Method of recovering iron-bearing materials
(57) Abstract:The invention consists in that the recovery of the iron-containing material is carried out by processing the original artificial or natural iron-bearing materials with gaseous reducing agent in two stages. The first stage of processing is carried out at 250 - 350C in humid flue gases coming from the implementation of the final stage of processing. In the first stage receive intermediate. The second stage is carried out at 350 - 450C in a purified hydrocarbon gas. 2 Il. , 1 table. The invention relates to powder metallurgy, in particular the production of highly dispersed iron powder materials having a high surface activity and used as biologically active agents or catalysts.Known physico-chemical processes occurring during the recovery of iron compounds with gaseous reducing agents, primarily hydrogen. It is shown that according to the principle of sequence transformations A. A. Baikov, the transition to higher oxide in the lowest education at the end of the process of metal passes through the successive formation of all stable in these conditions2O3-> Fe3O4-> FeO -> Fe, and at temperatures below 572aboutWITH
Fe2O3-> Fe3O4-> Fe. However, in accordance with the state diagram of Fe-O system are not only lower oxides and metal, but also a number of solid solutions.For recovery of ferrous materials in addition to hydrogen using natural gas. There is a method comprising granulating iron oxides with subsequent restoration of granules in a purified from moisture converted natural gas at temperatures of 650. . . 700aboutWith, and pre-gas is heated to a temperature recovery.Installed fundamentally important pattern, confirming that the reduction products of iron-containing materials, the content of metallic iron and total iron calculated on the pure substance is a straightforward dependence for each of the options.The closest technical solution adopted for the prototype, is a method of recovering iron-bearing materials with a mixture of hydrogen and carbon-containing gas at temperatures of 800. . . 900aboutC, and as a carbon-containing gas use Ki allows us to conclude, the recovery of iron-containing raw materials with gaseous reducing agents receive powder materials for various purposes with the service characteristics, not exceeding values: Specific surface area, m2/g 13,0 total iron Content, % 90,0 metallization of 0.85, and receive materials the content of iron metal and iron General is straightforward according to each of the options.The purpose of the invention is to reduce costs when recovery of ferrous materials, the expansion of the range of the feedstock and the resulting materials, the increase in the dispersion of the obtained powder materials.Reduce costs when recovery is achieved by reducing the temperature recovery and use as a gaseous reducing agents along with well-known available hydrocarbon gases such as propane-butane mixture; expanding the range of raw materials is achieved using well known materials such artificial and natural compounds of iron as iron hydroxide, Buffy ores Bashkir iron ore district or, for example, waste sulfuric acid processing prokatno ochkovyh materials with a specific surface area of up to 55 m2/g, the total iron content of up to 95% , the obtaining of materials with specific properties, for example, biologically active agents.The goal is solved by the recovery of raw materials in two stages.The first stage is obtaining the intermediate product is carried out at temperatures of 250. . . 350aboutWith wet flue gases coming from the second stage to obtain the target product. The second stage is the final recovery of the intermediate is carried out at temperatures of 350. . . 450aboutWith in a purified hydrocarbon gas.In Fig. 1 shows the sequence of implementation of the two-stage recovery of iron-containing raw material; Fig. 2 - characteristics of recovered materials prior level of technology and obtained by the proposed method.The scale values of the specific surface materials are shown on the left vertical axis, and the scale values of the content of metallic iron on the right vertical axis. Point 1. . . 5 correspond to the characteristic values of total iron in the reduction products.P R I m m e R. the Best variants of the invention can be considered as the restoration of the chemical reagent - Gidaspov raw materials hydroxide of iron and natural raw materials - Buffy ore obey the same physical and chemical laws, as Buffy ore is a natural hydrated compound of iron. So henceforth, these compounds combine the General definition of hydroxide of iron and taken together. It should be noted that Buffy ore pre-screened to sizes of 200 mesh.Thus, in accordance with the scheme shown in Fig. 1 use technological device, consisting of two retorts recovery and gas supply, allowing to supply the reducing gas through the retort in A retort B, and through the retort B in the retort A. retorts "Tandem" has the ability to pre-heat the reducing gas.After the withdrawal of the device on the current mode, the method is as follows.In the retort A (see Fig. 1) at a temperature of 400aboutWith the flow of purified natural gas conducting the second stage of recovery. The restoration is subjected to an intermediate obtained at the preliminary stage and representing the content of total iron 68. . . 