A friction pad for a disc brake and method of its manufacture

 

(57) Abstract:

Applications: disc brake, in particular for road and rail vehicles. The inventive molding contains fixed on the carrier plate or sheet block of compacted friction material. The carrier plate from the friction block is sintered layer of the individual shaped elements connected by power or geometric circuit unit. Before napressovyvanie friction material on the carrier plate covered with a layer of metal or plastic cover. 2 C. I. , 13 C. p. F.-ly, 12 ill.

The invention relates to a friction plate for a disc brake, in particular for road and rail vehicles, which are made of one or several parts and consists of a deposited on the carrier plate or sheet block of compacted friction material and carrier plate on the side of the block of friction material is applied substrate carrying the layer of the individual firmly linked to a block of friction material shaped protrusions with the extension to the top, and the block of friction material pressed on not what for brakes of this kind are known from DE-GM 8201404.

Such friction linings that have proven themselves in practice, often still require the use of an intermediate layer between the surface of the holder and the block of friction material. This intermediate layer is still to be performed from the foil with a binder or adhesive, which, however, is associated with various disadvantages. Then it turned out that between the known bearing layers and the carrier plate or between the carrier layer and friction block cracks or corrosion, so it may be rust starting from the edges, which leads to deterioration of the braking performance, and in extreme cases - to otpadenii friction lining.

The bonding of the friction material bearing sheet requires in the manufacture of plates of brake heat treatment, occupying a considerable amount of time, which leads to lower productivity. This time is required to achieve good bonding of the friction material from the carrier sheet. If the exposure time reduced, you get a bad connection, as it does not ensures complete heating of the glue. Moreover, when applying the adhesive carrier sheet requires pre-treatment. He must either be polished or specifically what the material on the sheet to cover him to the edge of the block of friction material with a layer of varnish. At this stage of production it is necessary to take special measures to protect the operator from spray varnish when it is applied, and when applied by spraying a significant portion of the lacquer is lost and creates the problem of environmental protection. In addition, there are high requirements for the applied layer of lacquer. All these technological complexity however, do not provide sufficient protection against corrosion of iron or steel carrier sheet. Attempts to increase the stability against corrosion by galvanizing the supporting sheet result in the deterioration of the adhesion of the adhesive to the surface of a plated coating on a smooth bearing sheet, the adhesive does not stick to galvanized sheet.

The invention solves the problem of creating a friction lining, in which when applied galvanic metal coating or other suitable coating on the base plate (support plate) to ensure sufficient strength of attachment between the friction material and carrier sheet while improving the protection against corrosion of the bearing plate. In addition, reach reduce the formation of cracks in the base plate, and simultaneously preserved or improved properties of the damping of the sound.

To avoid nedostachu the surface of the metal plate to cause plating of metal such as copper, silver, tin, cadmium, zinc, chromium or other suitable material, and the coating may also consist of a temperature stable plastic, such as, for example, triptorelin, polytetrafluoroethylene, polysiloxane, silicone rubber. Interaction rough substrate and electroplating leads to high corrosion resistance to the carrier plate, while the rough surface creates conditions for solicitation of friction between the material and the carrier sheet, so as plating follows the contours of the roughness of the substrate. This creates a non-polluting technology for the manufacture of friction linings. Besides improved and simplified method of manufacture. You don't need much time when mass production of the friction lining, in particular for curing of the adhesive or drying of the lacquer layers.

Further it is proposed to provide in the manufacture of friction linings manufacturing base layer of a mixture of materials, some of which (A) has a lower melting point, and the other part (In) higher melting point.

By applying this mixture to perform the carrier layer in the form of patterns of poverhnosti, both macroscopic and microscopic scales. So each individual was obtained by sintering the particle surface relative to the already known spherical surfaces will have a greatly increased surface area without having a spherical shape. This score is high mechanical strength and temperature resistance that ensures high durability molestation block of friction material to the carrier plate.

According to a preferred embodiment provides that the lower-melting point fraction (A) is made of low-melting metal such as tin, soft or low-melting solder or low-melting alloy, such as bronze, brass, etc. and more refractory part (B) consists of iron, sand, ceramic powder, etc., and the melting point of the refractory base () should be below the melting point of the carrier plate. The carrier plate is made of steel, v 2A, ceramic, aluminum, or other suitable materials.

