A method of producing coatings
(57) Abstract:The inventive substrate of aluminum or its alloys is applied Nickel layer detonation method, then perform electron beam processing at an accelerating voltage of 30 kV. the scanning speed of 200 mm/min, the beam current of 15 to 30 mA. 3 RFP f-crystals, 1 table.
FIELD: machine engineering, namely manufacture of three-dimensional cermet articles, possibly in stomatology for making dentures.
SUBSTANCE: process comprises steps of applying ceramic mass with thickness more than 50 micrometers onto surface of stainless steel or alloy; performing sintering in air in quasi-homogenous electromagnetic field at presence of electric and magnetic components of SHF electromagnetic irradiation. Frequency range 1 -30 GHz; amplitude of electric field E0 is in range 400 -1600 V/cm. Amplitude of magnetic field H0 is in range 0.8 - 3.5 A/cm. Maximum temperature of sintering is in range 800 - 1100° C.
EFFECT: enhanced adhesion of materials, possibility for joining materials in atmosphere at standard pressure.
5 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly manufacture of laminate articles such as sleeves, namely for fuel elements of nuclear reactors.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of assembling blank of core and blank of envelope; applying lubricant onto surface of built-up blank; sizing built-up blank by deforming its pipe branches at necking walls; beading; welding beaded end of built-up blank and subjecting it to thermal diffusion treatment; after beading drying built-up blank while selecting minimum temperature of drying no less than ignition temperature of the most viscous oil in composition of lubricant used at sizing blank and selecting maximum temperature of drying no more than recrystallization temperature of material of envelope of laminate article.
EFFECT: lowered degree of gas saturation of articles, reduced number of articles rejected by swollen zones due to providing evaporation of lubricant penetrated in built-up blank and separation of gaseous evaporation products to outside.
FIELD: production of anti-friction self-lubricating materials, possibly used in machine engineering, aircraft making, instrument making, chemical and other industry branches for making dry friction assemblies.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of preliminarily bronzing plate of low carbon steel; scorching bronze-brass gauze in sealed container; filing pores of scorched gauze with fluoroplastic composition and sintering it. Bronze powder for bronzing plates are prepared by heating copper and tin mixture under coal charge in sealed container. Low carbon steel plates are preliminarily bronzed due to scorching and fusing prepared bronze powder. Gauze pores are filled (by pressing-in) with powder charge containing fluoroplast-4 and lead. Then plate surface non-protected by means of fluoroplast composition is aluminized due to applying layer of dust aluminum through layer of phosphoric acid. Sintering is performed in air under pressure created due to expansion of fluoroplast-4.
EFFECT: simplified manufacturing process, improved properties of material.
FIELD: production of bimetallic anti-friction materials, namely processes for sintering powder systems, possibly in machine engineering for making friction assemblies and retainers of rolling bearings.
SUBSTANCE: process comprises steps of bronzing sheet of low-carbon steel; sintering to it bronze-brass gauze and filling its pores with PTFE; simultaneously performing bronzing of low-carbon steel and scorching of bronze-brass gauze to bronzed steel in sealed container at temperature 850 - 860°C; filling pores of gauze with bronze powder and subjecting semi-finished material to heat treatment in sealed container at temperature 880 - 900°C; filling pores of bronze layer with ultra-finely divided PTFE by rubbing and then rolling material between rollers.
EFFECT: simplified manufacturing process, improved technical properties of material.
FIELD: powder metallurgy, namely production of antifriction layer of sliding bearing assemblies, possibly manufacture of bearing assemblies of submerged electrically driven pumps.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of working base of bearing till roughness degree 320 - 160 micrometers; placing antifriction material onto worked surface and inserting it into furnace; then soaking it in furnace in protection-reduction medium at first at temperature lower than melting temperature of antifriction material till complete reduction of oxides on surface and then at melting temperature of antifriction material. Then cooling is realized at crystallization from downwards to upwards.
EFFECT: improved quality of bearing assembly.
5 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: manufacture of multi-layer metal-fluoroplastic bands.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes forming porous layer from bronze, impregnation of it with anti-friction compound containing fluoroplastic and calibration of band to required size at simultaneous face-surfacing of anti-friction layer containing fluoroplastic; forming of porous bronze layer, impregnation of it with anti-friction compound containing fluoroplastic and face-surfacing of anti-friction layer are performed at continuous passage of band through multi-zone conveyer furnaces; used as base is steel band with brass coat; bronze porous layer is formed from brass forming intermediate copper-zinc-tin eutectic layer on interface by passing band through zones of multi-zone conveyer furnace at rate of (50±5) m/h and heating temperature of 700°C, 790°C and 850°C±10°C and cooling temperature of 780°C, 710°C, 660°C±10°C, respectively followed by forced cooling to 500°C in reducing medium.
EFFECT: enhanced mechanical strength and wear resistance; reduction of labor consumption.
FIELD: powder metallurgy, namely application of coatings of metallic powders for restoring worn friction parts.