73,5% , which corresponds to a mixture consisting of 1. . . 5% iron metal is th material with the total iron content of 90. . . 95% , which corresponds to 80. . . 90% of the iron content of the metal.In the retort B at the same time at 325aboutWith the flow of wet flue gas to restore the original raw material to the state intermediate. Characteristics of the intermediate described above.Then the target product upload, download feedstock, switch the flow of reducing gas and continue to carry out the proposed method. The recovery process can be performed continuously, if necessary, stopping after the next stage.Results recovery of iron hydroxide in the table.For clarity, the data obtained in comparison with the data of the preceding analysis of the prior art shown in Fig. 2. The dependence of the specific surface area obtained by the proposed method materials (curve 1, the scale on the left vertical axis) on the content of total iron and the properties pane, in which are placed the materials obtained according to the preceding methods of the prior art (hatched area in Fig. 2). Clearly shows the expansion of the range of the obtained materials and increase their dispersion. The dependence of the iron content meta is Ala on the right vertical axis), and by the way-prototype - curve 3. It is seen that the materials obtained by the proposed method, contain large amounts of iron metal than the material obtained by the method prototype. Isolation of iron metal in the implementation of the proposed method starts at lower values of total iron. It is allocated to a complete translation of the source of raw materials in the state of magnetite, which is a fundamentally important point.These materials, in addition to the traditional use areas of powder metallurgy, can be used as biologically active substances. If greenhouse soil with roots of seven-day seedlings of wheat absorbs 5,54 ml/kg.h of oxygen and after treatment of wheat seeds known stimulator of Nikiana - 6,59, after seed treatment products recovery hydroxide iron soil with roots of seven-day seedlings of wheat absorbs 6,90 ml/kg.hours of oxygen. More intense breathing system soil-plant testifies to strengthening of the processes of synthesis in the root system.As a result, 10. . . 12 days shortened vegetation period of plants and 15. . . 20% increases its yield. (56) the Author's witnesses is ABOUT the RECOVERY of IRON-containing MATERIALS, including the processing of gaseous reducing agents, characterized in that the treatment of synthetic and natural iron-bearing materials are in two stages, the first stage is carried out to obtain the intermediate product at 250 - 350oWith wet flue gases coming from the implementation of the final stage of processing the intermediate product, and the second stage is carried out at 350 - 450oWith in a purified hydrocarbon gas.
FIELD: non-ferrous metallurgy, possibly production of highly purified powders of tantalum and niobium with large specific surface by metal thermal reduction.
SUBSTANCE: method is realized at using as corrosion protection means layer of halide of alkali metal formed on inner surface of vessel before creating in reaction vessel atmosphere of inert gas. Charge contains valve metal compound and halide of alkali metal. It is loaded into reaction vessel and restricted by protection layer of halide of alkali metal having melting temperature higher than that of charge by 50 - 400°C. Before loading charge, valve metal compound and alkali metal halide may be mixed one with other. Mass of protection layer of alkali metal halide Ml and charge mass Mc are selected in such a way that that to satisfy relation Ml = k Mc where k - empiric coefficient equal to 0.05 - 0.5. Gas atmosphere of reaction vessel contains argon, helium or their mixture. Fluorotantalate and(or) oxyfluorotantalate or fluoroniobate and(or) oxyfluoroniobate of potassium is used as valve metal compound. Sodium, potassium or their mixture is used as alkali metal. Chloride and(or) fluoride is used as alkali metal halide. Valve metal compound and alkali metal halide may contain alloying additives of phosphorus, sulfur, nitrogen at content of each additive in range 0.005 - 0.1% and 0.005 - 0.2% of mass valve metal compound respectively. Invention lowers by 1.3 - 2 times contamination of powder with metallic impurities penetrating from vessel material. Value of specific surface of powder is increased by 1.2 - 1.8 times, its charge is increased by 10 - 30 %, leakage current are reduced by 1.2 - 1.5 times.
EFFECT: improved quality of valve metal powder, enhanced efficiency of process due to using heat separated at process of reducing valve metal for melting protection layer.
9 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: powder metallurgy, possibly production of finely dispersed powder of molybdenum, its composites with tungsten, namely for producing hard alloy materials on base of molybdenum and tungsten.
