The device for recording the degree of hydration of
(57) Abstract:Usage: measuring equipment. The inventive device for recording the degree of hydration of the surface contamination dew contains the units of measurement of the surface temperature and air parameters whose outputs are connected to inputs of an amplifier-inverter unit, and a comparator, the output of which is selected by the Executive body. The device is equipped with a registering device, and the unit of measurement of parameters of air contains a temperature sensor, dew-point, and an amplifier-rectifier unit is made in the form of two blocks of nonlinearities and block division, and to the first input of the comparator filed a single voltage and a second input coupled to the output of the recording device, whose input is connected to the output unit, the first input of which is connected with the output of the first and the second output of the second unit nonlinearities whose inputs are combined with the inputs of the amplifier-Converter block, the first block of the nonlinearities associated with the output unit of measurement of the surface temperature. Block nonlinearities in the form of integrator, two inverters, adders and two units of the division. 1 C. p. F.-ly, 2 is adresnini surfaces of insulators in electrical installations, as well as the friction surfaces of various machines and mechanisms.Known for the design of the detector condensate, based on the optical detection method dew using solar cells, which uses the effect of attenuation of the light flux reflected and diffusion of scattered metal mirror surface due to the formation therein of the condensation layer  . The disadvantage of this detector is the impossibility of detection of dew on a non-mirrored, non-metallic and contaminated surfaces.The closest in technical essence and the proposed device is selected as a prototype device to determine rooomates zone  , which contains the units of measurement of air temperatures and the surface of the object whose outputs are connected to inputs of the adder, the output of which is connected to the first comparator input, a second input connected to the output of a large-scale amplifier, whose input is connected to the output of the unit of measurement of relative humidity, and at the output of the comparator is set by the Executive body.The device produces a comparison signal proportional to the temperature difference between air and the surface of the object, with signal temperature between the air and the surface of the object, necessary for the dew when the measured relative humidity and the air temperature is 0aboutC. the Comparator is triggered by the condition that the first signal magnitude is greater than or equal to the second. In this case, the Executive body signals the presence of rooomates zone.The disadvantages of this device is its secure work only if minor changes in time of the parameters of temperature and humidity, which greatly limits the use of the device outdoors. The device does not allow to quantify the transition from prosoupane to rooomates zone. In addition, on the surfaces of real objects are often colloidal fouling, significant saturation which moisture from the air can occur without the dew on the surface.The aim of the invention is to expand the functionality of the device by determining the degree of hydration of the surface contamination in the water vapour of the air.This goal is achieved by the fact that the device for recording the degree of hydration of the surface contamination dew containing units of measurement of the surface temperature and the parameter which is an Executive body, according to the invention provided with a registering device, and the unit of measurement of parameters of air contains a temperature sensor, dew-point, and an amplifier-rectifier unit is made in the form of two blocks of nonlinearities and block division. At the first comparator input filed a single voltage and a second input coupled to the output of the recording device, whose input is connected to the output of the unit. The first input unit is connected with the output of the first and second input with the output of the second blocks nonlinearities whose inputs are combined with the inputs of the amplifier-Converter block. At the entrance of the first block of the nonlinearities associated with the output unit of measurement of the surface temperature.Block nonlinearities in the form of integrator, two inverters, adders and two units of the division. The input unit nonlinearities combined with the second input units of the division, and the output - the output of the first and the first input of the second block division. The first input of the first unit is connected with the output of the first inverter, an input connected to the output of integrator, one input connected to the output of the second unit, and a second input connected to the output of the second inverter. The input of the second inverter is the device is implemented for block - registering device. In addition, completely changed the structure of the measuring unit of air parameters, and the structure and internal relationships between elements of the amplifier-Converter block. Changed links amplifier-Converter block with a comparator. The structure and arrangement of element blocks nonlinearities also differ from those known in the literature for similar devices.In Fig. 1 presents a diagram of the device for registering the degree of wetting of the surface dirt, mildew, and Fig. 2 is a diagram describing a particular execution unit nonlinearities. The charts use the building blocks of analogue computing machines.It is known that the degree of wetting the surface contamination of water vapor the air can be determined by relative humidityplayers of air adjacent to the surface
p= E/Ep, (1) where EEp- the saturated vapor at the dew point and surface temperature.From the equation of Clausius-Clapeyron get the following dependency:
lnE1/E2= B(1/T2-1/T1), , (2) where E1- elasticity of saturated steam p is the ant.After substitution of equation (1) in the relation (2) we get the formula for determining the degree of hydration of the surface contamination pairs of air
p= (eB/Tp)/(eB/) , (3) where Tp- surface temperature. TO;