While part (A) is a low-melting, the melting point of part (b) and also of the carrier material of the sheet should be high they can be different, can be the same.

Despite th sintering, and also on the plate carrier. Incremental intermediate layer disappears. Especially when using bronze additionally avoid rust inside and edges, so that increases service life and reduces the susceptibility to corrosion in the most adverse environments.

Moreover, such a friction pad through the use of composite materials has optimal properties under emergency conditions in the field of sintered supporting layer. On the one hand, due to the chaotic structure of the surface in the area of touch with disc brakes is always a mixed material of the friction material, caused by sintering of the material, so you can brake with the remainder of the friction material. At the same time protects the brake disc, as through the use of composite material prevents the destruction of the brake disc. Therefore, due to such a structure is obtained a high ability to annoy and friction until the very end, so improve conditions for use in an emergency situation. The striping of the remainder of the sheath is impossible due to the mutual occurrence of the chaotic patterns of the substrate and the friction material, and is such a friction pad can also be used without a special pass-through holes (apertures) in the base plate, previously used control capabilities, as reliability is guaranteed until the last moment. Achieved this through high rigidity allows for the same strength to apply more thin bearing plate, which leads to weight loss.

Then it turned out that the applied surface structure has the additional advantage that the friction between the block material and the sintered sheet of media when filling the grooves of the carrier of a friction material obtained small air pockets that allow the material to expand into the resulting cavity, so that the reduced thermal stress. Due to this work the incremental increase in service life and reduced wear of the friction lining.

According to a preferred form of execution provided that the fusible part (A) is made of about 30% bronze, and more refractory part (C) from about 71% of iron powder, and applied bronze must have a tin content of 10% . When using such a mixture is obtained an optimal result in wear resistance, noise reduction and corrosion protection.

Preferably provide that the sintered layer of the device is and what now for solicitation and transfer efforts. These gripping elements can be made in the form of cylindrical bars, bars in the form of truncated cones, simply truncated cones, or in the form of pyramids, triangles, rectangular or polygonal cross-section, with separate gripping elements are always located at some distance from each other. The choice of the element type of seizure depends on the desired properties of the friction lining. While the column-like elements leads to the fact that the ratio between the carrier material layer and the friction material in the area of the touch and also with increasing wear remains relatively constant, the application of gripping elements other form when wear increases the content of the carrier material layer, so you can get decreasing wear and tear, so that when there is a heavy load on the friction pad between the two brake inspections properties are preserved.

For the manufacture of such friction material provides a method, according to which, before the press-fitting of the friction material on the supporting plate with sintered bearing layer at him as a layer of corrosion protection for the base sheet by electroplating is applied metallic coating of copper, thereby.

Another way is that with the application itself known carrier sheet by sintering it a suitable material to receive the bearing layer, and provided that the powder mixture from part (A) with a low melting point and part (C) with a higher melting point, and the powder through a sieve or perforated sheet is applied on the carrier sheet, and then the sieve is removed, so that a handful of the powder remained on the surface and in the conclusion is the sintering or powder namyvayut in graphite form with conical recesses in the bottom that extend to the exit, then, the supporting plate is superimposed on the side of the graphite shape with holes and finally produce sintering or powder is applied to the outer plate, which has a number of grooves of triangular cross section, and the grooves are longitudinal and transverse direction and overlap, so that the mixed powder on the raw sheet is applied in a raster cell, then the bearing sheet is superimposed on the carrier grooves side of the plates and the conclusion is sintering.

Using this method of making achieve the following:

a) high mechanical strength and temperaturestable,

b) the Loya with properties of good work in a worn condition, and

d) less cracking due to the use of only a small number of layers.

Instead of the proposed graphite forms with blind holes may also be used in the form of other suitable material with good slip properties. Individual blind holes extend to the exit. You can apply a shape with a through hole, which is then closed with one hand, and through the plate carrying the appropriate pins, and the pins are through holes. Dosage of powder in each hole depends on the degree of immersion of the pins into the holes. Due to this precise dosage and execution of the gripping elements. Optimal material properties are achieved due to the interaction provided a mixture with an appropriate heat treatment in the framework of the sintering process, so as a disordered structure occurs due to the difference of the melting points, combined with the influence of temperature and pressure.