SUBSTANCE: method provides production of molybdenum and its composites with tungsten at temperature no more than 900°C and also production of materials in the form of finely dispersed powders. Method comprises steps of reducing compounds of molybdenum and tungsten (MoO3 and WO3) by metallic magnesium in medium of melt chlorides such NaCl, KCl or carbonates such as Na2CO3, K2CO3 or their binary mixtures such as NaCl - KCl, Na2CO3 - K2CO3, NaCl - Na2CO3, KCl - K2CO3 at temperature 770 -890°C. According to results of fineness analysis produced powder of molybdenum represents homogenous material having 80% of particles with fraction size 2.2 - 3 micrometers. Composition material depending upon Mo content includes particles with fraction size 5 - 15 micrometers.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of method.
1 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: treatment of powdered, especially metal containing initial material introduced together with treating gas such as reducing gas for creating fluidized bed in fluidized bed chamber, for example in fluidized-bed reactor.
SUBSTANCE: treating gas at least after partial conversion in fluidized bed is removed out of fluidized bed and then outside fluidized bed it is partially recovered, preferably oxidized due to performing chemical, namely exothermal reaction with gaseous and(or) liquid oxidizer. Heat energy of such reaction at least partially is fed to fluidized-bed chamber, especially to fluidized bed or it is taken out of it. Cyclone is arranged over fluidized bed in fluidized-bed chamber. Powdered initial material is heated or cooled in zone of cyclone, namely near inlet opening of cyclone due to using treating gas at least partially recovered over fluidized bed in fluidized-bed chamber, possibly heated or cooled, and(or) due to using system for recovering treating gas.
EFFECT: possibility for decreasing caking on distributing collector of fluidized-bed reactor, lowered slagging in zone of fluidized bed.
10 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: nonferrous metallurgy.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to manufacturing zirconium powder for making pyrotechnic articles, in particular explosive and inflammable mixtures. By-layers prepared powered mixture of potassium fluorocirconate and alkali metal chloride, preferably sodium chloride, at ratio 1:(0.15-0.6) and sodium metal in amount exceeding its stoichiometrically required amount by 10-20%. Preparation involves grinding of potassium fluorocirconate and alkali metal chloride to fineness below 50 μm as well as preliminary recrystallization of potassium fluorocirconate. Charge is heated to temperature 450-600°C, at which reduction reaction starts and during this reaction reaction mixture heats to 700-800°C and reduction of potassium fluorocirconate takes place. Reaction products are cooled to 400-650°C and freed of sodium through vacuum distillation at residual pressure 1.3-13.3 Pa for 0.5-2.0 h, after which they are discharged from reaction vessel and ground. Zirconium powder is washed with water to remove fluoride and chloride salts and then dried. Zirconium powder contains 95-98% of fine fractions, including fraction below 10 μm in amount 45-55%.
EFFECT: enhanced fineness of prepared zirconium powder end assured fire safety of the process.
8 cl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to procurement of metallic device; in particular, parts for gas turbines of the flying constructions made from titanium alloys. To produce such metallic devices, the following range of procedures must be brought into action. Firstly, one or several non-metallic junction-predecessors should be made ready, each containing metallic composition element therein. These need to be chemically restored to procure a multitude of initial metallic particles, preferably those whose size varies between 0.0254 mm to approximately 13 mm, which do not have to be melted down. After having been fused at a later stage, they will solidify. The melted and solidified metal can be used either as a casting metal product or can be transferred into a partially finished product (billet) to be processed additionally until it is ultimately ready. The invention permits to substantially reduce the frequency of chemical faults in a metal product.
EFFECT: procurement of metal products by means of reconstruction of non-metal junction-predecessors and by fusion with a view to decrease the frequency of any chemical faults.
19 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes reduction of fluorine tantalite of potassium with liquid sodium in medium of melted saline bath of halogenides of alkali metals by means of alternate portioned dozing of sodium, and further - of fluorine tantalite of potassium. Fluorine tantalite of potassium is introduced into mixtures with part of the charge of halogenides of alkali metals, used for making of a saline bath. Amount of halogenides of alkali metals in the mixture introduced into melt with fluorine tantalite of potassium constitutes from 60 to 125% (wt) from weight of fluorine tantalite of potassium.
EFFECT: dimension in size of powder particles, reduction of duration of reduction process, decreasing of power consumption for melting of saline charge and forced cooling of reaction vessel.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns rare-metal industry. Particularly it concerns receiving of metallic tantalum by metallothermic reduction of its salts. For receiving of metallic tantalum charge, containing mixture of double complex chloride salt of tantalum - KTaCl6 and potassium chloride - KCl in ratio 1:(0.2÷0.5) by mass are fed by portions or uninterruptedly in the form of powder or melt on melt mirror of metallic sodium, taken in excess 60-80% of stoichiometrically necessary amount. Reduction is implemented at temperature 550-650°C, with speed of charge feeding 15-20 g/cm2·hour of area melt mirror of metallic sodium melt. Received reduced reactionary mass is subject to vacuum- thermal processing at temperature 500-540°C and residual pressure, not exceeding equilibrium pressure of sodium steams at temperature of vacuum- thermal processing of unreacted sodium. After vacuum- thermal processing it is implemented hydro metallurgical treatment of reactionary mass.
