Device for measuring the intensity of gas exchange in the soil samples
(57) Abstract:Use in soil science, in particular for measuring the intensity of gas exchange. The inventive device has an exposure chamber made with the input 5 and the output b patumtani for sampling gas Exposure chamber is detachable from the top 3 and the bottom 1 of the glasses. At the bottom of the Cup 1 is placed sampler 2 in the form of a hollow cylinder with a longitudinal Windows 4 on the side surface. The cups are connected by flanges 7. 8 and 9 with the strips 10 and 11. 1 PLN. f-PI, 1 Il.
SUBSTANCE: in method samples of soil are picked, density and humidity are determined in natural condition, as well as density of soil particles, overburden pressure at the depth of sample picking and preconsolidation pressure. Additionally humidity is determined at liquid limit, as well as size composition, content and density of particles of fine, with size of less than 2 mm, and coarse, with size of more than 2 mm, fractions, steady-state density of sample. Balance pressure for overburden density of picked soil sample is defined according to the formula: coefficient of repacking is determined by ratio of picked sample density and balance density for overburden pressure: coefficient of tension by ratio of balance and overburden pressures: and then, having obtained values of these coefficients, extent of sample repacking is defined.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and accuracy, reduced labour intensiveness and duration of balance pressure determination, wider interval of pressure values and preconsolidation properties.
3 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydrotechnical construction, in particular to timber-ship passing structures. Proposed device comprises ship carrying chamber, moving along inclined rail tracks, generator of time signals, which includes quartz generator, frequency divider, pulse counter with controlled conversion factor, control circuit counter, a signal “End of operation”, “Acceleration” key, acceleration signal generator, acceleration signals power amplifier, "Acceleration" relay, "Braking" key, braking signals generator, braking signals power amplifier, "Braking" relay. Output of the quartz generator is connected to input of frequency divider. Output of frequency divider is connected to input of pulse counter with controlled conversion factor. Counter control circuit output is connected to input of pulse counter with controlled conversion factor. Output of pulse counter with controlled conversion factor is connected to input of “End operation” signal generator. "Acceleration" key is connected to input of acceleration signals generator. Acceleration signals generator outputs are connected to input of pulse counter with controlled conversion factor and input of acceleration signals power amplifier. Acceleration signals power amplifier output is connected to input of "Acceleration" relay. "Braking" key is connected to input of braking signals generator. Braking signals generator outputs are connected to input of pulse counter with controlled conversion factor and braking signals power amplifier input. Braking signals power amplifier output is connected to input of "Braking" relay. Outputs of "Acceleration" and "Braking" relays are connected to actuators of vessel inclined lift model. Outputs of "End operation" signal generator are connected to inputs of acceleration signal generator and braking signal generator input.
EFFECT: invention allows to fully perform experimental research of transient of mobile processes occurring at uneven operating modes of inclined carrying lifts ship chamber with crosswise arrangement in transportation of vessels and rafts with possibility of changing tracks inclination.
1 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, method used for determining of phosphorous fertilizer demands in the course of growing of cereals and leguminous crops.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing annual agrochemical investigation of soil arable layer; determining labile phosphorus content and availability of phosphorus to plant for forming of planned yields by providing chemical analyses for capability of soil to mobilization of labile phosphorus by using potassium phosphate solution, as well as by calculating doses of used phosphorous fertilizer from respective formula, with annual agrochemical investigation being provided in arable layer at 0-20 cm depth; additionally determining content of labile phosphorus delivered into soil in the course of mineralization of soil organic substance and plant remains of preceding crop.
EFFECT: reduced labor consumption, increased precision in diagnosis and regulation of phosphorous feeding of plants.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, agronomic chemistry, agronomic ecology, soil biology, and chemical analysis of soil.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining content of mineral nitrogen and potentially mineralizable nitrogen provided by soil incubation at temperature of 34-36°C for 7-8 days; converting mineral and potentially mineralizable soil nitrogen to solution by boiling incubated soil suspension in water in the ratio of 1:5 during 20 min for sandy, sandy loam and medium loamy soil and during 30 min for heavily loamy soil; subjecting aqueous extraction of soil sample to analysis by means of Kieldal apparatus for determining nitrogen content actually available to plants under light alkaline hydrolysis conditions; determining nitrogen content potentially available to plants under drastic alkaline hydrolysis conditions; forecasting fertilizer nitrogen dose on the basis of nitrogen content actually available to plants for predetermined yield of specific crop with the use of coefficient of assimilation by plants of soil nitrogen and fertilizers, and amount of nitrogen needed for production of 1 centner/hectare of product from formula: ,
where D is forecast fertilizer nitrogen dose; N is kg/hectare; Yc is crop yield for which fertilizer nitrogen dose is calculated, centner/hectare; C is amount of nitrogen needed for production of 1 centner/hectare of product of designed crop, kg/hectare; Naa is amount of nitrogen in soil actually available to plants, kg/hectare; 0.4 is coefficient of usage by plants of available nitrogen from fertilizer, %. Method may be used for evaluation of humic podzol soil with regard to its nitrogenous state, forecasting of need for nitrogenous fertilizer by plants, determining stock of nitrogen available to plants and forecasting of crop yields. Method does not require prolonged observations and controlling of soil temperature during plant growing periods.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, elimination of employment of expensive bulky equipment for performing forecasting process.