SUBSTANCE: method for restoring worn bushes of sliding bearing assemblies comprises steps of charging powder into cavity between tool and inner surface of bush; sintering powder; before sintering simultaneously pressing over and expanding bush in jig by means of tool pressing powder.
EFFECT: simplified restoration process, enhanced efficiency of method.
3 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: powder metallurgy; production of part components; manufacture of structural and wear-resistant parts for mechanical engineering, instrumentation engineering, mining, processing and other industries.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method of connecting large parts made from powder includes preparation of iron-based burden and molding of parts, after which assembly is performed; partition which is impermeable for copper-based melt is laid between surfaces being connected. Then, layer of dross made on base of iron powder prepared from bidispersive powders is applied on surfaces of parts being connected. Copper-based impregnating briquettes are placed at the top and at the bottom of assembly and sintering is performed at simultaneous infiltration.
EFFECT: enhanced strength of connection and enhanced stability of properties.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: powder metallurgy; application of high-temperature sealing coats for gas-turbine engines.
SUBSTANCE: reinforcing layer is made in form of woven-type gauze whose lower ridges are secured on surface of part; wire is secured on upper ridges of gauze perpendicularly to surface of part and is cut at height equal to or lesser than thickness of sealing coat. Materials of gauze and wire are close by chemical composition to composition of material of part. Sealing coat is applied in form of slip at moisture content of 28-32% at the following ratio of components, mass-%: zirconium dioxide stabilized by 7% of yttrium oxide of 100-250 mcm fraction, 10-15; boron nitride of 450-630 mcm fraction, 15-25; nichrome fiber, 3-5m long, 9-12; the remainder being zirconium dioxide stabilized by 7% of yttrium oxide of activated dust-like fraction. Then coat is subjected to drying and hot compacting in vacuum at heating to temperature of 1100°C.
EFFECT: enhanced adhesion and cohesion of ceramic coat with metal of part.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly manufacture of bimetallic articles, namely fuel elements of nuclear reactors.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of assembling core blank and envelope blank; calibrating assembled blank due to taper drawing of wall of envelope; sealing assembled blank and subjecting it to thermal diffusion working. Assembled blank is twice subjected to axial pressure action, at first after assembling and then after calibration of assembled blank while applying pressure with effort sufficient for deformation of bottom portion of envelope blank but not exceeding lengthwise stability effort of core blank.
EFFECT: lowered gas saturation of assembled blanks, high quality joining of end surface of core blank and inner surface of bottom portion of envelope blank.
FIELD: mechanical engineering, restoration of machine parts.
SUBSTANCE: method is realized by applying at least one coating by means of electric spark alloying. Wear resistance coating is applied with use of electrode of boron alloyed intermetallide Ni3Al containing, mass %: Al, 2 - 15; B, 0.02 - 02; Ni, the balance. In variants of invention electrode contains in addition dispersed particles of Si3 N4. Before applying on part layer of wear resistant coating, nickel layer with thickness 20 - 50 micrometers is applied as intermediate adhesion barrier. Coated parts are subjected to mechanical working. Restoration is realized for parts with wear degree up to 100 micrometers or with wear degree 100 - 300 micrometers.
EFFECT: possibility for restoring parts, improving their wear resistance and increasing adhesion strength of applied coating with base material of part.
6 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: processes and equipment for joining by rolling different type liquid and solid metals, possibly manufacture of clad metallic sheets and articles in different branches of industry.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of pouring melt metal onto surface of different solid main metal coated with flux for soldering; rolling metals under pressure for rapid cooling of melt metal, crystallizing it and joining with surface of solid main metal due to metallurgical joining between two or more metals. Plant for performing the method includes mounted according to desired order: machine for uncoiling sheet metal from coil; vessel with soldering flux; unit for drying and heating; casting nozzle; rolls with inner cooling and machine for coiling sheet metal. Ladle for melt metal is arranged over casting nozzle. Main frame of plant is arranged under said ladle.
EFFECT: enhanced strength of different metals joints, low cost of products, improved efficiency, high quality of sheet metal, relatively small cost of plant, decreased power consumption.
14 cl, 6 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: many branches of industry; methods of fritting and polymerization in the furnace of the powder coatings.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of heating and fritting of the polymeric powder coatings applied on articles and may be used in many branches of industry for painting articles of the various configurations. The method includes: charging by batches of the articles in the furnace, heating with realization of polymerization of their powdery coatings and refrigeration. Before the heating operation in the working space of the furnace create rarefaction by means of preliminary switching on the ventilation and circulation system. After the heating up to the preset temperature conduct the periodical switching-on / switching-off of the electric heater of the furnace. At that the blowout of the air from the furnace is conducted. For keeping the preset temperature over the whole operational volume of the furnace through at least one pilot hole in the furnace the portions of the cold air are periodically pumped in. Then conduct refrigeration, at which the electric heater is finally switched off, and the air saturated with the products of polymerization is removed from the furnace, create the rarefaction and feed the new batch of the cold air into the furnace. For realization of the heating they use the electric heater made out of the steel sheets and the square-shaped metallic tubes. The tubes have holes used for arrangement in them of the tubular rods supporting the spirals. The tubular rods supporting the spirals of the electric heater are made out of the mullitesiliceous ceramics. The technical result of the invention is improvement of the quality of the articles treated in the furnace with simultaneous improvement of the process of heating of the furnace, the air ventilation and circulation.