EFFECT: exclusion of ecological pollution of environment.
4 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: double complex chlorides of ittrium and potassium is reduced by lithium at temperature 450-720°C in inert atmosphere and high pressure. Received reacting mass is heated at a rate 3-5°C/min up to the temperature for 60-300°C higher the reduction temperature and then it is implemented vacuum separation at a temperature 750-780°C and evacuation 1·10-4 millimetres of mercury.
EFFECT: it is provided receiving of microcrystalline metallic powder of itrrium with minimal content of oxygen and gas-producing admixtures, described by high dispersity.
5 cl, 1 tbl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes heating of charge, containing oxygenous or oxygenous and oxygen-free composition of tantalum or niobium and halogenide of alkali metal with formation of melt. Into melt it is introduced alkali metal at blending and it is implemented reduction of tantalum or niobium at temperature 550-850°C. Additionally amount of oxygen in melt is regulated by means of changing of ratio of components of harge according to relation where n(O) - amount of oxygen, mol, k - empirically determined coefficient, k=60-350 mol, m1 and M1 - mass and molar mass of oxycompound of tantalum or niobium correspondingly in kg and kg/mol, m2 and M2 - mass and molar mass of oxygen-free composition of tantalum or niobium correspondingly in kg and kg/mol, m3 and M3 - mass and molar mass of alkali metal halogenide correspondingly in kg and kg/mol.
EFFECT: increased purity of powder, increasing of its specific surface area.
5 cl, 1 tbl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to production of item out of alloy alloyed with alloying agent without melting. There is prepared a mixture of a non-metallic compound-precursor of basic metal and a non-metallic compound-precursor of an alloying element. Compounds-precursors are chemically reduced to metal alloy without melting. There is introduced one or more component-additive and metal alloy is compacted producing a packed metal item without melting. Also the component-additive is introduced during preparation of mixture or during chemical reduction, or upon chemical reduction. Additionally, an element, mixture of elements or a chemical compound are used as the component-additive. Notably, the component-additive is dissolved in a matrix or creates discrete phases in micro-structure of the alloy and is not reduced at the stage of chemical reduction.
EFFECT: facilitating production of items out of homogeneous alloy without melting its constituents causing oxidation; also composition of this alloy is impossible to produce by any other procedure.
9 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy; methods of production of iron, cobalt or nickel.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, in particular, to the method of production of iron, cobalt or nickel. The method provides for a mixing of oxides of the produced metals and halogenides of the metals, realization of the process in the container made out of the metal corresponding to the being reduced oxide, aging at heating and separation of products. Process is conducted in the installation, the reactionary volume of which is insulated from a contact to the aerosphere. The offered method allows to produce metals in the form of the individual crystals free from impurities, for example from carbon, and may be used both in a laboratory practice, and in a large-scale production.
EFFECT: the invention ensures production of metals in the form of the individual crystals free from impurities, for example carbon, and may be used both in a laboratory practice, and in a large-scale production.
2 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: powder metallurgy.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of iron alloys from iron-containing wastes. Proposed method consists of preparation of mixture of powders and self propagating high-temperature synthesis. 20-25 mass % of aluminum powder is mixed with 75-80 mass % if iron scale to get thermit mix. In process of mixing, titanium carbide, 10-14 % of thermit mix mass, titanium boride, 3-5% of thermit mix mass and chromium, 4-5% of thermit mix mass are added into thermit mix.
EFFECT: production of alloy of preset content featuring high hardness, reduced time taken for process.
FIELD: powder metallurgy, namely production of alloys from iron-containing rejected materials of manufacturing process.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of mixing charge containing thermit including 78 - 82 mass % of iron scale powder and 18 - 22 mass % of aluminum powder; at mixing adding alloyed cast iron in quantity consisting 18 - 20% of thermit mass, titanium carbide in quantity consisting of 18 -20 % of thermit mass and titanium boride in quantity consisting of 4 - 6% of thermit mass; then melting charge due to realizing self-propagating high-temperature synthesis.