5 dwg, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method comprises using microscopic chlorella algae as a biological test, distributing the suspension of the cells of chlorella over the paper filter on the surface of the soil plate in the Petri caps, obtaining chlorophyll extract, determining optical density of the extract, and comparing it with the reference one. The 20-ml volume of the suspension of the chlorella cells are distributed inside the Petri caps. The caps are covered and set into a greenhouse. The caps are exposed to light during seven days, and then the filters are removed from the caps, dried at a temperature of 38-42°С, grinded, and extracted. The allelopathy activity of the soil is expressed in per cents of the optical density of the extract on the reference one, in which chlorella is grown on the filter, which is set onto four layers of moistened filtering paper or cotton.
EFFECT: reduced labor consumptions and enhanced reliability of determining.
FIELD: agriculture, soil science.
SUBSTANCE: alteration in soil properties during restoring the carcass of organo-mineral gel should be detected by measuring the difference of potentials between the soil and soil-contacting ion-exchange membrane. The method considerably simplifies and accelerates evaluating the carcass of organo-mineral soil gel.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of evaluation.
2 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method contains sampling soils and analysis of samples using X-ray-fluorescent technique. Content of humus is judged of from arsenic-to-cobalt ratio on preliminarily plotted calibration graph.
EFFECT: increased reliability and rapidity of analytical procedure.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes performing compression tests according to system "cylindrical hollow sample - backfill material" in rigid matrices with different values of relation of height of backfill material, filling space between walls of rigid cylindrical matrix and sample, to sample height, which has relation of height to diameter no less than 2. sample is set in matrices in such a way, that its axis passes through matrix axis. Unified hardness passport is built in coordinates "horizontal stress - vertical stress" of rock sample. Tests of rock samples for sliding are additionally performed during compression with loads above limit of lengthy hardness of rock with construction of sliding curves in coordinates "load level - vertical deformations speed logarithm", after that rock samples in matrix are enveloped in backfill material and same tests are performed again. Relative reaction of backfill massif is determined from mathematical expression. Alignment chart is built for dependence of relative reaction of backfill material from relation of its height to height of rock sample for various levels of system load. Alignment chart is used to determine relative reaction of backfill massif during its long interaction with rocks, enveloping a mine.
EFFECT: higher reliability, higher trustworthiness, higher quality of control over processes of deformation and destruction of massifs.
5 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, evaluation of soil capacity of supplying farm crops with mineral nitrogen under sloped relief conditions.
SUBSTANCE: method involves composting soil while adding ammonium sulfate; determining content of nitrates accumulated in soil after decomposition of organic compounds. Composting procedure is carried out under natural field temperature mode conditions in bottomless vessels and at optimal moisture content mode conditions by providing periodic off-season irrigation procedures. Nitrification capacity is evaluated by ammonium nitrogen-to-nitrate nitrogen transition intensity.
EFFECT: increased information content of nitrification capacity evaluating method and wider range of usage.
2 cl, 3 tbl
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, soil type determining method allowing soil fertility to be evaluated.
SUBSTANCE: method involves sampling soil; preparing and analyzing soil sample by fluororoentgenographic method for determining calcium, iron, zirconium and titanium content thereof; determining type of soil by iron to zirconium ratio and calcium to titanium ratio from preliminarily plotted gauging diagram.
EFFECT: quick process of determining soil type, intensified interpretation and provision for obtaining of reliable results.
FIELD: agriculture and soil science, in particular, determination of soil properties.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining maximal shear stress, with said process being carried out with the use of soil solution squeezed from soil and located in glass vessel; spilling dispersed material into glass pipe; determining maximal shear stress by difference of gas pressure at different ends of pipe, with soil solution being moved.
EFFECT: reduced labor intensity owing to substantial decrease in amount of soil required for carrying out test.
FIELD: agriculture and soil science, in particular, methods for determining of soil properties.
SUBSTANCE: method involves placing soil suspension into pycnometer; adding liquid and removing blocked air from soil by vacuum supplying. Liquid is solution tending to destruct soil aggregates. Air is removed from fluidized soil bed.
EFFECT: simplified process for determining density of soil solid phase and reduced probability of occurrence of error in test results.