A method of producing acetylene

 

(57) Abstract:

The inventive acetylene is produced by pyrolysis of crushed solid raw materials, pre-mixed with water vapour in the pulsating within 0,001 - 0,009 with the jet plasma. As raw materials use of organic waste. 1 C. p. F.-ly, 1 table.

The invention relates to the production of acetylene and other unsaturated hydrocarbons.

It is known that hydrogenation of coal at low heating rates of fuel particles 2-50about/Possible to obtain stable compounds: oxides and carbon dioxide, hydrogen, methane, liquid resins. When increasing the heating rate of the fuel particles up to 104-107aboutWith a/c (heat shock) significantly increases the content of unsaturated hydrocarbons (acetylene, carbon monoxide), while the methane concentration is significantly reduced, and the liquid resin is missing.

Decomposition of coal in electric arc and in reactors arc plasma torches in the environment of hydrogen yield of acetylene is increased to about 20-30. % . The highest concentration of acetylene, is equal to 11,5 about. % can be achieved when the system pressure up to 1.0 MPa, the temperature of 4000K and a mass ratio of reagents (0,5-0,75): 1. But Bolshakova in the equilibrium conditions cannot be reached [1] .

The closest in technical essence and the achieved positive effect of this invention is a method of producing acetylene by the pyrolysis of the solid raw material in the jet plasma. The raw material used crushed lignite (ozokerite), mountain tar, asphalt or bitumen. The process is conducted in an atmosphere of hydrogen. The product yield is 18.3 about. % acetylene, 13,5 about. % ethylene, 7,2 about. % methane, about 2 vol. % carbon monoxide, and the rest hydrogen [2] .

The disadvantage of this method is the low yield of the target product of acetylene.

The aim of the invention is to increase the yield of acetylene.

This objective is achieved in that in the method of producing acetylene by pyrolysis of crushed solid raw material in the jet plasma raw material is pre-mixed with water vapor and the process is conducted in a pulsating within 0,001-0,009 with the jet plasma. As a raw material it is better to use organic waste.

A method of producing acetylene from coal or organic waste in electric arc plasma torch is as follows.

Create a magnetic field between the electrodes of the plasma torch. Then create the high-voltage discharge, which initiates the na provides electricity, supplied with electrodes. Existing between the electrodes of the magnetic field will push the formed plasma in the reactor chamber, which simultaneously serves a mixture of pulverized solid fuel with water vapor or a mixture of finely ground particles of organic waste with water vapor. Then a jet of plasma interrupt every 0.001. . . 0,009 with by turning off power supply to the electrodes of the plasma torch. Then again include an electric circuit of the plasma torch to generate a magnetic field and electric discharge between the electrodes, forming between them a stream of plasma, which serves another portion of the sprayed fuel or shredded organic waste. The formed clots plasma torn from her jet directed along the axis of the reactor chamber and the quenching chamber. In these plasma clots in the process of undergoing chemical reactions with the formation of solid fuel or organic waste acetylene and synthesis gas consisting of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, oxides of nitrogen and the residue solids in the form of soot. They are the hardening chamber, in which soot is deposited on the filter grid, and the gases pass into the drive and split it on acetylene and synthesis gas.

P R I m e R 1. The described method was formed by pulsed plasma after 0,001 with its combustion. In clots plasma was applied to the reagent in the amount of 3.0 kg In the plasma-chemical process of pyrolysis was formed about 20. % of acetylene, the rest of the synthesis gas and carbon Performance acetylene of about 600 g/cm (see table).

P R I m m e R 2. Analogously to example 1, but the momentum was formed after 0,005 with burning plasma. The yield of acetylene is about 31. % output of 930 g/cm (see table).

P R I m e R 3. Analogously to example 1, but the momentum after 0,009 with burning plasma. The output of acetylene 26 about. % the capacity of 800 g/s (see table).

P R I m e R 4 (control). Analogously to example 1, but the momentum in 0.01 sec. Practically pulsed plasma could not be obtained, because the power source is an alternating current frequency of 50 Hz.

P R I m e R 5 (control). Analogously to example 1, but the momentum through 0,0001 C. the Plasma was formed due to low voltage at the specified pulse duration.

Thus pulsed plasma, formed by breaking its jets after 0,001. . . 0,009 with combustion is stable, but the maximum yield of acetylene from crushed organize to 0,0070 with pulsed power plasma 12 kVA. (56) Zeldovich Y. B. , Reiser J. P., Physics of shock waves and temperature hydrodynamic phenomena. M. : Nauka, 1966, S. 84-91.

1. A METHOD of producing ACETYLENE by pyrolysis of crushed solid raw material in the jet plasma, formed arc plasmatron, characterized in that the raw materials are pre-mixed with water vapor and the process is conducted in a pulsating within 0,001 - 0,009 with the plasma jet.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that is used as raw material of organic waste.

 

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