EFFECT: the invention ensures improvement of the quality of the articles treated in the furnace at simultaneous improvement of the process of heating of the furnace, the air ventilation and circulation.
8 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: foundry, centrifugal casting in particular; manufacture of multi-layer vessels, pipe lines, bottles, connecting parts and other articles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes placing the thermit mixture in cavities of article, followed by rotation, initiating of exothermic reaction, melting of thermit mixture, cooling of external surface of article and crystallization of molten thermit mixture. Thermit mixture contains additionally fluid material. Cooling of external surface of article is continued till temperature of its internal surface gets equal to melting point of metal of article.
EFFECT: reduced thickness of coat; improved control of heat removal.
FIELD: method of application of metal coats on detachable contact connectors.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method is used for stabilization of contact resistance of connectors at level of initial assembly during entire period of operation in parts made from copper, aluminum and their alloys during assembly, operation and repair of electrical plants and plants manufacturing electrical equipment. Proposed method includes cleaning and degreasing the contact surfaces, applying liquid flux on these surfaces, preheating the surfaces and applying the metal coat; preheating is continued to temperature of 40-45C; metal coat is applied by means of local contact fusion and gallium alloy having melting point not above 30C is applied as metal coat at thickness not exceeding 0.1 mm.
EFFECT: reduction of contact resistance.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: electron-beam surfacing of flat and cylindrical surfaces, possibly manufacture of new parts and restoration of worn surfaces of parts operating at condition of intensified abrasive wear in combination with impact loads.
SUBSTANCE: in order to enlarge manufacturing possibilities of method, on surface of welded-on article melting zone by means of electron beam is created. Powder composition material for surfacing is fed to melting zone. Surfaced article is moved and powder material for surfacing is fed normally relative to motion direction of article. As coating is applied unfocused electron beam is used for acting upon surface of said coating without supply of material for surfacing. It provides separation of dispersed particles of strengthener from solid solution and formation of multimodal structure of surfacing along its whole thickness.
EFFECT: enlarged manufacturing possibilities of method.
1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns method of operating layers receiving on surfaces of hollow barrels and can be used for bimetallic sleeves manufacturing with coating simultaneously on internal and external surfaces or only on external surface, and also for such details recovery. In detail wall there are implemented radial canals, then sintered batch is placed in its chamber. Detail is implemented lengthwise less than matrix length and installed with specified radial clearance into matrix by means of end cover with forming of end air clearances. Assembly is rotated about axis with simultaneous heating till mixture melting temperature. In covers there is implemented at least one hole connecting matrix chamber to atmosphere on radius equal to difference between external detail surface and hole. Heating is ended as only from hole it is start splash of melted metal.
EFFECT: covering refining at the expense of probable air inclusion formation in working layer of weld removal and discard is eliminated.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of coating on steel strip. Steel strip allows following composition, wt % C≤1.6, Mn 6-30, Al≤10, Ni≤10, Cr≤10, Si≤8, Cu≤3, Nb≤0.6, Ti≤0.3, V≤0.3, P≤0.1, B≤0.01, N≤1.0, iron and unavoidable admixtures - the rest. Primarily on steel strip it is applied aluminium layer, then it is implemented annealing, in process of which it is formed interlayer, consisting, mainly, from aluminium and iron, and it is coated molten metal, consisting of Al/Si-alloy, aluminium, zinc or zinc alloy.
EFFECT: obtaining steel strips with metallic coating, allowing high corrosion stability and well welding characteristics.
10 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes treatment of contact surfaces to remove oxide film, heating of contact surfaces and application of metal coating from gallium alloy by local contact melting. Removal of oxide film is made by chemical treatment of contact surfaces with the first etching solution with its subsequent neutralisation and cleaning of contact surfaces from etching results. Then mechanical cleaning of contact surfaces is carried out by polishing, afterwards contact surfaces are heated, metal coating of gallium alloy is applied in the medium of the second etching solution, and subsequent neutralisation of remains of the second etching solution is carried out.
EFFECT: improved loading capacity of knock-down electric contact joint during transfer of electric energy without change in design of contact joint, while the temperature mode of operation is within the permissible limit.
8 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: steel tool or carbide tool treatment method involves application of diffusion coating by saturation of steel or carbide tool in eutectic lead-lithium melt with addition of copper and nickel so that the coating is obtained. After application of coating the tool is strengthened by its being aged on material with hardness of 10 to 18 HRCe at value of contact stresses of 2000 to 5000 MPa during 2-5 minutes.
EFFECT: obtaining the coating having high stability to adhesion hardness, mechanical abrasion and deformation at maintaining positive operating properties of nickel-copper coating.
2 tbl, 2 ex