the dew - point temperature, K.Condensation on the surface corresponds to the condition p1.The proposed device (Fig. 1) contains units 1 and 2 measurements of surface temperatures and dew point, respectively, connected to the input 3 of the amplifier-Converter block of 4, separately connected to the inputs of the first 5 and second 6 blocks nonlinearities. The output of the first block of nonlinearities connected to the first input unit 7 division, and the output of the second block of nonlinearities to the second input of block division. The output unit is combined with the output 8 of the amplifier-Converter block and is connected to the input of a recording device 9, the output of which is connected to the second input of the comparator 10, to the first input of which is filed with single voltage Uto. The output of the comparator is connected to the input of the Executive body 11.The device operates as follows. The signals from units 1 and 2 through the input 3 of the amplifier-Converter block separately is the amplifier of the formula (3), and the second block 6 - its denominator. Calculating the current value ofpis unit 7 dividing a signal from which through the output 8 of the amplifier-Converter block is fed to the input of the recording unit 9, and then to the second input of the comparator 10. At the first comparator input filed a single voltage Utothat triggers the comparator when the moisture level of contaminationpgreater than or equal to one. In this case, the Executive body 11 gives the signal for the beginning of the active process of Rosobrazovanie on the surface.Blocks nonlinearities of the form output functions implicitly as solutions of ordinary differential equations of a special form. Due to the fact that when calculating the formula (3) is determined by the Exhibitor from the reciprocal of the argument, using known schemes for modeling exponential dependence, based on the solution of equations with derivative at time t will lead to an increase of the discrepancy of the desired and generated functions with increasing time interval of operation of the device. From this lack of free block circuit nonlinearities, allowing us to obtain the output function is not time-dependent, as the solution of uravneniya (4).The output 12 of the block nonlinearities (Fig. 2) combined with the output of the first 13 and the first input of the second 14 units of the division, and the entrance 15 coincides with the second inputs of these blocks division. The first input of the first block 13 division connected with the output of the first inverter 16, an input connected to the output of integrator 17, the inlet of which is connected to the output of the adder 18. One input of the adder coupled to the output of the second unit 14 division, and the second input connected to the output of the second inverter 19. the entrance which is also combined with the output 12 of the block nonlinearities.As an example, consider the first block of nonlinearities 5. In this case, equation (4) should be put T = Tp.The adder 19 forms the right side of equation (4). A signal proportional to this value, is fed to integrator 17, after passing which followed the inverting output of the first inverter 16 received signal is proportional to the solution. Dividing this value by using the block 13 by the value of Tpsubmitted in the form of a signal to the second input unit, get the desired output function block nonlinearities. In this case, is the numerator of the formula (3). The output function is applied to the output 12 of the block of nonlinearities as well as the nonlinearities of the signal, proportional to the value of Tp. As a result, the first input of the adder 18 receives a signal proportional to the value (-u/Tp), and to the second input - value Wu/Tp2from which the adder and formed the right side of the differential equation (4).The proposed device eliminates the occurrence of emergency conditions, manifested in particular in the form of short circuits between live parts of different electrical devices in the discharge in air contaminated dielectric surface. In rail transport, it gives the opportunity to predict the state of the surface of rails that will provide efficient loading of locomotives in the process of pulling away, as well as increase safety when braking the rolling stock. (56) 1. Berliner M. A. measurement of humidity. M : Energy, 1973, S. 18.2. USSR author's certificate N 1409910, CL G 01 N 24/66, 1988. 1. The device FOR recording the DEGREE of hydration of the surface contamination dew containing units of measurement of the surface temperature and air parameters whose outputs are connected to inputs of an amplifier-Converter unit, and the comparator to output the values of the device, it is provided with a registering device, and the unit of measurement of parameters of air contains a temperature sensor, dew-point, and an amplifier-rectifier unit is made in the form of two blocks of nonlinearities and block division, and the first input is a single voltage and a second input coupled to the output of the recording device, whose input is connected to the output unit, the first input of which is connected with the output of the first and the second output of the second blocks nonlinearities whose inputs are combined with the inputs of the amplifier-Converter block, the first block of the nonlinearities associated with the output unit of measurement of the surface temperature.2. The device under item 1, characterized in that the block of nonlinearities in the form of integrator, two inverters, adders and two blocks division, second input which is combined with the input of block nonlinearities, and the output unit nonlinearities combined with the output of the first and the first input of the second blocks divisions, and the first input of the first unit is connected with the output of the first inverter, an input connected to the output of integrator, whose input is connected to the output of the adder, one input connected to the output of the second block delanote.
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: working body of indicator is made in form of thin metal membrane which is subject to cooling according to linear law by means of thermo-electric cooler. Direct measurement of temperatures of body and cooler is provided. At the moment of water vapor condensation the speed of cooling of membrane reduces abruptly due to consumption of cold used for cooling of moisture that condenses on surface of membrane turned to atmosphere.
EFFECT: improved precision of indication.
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: device has two units. The first one combines mechanical units and has casing, connection tube with gas duct. The tube branches into the main one and internal one placed inside, electrically connected to each other. Filter collecting moisture is mounted on entry to the internal tube. The third tube having entry closed from the gas flow side is formed above the internal tube surface. The fourth tube is located in the third tube. The fourth and the third tube go out from the main one. The fourth one is connected to pump which outlet is separately connected to cooler and heater. Dielectric layers cover external surface of the third tube and internal surface of the fourth one. Its dielectric properties depend on moisture amount. The dielectric layers are covered with reticular electrodes bearing temperature gages attached to them. The second unit is electric circuit for shaping, processing and recording electric signal. It has generator, bridge circuit, differential amplifier, recorder and two-channeled amplifier.