To give the supporting layer some properties of the friction material can be provided that the carrier layer in addition to parts (a) and part (b) contains more carbon (C). Due to the carbon content is set coefficient is significant signs of the subordinate claims.

In Fig. 1 shows a view of the supporting plate top bearing layer thereon; Fig. 2 - section a-a in Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is a view in section in an enlarged scale of a carrier sheet coated with a carrier layer in the form of shaped beads; Fig. 4 is a top view of the suspension sheet of another form of execution of the deposited base layer of Fig. 5 is a cross section along the line b-B in Fig. 4; Fig. 6 is another form of execution of the form of Fig. 5 in the context of Fig. 7 is a micrograph of the section of the bearing plate with bearing layer in Fig. 6; Fig. 8 is a top view of a carrier plate according to Fig. 7; Fig. 9 microphoto enlarged section of another form of execution of the bearing plate with lattice made bearing layer; Fig. 10 is a top view of a carrier plate according to Fig. 9; Fig. 11 is an enlarged micrograph of the section of another form of execution of the bearing plate with powelliphanta exciting elements of Fig. 12 is a top view of a carrier plate according to Fig. 11.

In Fig. 1-5 figure 10 indicated itself known carrier plate or supporting plate of metal and other suitable materials on which only the intended unit of the friction block 16 of molded friction material. In the form of execution according to Fig. 1 and 2 supporting plate 10 on the side 11 of prloa 12A of the shaped elements 13, which is composed of a mixture of fusible and refractory parts, then compressed and sintered, that each individual element 13 has recesses, etc., 14.

In the form shown in Fig. 3 example of execution of the supporting layer 12 consists of a besieged by sintering on the carrier sheet 10 spherical shaped elements 13 with recesses 14 in the mounting area. On the host layer 12 has a galvanic coating 50 of metal, which surrounds the individual shaped elements 13 and aligned with the contours of the shaped elements 13, and the cover 50 also comes in the recess 14, so that a vicious layer of the metallic coating; this turns out good corrosion protection for the base sheet 10. Metallic coating 50 may consist of copper, silver, tin, cadmium, zinc or other suitable metal. Incremental advantage, which gives the plating metal is exact in the sense of the thickness of the coating. This dimensional accuracy is not achieved either lacquer or spray coating. Moreover, the metallic coating is of such uniformity, which is not achieved by other types of coatings. In addition, the contours of the base layer 12 is completely preserved, so that, despite the metal coating is I.

In addition to the metallic coating 50 can be applied plastic coating from a suitable plastic. This coating is indicated in Fig. 3 figure 50. As plastics are suitable for this purpose especially those that are resistant to high temperatures, among others, silicone rubber, triptorelin, polytetrafluoroethylene, polysiloxane etc.

The mixture friction material using the appropriate forming element is pressed in a reduced state on the base layer of the carrier sheet, so that in the process of pressing the friction material mixture flows into the gaps between the individual shaped elements 13 (a disordered surface structure which is shown in (C), and in the cavity, which is formed by the various grooves in the elements. Thus, due to the shaped elements 13 is a close connection between the deformable block of friction material 16 and the bearing layer 12, with mutual occurrence of one into the other. Due to the properties of the material occurs and also the deformation of the base layer 12 and the base layer 12A so that the friction material fills the blank bearing layer cavity surface friction material 11a, and is filling, so that no sludge is knowinge moisture and the associated opportunities corrosion.

Another form of execution shown in Fig. 4 and 5, which correspond to the bases of the design of Fig. 1 and 2, and in the core layer 12A have gripping elements 15 in the form of a cylindrical pillars or bumps type of a truncated cone, as shown in view A. When the gripping elements 15 from the point of view of macro-structure look like columns, while the subsequent sketches and photos in an enlarged scale show that the gripping elements 15 are chaotic with notches, dents, etc., 14.

In Fig. 6 shows another form of execution, in which in contrast to Fig. 5, the gripping elements 115 in the form of pyramids with a triangular, quadrangular or polygonal base. To get here for optimal traction and durability properties, provided that the angle between the base and the side face of the pyramid a and 115 is approximately 60aboutthat is shown in the form of a Century.

