute "building industry".The sequence of steps in the production of wood-fiber plates by the claimed method over the crushed waste money, as well as the conditions for these actions, i.e., the specific modes pace is vercoe's certificate of the USSR N 1381224, CL 27 N 3/04, 1986. METHOD of MAKING FIBER BOARDS , including the grinding of plant material in an aqueous environment to the fibers, the introduction of an aqueous solution of flocculant, forming and dewatering a fibrous carpet vacuum and subsequent hot pressing of the formed carpet, characterized in that as the plant materials used shredded banknotes with a beating degree of 40 - 50oSHR, the electrolyte - flocculant, mainly 1,2-dimethyl-5-vinylpyridine the methyl sulfate concentration in an aqueous solution of 0.025 N of 0.1% , while the pH is 6 to 9, the formation and dehydration of carpet vacuum degassing is carried out at a pressure of 0.09 - 0.1 MPa to a moisture content of 68 to 72% , and hot pressing at 160 - 180oWith 0.5 N 2.5 MPa to a moisture content of 0.5 - 1% .
FIELD: wood-working industry; production of pressed building items.
SUBSTANCE: the group of inventions is pertinent to the field of production of pressed building items made out of plant roughage and may be used in wood-working construction industries and other branches of economy. The panel made by pressing out of a carpet without synthetic binding materials consists of a mixture of a birchen bark ground up to a faction of 40-5000 microns and a filler predominantly out of cellulose filaments at the following ratios in respect to the total dry solid matter (in mass %): a birchen bark - 60-95, cellulose filaments - 5-40. In an alternative version of the panel, which is made the same way as the above, the outer surfaces of the carpet are strengthened with lingo-cellulose-polymeric compound including an excelsior and the KF-EC resin with a hardener or an excelsior and triturated secondary polymer taken in amount of 10-12 mass % to the weight of the excelsior. At that the share of the lingo-cellulose-polymeric compound makes 20-40 % to the total dry weight of the carpet. The method allows to use a ground birchen bark without synthetic binding agents for shaping a carpet and its consequent pressing. At that for a carpet formation they use the birchen bark ground up to a faction of 40-5000 microns, and a filler mainly made out of cellulose filaments taken in the following ratio in respect to the total dry weight(in mass %): a birchen bark-60-95, cellulose filaments - 5-40. Before formation of the carpet the filler is moistened up to 18-20 % of absolute humidity and is mixed with ground birchen bark. The carpet is formed with a thickness equal to 200-300 % of the thickness of a finished panel. The group of the inventions ensures simplification of the production process, reduction of its cost, expansion of the range of the List of items.
EFFECT: group of the inventions ensures simplification of the production process, reduction of its cost, expansion of the range of the List of items.
8 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: woodworking industry, in particular composition for soft groundwood board.
SUBSTANCE: claimed composition contains (mass %): wood fiber 86.7-92.5; fiber-containing precipitate 9.6-3.8; paraffin emulsion 2.5; and sulfuric acid 1.2; wherein ratio of wood fiber and fiber-containing precipitate is 90-96:10-4, respectively. Fiber-containing precipitate used as wood raw material represents waste from wet method for production of soft groundwood board and sulfate method for production of cellulose.
EFFECT: method for production of soft groundwood board with reduced prime wood mass consumption without deterioration of characteristics.
2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: manufacture of substantially flat articles, for instance particle boards and other articles of industrial wood residue or vegetable raw materials by hot pressing thereof.
SUBSTANCE: method for particle board production involves performing hot molding at temperature of 120-200°C and under pressure of 2.5 - 30.0 MPa for panel forming. Industrial waste, molasses, concentrated corn steep or mixture thereof are used as binding material, wherein lime and starch-containing materials are added to mixture including industrial wood residue or vegetable raw materials and the binding material before hot molding operation beginning.
EFFECT: increased ecological safety and increased strength of the panels.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: construction materials industry; production of the composite materials used in production of wood pressing masses.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to production of the wood pressing masses exclusively on the basis of the fragments of the vegetable origin, in particular, to the molding compound for manufacture of the composite materials. The invention presents the molding compound containing fragments of the lignocellulose material containing cellulose, lignin, hemicelluloses, free sugars produced from of the hydrocarbonic part of the vegetable material at its steam treatment and differing by the fact, that the lignocellulose material before steam treatment at the room temperature is subjected to steeping by the pure water within 20-120 minutes, which is taken in the ratio of 1 mass share of water to l mass share of the lignocellulose material. The technical result of the invention - preliminary steeping allows to reduce the temperature and the steam treatment duration, which leads to reduction of the power consumption and to the increase of productivity.