EFFECT: possibility for producing predetermined composition alloy of high rigidity, ductility and heat resistance.
FIELD: powder metallurgy, namely production of carbide steels.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of mixing charge containing termite mixture including 78 - 82 mass % of iron scale powder and 18 - 22 mass % of aluminum powder; at mixing adding alloy cast iron in quantity consisting of 24 - 26 mass % of termite mixture and titanium carbide in quantity consisting 18 - 20 mass % of termite mixture. Melting is realized by means of self-propagation high-temperature synthesis under layer of acidic flux with thickness 8 - 10 mm.
EFFECT: high hardness and uniform structure of carbide steel.
FIELD: metallurgy of iron.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of mixing iron-containing components with carbon-containing reagents being technical carbon produced at process of thermal-oxidation decomposition or thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons; providing reaction of iron containing components heated and soaked in furnace with carbon-containing reagent for depositing finely dispersed carbon on surface and also in macro- and micro-pores of iron-containing component volume; creating in furnace protection atmosphere due to feeding nitrogen into furnace; cooling produced sooty iron in furnace. Invention allows shorten time period of production of sooty iron and increase by 2.9 - 4.5 times efficiency of said process.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of method, shortened duration of process for producing sooty iron.
SUBSTANCE: metallic iron concentrate, containing nonferrous and precious metals is melted at the temperature 1400-1600°C with feeding of oxygen-containing wind and not containing flux silicon with forming of metal melt and wustite dross. 70-95% of iron is transferred into the wustite dross, containing less then 5-10% SiO2, and nonferrous and precious metals - into metallic melt with following divided discharge of melt products.
EFFECT: invention provides transferring of major mass of iron into the wustite dross, and nonferrous and precious metals to concentrate in metal alloy, available for further inclusion into the technology of copper-nickel manufacturing.
4 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: disclosed method consists in preparing thermite mixture of scale, aluminium chips and modifiers, in charging mixture into refractory tank, in igniting this mixture and in carrying out reducing reaction for producing liquid metal and slag. Also through a hopper thermite mixture is continuously charged into the refractory tank in form of pressed briquettes of specified length.
EFFECT: increased share of reduced iron and increased efficiency of process.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in preparation of thermite mixture containing scale, aluminium chips and modifiers, in loading mixture into refractory tank, in activating it with igniting and in reducing reaction producing liquid metal and slag. Also thermite mixture is loaded into the refractory tank continuously in form of supply of a continuous compacted core. The method is implemented at the aggregate consisting of the installation for continuous compaction of the core out of thermite mixture and its supply into a reaction chamber of spherical shape; the chamber consists of a case with two notches arranged at different levels, of a removable cover with a port for receiving the continuous compacted core out of thermite mixture and of an actuator for core ignition. Also installation for continuous compaction is made with reverse supply of the core into the chamber. The invention facilitates continuous supply of materials of thermite core into a zone of reaction.
EFFECT: increased share of reduced iron and increased efficiency of process.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in preparation of thermite mixture consisting of scale, aluminium chips and modifiers, in charging mixture into reaction chamber, in igniting mixture and in carrying out reducing reaction producing liquid metal and slag. Ignition of thermite mixture is performed in a reaction pan located in the reaction chamber, wherein thermite mixture is continuously charged via a movable hopper installed in the reaction chamber. Method is implemented at the installation consisting of the reaction chamber with two notches arranged at different levels, of a removable cover and of an actuator for igniting thermite mixture. The movable hopper is installed in the port of the removable cover; the hopper is made in form of a tube for supply of thermite mixture into the reaction pan placed inside the case of the reaction chamber and used for tapping of slag and for clarification of metal surface.
EFFECT: increased share of reduced iron and raised efficiency.
FIELD: metallurgy industry.
SUBSTANCE: obtained carbonic oxide after water and further alkaline washing is supplied to gas-holder. Besides to gas-holder there also supplied is some part of carbonic oxide immediately after water washing at certain ratio, thus providing sulphurated hydrogen content in carbonic oxide of 0.1 to less than 0.2 vol. %. Iron pentacarbonyl is synthesised by using carbonic oxide from gas-holder and thermal dissociation of iron pentacarbonyl is performed thus obtaining carbonyl iron and carbonic oxide supplied to gas-holder.
EFFECT: enlarging manufacturing capabilities, reducing synthesis time of carbonyl iron, increasing output of commercial products.
1 tbl, 7 ex