In Fig. 7 and 8 shows an enlarged picture using the electron microscope, where you see random patterns base layer 12A and the gripping elements 115 due to the properties of the materials after sintering the base layer.

In Fig. 9 and 10 show another form of execution, in which the sintered chosen to replace the TA 18 overlap each other at their points of intersection 19 and form there an incremental blocks of the gripping elements.

In Fig. 11 and 12 also increased the microscopic scale shows the construction of the base layer, as it is obtained in the form of execution according to Fig. 1 and 2, and in the main layer are formed gripping elements hemispherical or semi-elliptical shape.

Is depicted in Fig. 7-12 actual forms of execution are only examples of performance as when applying mixtures of materials according to the invention for the base layer and/or when using the method according to the invention can be obtained any surface structure with the desired properties.

The metal coating may be plated or thermal means, or by deposition from the vapor. There is also the opportunity before the process of creating a rough surface, or before creating the base layer, to cover the carrier plate is a metallic coating, such as copper. Of the metal coating is then possible to develop a rough substrate.

If the carrier plate 10 is a thin sheet, it can be shaped, for example, with edges that will enhance their own stiffness of the bearing plate 10. (56) F-6M 8201404, 1982.

1. A friction pad for a disc brake mainly for AVO or sheet, sintered intermediate layer, made of shaped elements with hollows, cavities, forming a rough surface, and pressed friction layer on the intermediate layer with the filling of the grooves, cavities, characterized in that it further comprises as a protection against corrosion of the bearing plate layer of metal, such as copper, silver, tin or heat-resistant plastic, the obtained plated or thermally, and located between the intermediate and friction layers.

2. Pickguard for p. 1, characterized in that the sintered intermediate layer in contact with a friction layer, consists of the whole or part of the surface of the carrier material layer and shaped elements, with indentations, cavities.

3. Pickguard for p. 1, characterized in that the roughness protrusions spaced apart from each other.

4. Pickguard for p. 1, characterized in that the sintered intermediate layer contains a fully or partially overlying the supporting plate from the friction material of the base layer and made in the form of a lattice series of ledges.

5. Pickguard for p. 1, characterized in that the protrusions of the rough surface of the intermediate layer is made in the form of cylindri what about p. 1, wherein the irregularities of the intermediate layer is made in the form of a pyramid with three-, four -, or polygonal base.

7. The overlay on the PP. 5 and 6, characterized in that the angle between the base and the lateral surface of the cone or pyramid is 60o.

8. A method of manufacturing a friction lining, comprising forming on a supporting plate or sheet of the intermediate layer of the shaped elements with hollows, cavities with the formation of a rough surface, sintering the press-fitting of the friction layer, wherein the intermediate layer is formed from the original mixture of fusible and refractory powders with obtaining bimetallic billet with support plate or tape, before the press-fitting of the friction layer on a bimetallic billet is applied by electroplating a coating of metal, for example copper, silver, tin, cadmium, zinc, chromium, or of heat-resistant plastic.

9. The method according to p. 8, characterized in that the refractory component of the mixture to take the powder with a melting point below the melting point of the carrier sheet.

10. The method according to p. 8, characterized in that the refractory component in the original smestaj component in the original mixture take powders of low-melting metal, for example, tin, or low-melting alloy, such as bronze or brass.

12. The method according to p. 8, wherein the initial mixture is prepared from about 30 wt. % bronze and 70 wt. % iron powders.

13. The method according to p. 12, characterized in that bronze contains 10% tin.

14. The method according to PP. 8 to 11, characterized in that the starting mixture further comprises carbon.

15. The method according to p. 8, wherein the forming of the intermediate layer before sintering is carried out by applying the powder mixture in a sieve or perforated sheet, previously located on the surface of the carrier plate, and the subsequent raising of the sieve or perforated sheet with the formation of tubercles mixture on a support sheet, or by placing the powder mixture in a graphite form of blind holes extending outwards, and the overlay carrier sheet on the side of the form, with holes, or by placing the powder mixture in the form having grooves, preferably of triangular cross section, located in longitudinal and transverse directions crossing and overlapping the side with the holes in the carrier sheet, the powder mixture can be applied by rubbing.

 

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