EFFECT: high accuracy in concurrently measuring humidity and temperature.
FIELD: measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: hygrometer comprises measurement chamber with sight and protecting glasses, pipelines for gas to be analyzed and cooling gas, cool conductor with condensation surface and temperature gage, base, throttle, and control members. The throttle may be mounted in the bottom section of the cool conductor with condensation surface or in the base.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of measurement.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: measurement engineering.
SUBSTANCE: controlled gas is subject to cool down due to passing it through layer of liquid, temperature of which liquid is kept equal to preset value of "dew point temperature for higher hydrocarbons". Correspondence of gas quality according to "of "dew point temperature for higher hydrocarbons" is determined by absence or presence of higher hydrocarbon film on surface of liquid. For the case, the liquid is chosen with density being higher than density of liquid state of hydrocarbons and in which liquid the liquid higher hydrocarbons do not solve. Water, diethylene glycol and methanol should solve in the liquid, which matter normally are present in controlled gas. Calcium chloride water solution of required concentration can be used as the liquid.
EFFECT: improved truth of quality control.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises step cooling of solid body, maintaining a constant temperature at each step for a time period, and step cooling down to a temperature of onset condensation. The condensation temperature is determined from the formula proposed.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of measurements.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: measurement technique.
SUBSTANCE: humidity of natural gas is measured by means of dewpoint hygrometers. According to method, hydrate formation onto mirror is prevented due to introduction of vapors of fluid to gas coming for analysis into dewpoint hydrometer. Freezing point of fluid is lower than -80°C and tangent of angle of loss is small at measurement of dew point temperature by means of SHF/EHF hygrometer. Amount of vapor is measured from reduction in temperature of hydrate-formation at 8-10°C in relation to overload capacity of dew point temperature for tested gas. Methyl, ethyl, propyl alcohols or acetone are taken as fluid.
EFFECT: reduced systematic error; prevention of hydrate formation.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns gas humidity measuring techniques. Hygrometer contains casing, coaxial source and receiver of light beams between which there is mounted flat optically transparent condensation mirror, temperature sensor and cooler unit. One version of hygrometer implies that condensation mirror is provided with not less than two through channels perpendicular to axis of source and receiver of light beams which lateral surfaces are parallel to condensation mirror planes. The second version of hygrometer implies that casing is provided with internal grooves, and condensation mirror with at least one through channel, and lateral surfaces of through channels being parallel to condensation mirror planes.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of measurements.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: physics; measurement.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to measurement techniques and more specifically to measurement of humidity of gases particularly natural gas, containing a high level of technical trace constituents - compressor oil, vapours of desiccant alcohols (glycols), and higher hydrocarbons. Gas is passed over the cooling surface of a metallic mirror and the dew point temperature (DPT) is recorded. At operating pressure the gas is fed into an enclosed volume. Using the mirror, the entire gas is cooled to a temperature invariably lower than the dew point. Thermohygrometric equilibrium is established between the falling condensate and the surrounding gas and mass of the water precipitated on the mirror is measured. The absolute moisture content, adjusted to normal conditions, is found, corresponding to saturated gas at temperature of the mirror, using known tables or graphs which link humidity of gas with dew point temperature at operating pressure. The complete normalised humidity of the initial natural gas is calculated using a given mathematical relationship, and then using the same tables or graphs, the dew point temperature is found.
EFFECT: reduced errors.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to relative humidity sensors. In the device, metal chrome-plated mirror plate is provided with a number of conical vertical holes and conical metal movable electrodes with micrometric thread placed in them. Control of interelectrode gap is provided by movement of electrodes along axis of conical vertical holes. Moisture microparticles allow closing circuit of electrode with plate, which allows measuring dew point temperature.
EFFECT: providing sufficient accuracy in actual operating conditions.
FIELD: instrument making.
SUBSTANCE: low-temperature humidity metre includes light generator for formation of light flux, and two mirrors. At that, one mirror is equipped with cooling system with thermometre to cool its surface when dew point value is being determined. Temperature of the other mirror is kept stable and equal to the temperature of layers enveloping its atmospheres. As light generator there used is semiconductor laser or laser diode, or light-emitting diode, or luminescent diode generating light flux. On the way of light generator there located is plane convex lens. Light flux after the lens interacts with divider so that it can be split into two beams of equal intensity. Beams are directed through plane convex and rod lenses to the appropriate mirrors. On the way of light fluxes reflected from surface of mirrors there installed in series are plane convex lenses and photodetectors. The latter generate the signals proportional to intensity of light fluxes. Outputs of the above photodetectors are connected to the appropriate two inputs of information processing unit. The third input of information processing unit is connected to the output of semi-conductor thermometre. Outputs of the above unit are connected to information board and to cooling system. At that, light flux on its way from light generator to photodetectors is enclosed in light guides.
EFFECT: enlarging the range of working temperatures, improving measurement accuracy.
7 cl, 1 dwg