EFFECT: the invention allows to reduce the temperature and duration of the lignocellulose material steam treatment, ensures reduction of power consumption and increase of productivity.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: fibrous plate contains base, consisting of at least 30 wt % vegetative fibres; substance absorbing and decomposing aldehydes, impregnating, with its further hardening, near-surface area of base from both sides, and which contains at least carbodihydroside. Said substance can impregnate only one base side. Carbodihydroside is applied on base by sputtering in form of water solution together with surface active substance.
EFFECT: obtaining fibrous plate with property of simultaneous absorbing and decomposing both formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.
13 cl, 3 dwg, 6 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises gluing wooden shavings or fibers together. Note here that prior to gluing, wood is subjected to treatment by bisulphate in atmosphere saturated with steam, or in air saturated with steam for 3 to 8 minutes at 6 to 12 bar. In using formaldehyde-resin binders, articles with extremely lows evaporation of chemicals can be produced that feature relatively light colour.
EFFECT: reduced degree of evaporation.
8 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of composited materials from lignocellulose raw and can be used in construction and furniture production. Proposed method comprises grinding raw material, drying, processing by steam at higher temperature and pressure during time interval sufficient for decomposition of hemicelluloses followed by elevated-temperature compaction. The latter allows thermal hardening of hemicelluloses decomposition products to produce polymer matter that makes a binder for lignocellulose material. Grinding lignocellulose raw material, represented by wheat straw or aspen wood, is performed to 0.2 mm-size, steam processing is carried out at 170 to 190°C. Note here that, prior to elevated-temperature compaction, 5 to 30% by weight of total dry weight of filler are added selected from the group of electrically conducting or coloring material, e.g. natural graphite, aluminium powder.
EFFECT: simplified method of producing composite materials, improved properies.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 12 ex
FIELD: construction industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to wood-working, furniture and construction industry. In order to develop non-toxic plate material, it is proposed to use moulding material from plant raw material without using synthetic binders. Moulding material in the form of plant raw material particles containing cellulose, lignine, easy- and difficult-to-hydrolyse polysaccharides and carboxyl groups is obtained by means of cavitation treatment of plant raw material; at that, it contains easy- and difficult-to-hydrolyse polysaccharides 13-18% and 28-37%, correspondingly, cellulose with copper index of 1.7-2.9 g/100 g - 53-58 %, lignine (Komarov) 31-37% and carboxyl groups 0.6-4.9 %.
EFFECT: cheap plate materials having high ecological and physic and mechanical properties are obtained from moulding material.
6 cl, 1 ex, 5 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of plate materials based on cellulose-containing particles impregnated with glue base on carbamide-formaldehyde resin to be used woodworking industry. Cellulose-containing particles are mixed with glue based on carbamide-formaldehyde resin and acid solidifier. Said cellulose-containing particles represent flax boon. Note here that said glue comprises additionally modifier butanol-1 in amount of 1.4…1.6% of carbamide-formaldehyde resin weight.
EFFECT: production of new structural material with increased physical and mechanical properties.
1 cl, 2 tbl, 2 dwg
FIELD: wood industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used to extract, recycle and process wood wastes in process of fibreboards production. The method includes supplying waste waters downstream pouring-forming machine into an accumulating-balancing reservoir, its pumping along a bypass pipeline into a disperser with simultaneous air supply from atmosphere into the bypass pipeline, formation of air and water mixture passing through the disperser, supply of air and water mixture into a dynamic absorber to create floating complexes, their supply into a receiving chamber of a flotation plant, separation into foam sent to the pouring-forming machine and treated water supplied to the accumulator. The system for method realisation comprises an accumulating-balancing reservoir for collection of waste waters, a bypass pipeline and a disperser to create air and water mixture, a dynamic absorber to form floating complexes, a floatation plant with a receiving chamber, a foam-producing mechanism and a foam-collecting pocket to separate caught fibre in the form of foam and an accumulator of treated water.
EFFECT: inventions ensure simple and cheap technology for extraction, recycling and processing of internal fibreboard production wastes with the possibility of secondary wood fibre catching and return directly into the process cycle without its additional treatment.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex