Treatment of water, waste water, sewage, or sludge (C02)

C   Chemistry; metallurgy(318327)
C02            Treatment of water, waste water, sewage, or sludge(13336)

Submersible flat devices for direct osmosis // 2642794
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: membrane device for direct osmosis is suitable for immersion in a pool for evaporation of salt water under the influence of solar radiation to pre-concentrate the brine. The membrane has a flat device configuration and includes a flat membrane base having the first and the second sides; the first flat membrane attached in parallel to the first side of the base; the second flat membrane attached in parallel to the second side of the base; the first channel for the flow between the first side of the base and the first membrane, where the first channel for flow has an input side and an output side; the second channel for the flow between the second side of the base and the second membrane, where the second channel for the flow has an input side and an output side; where the membranes around the perimeter are pressed, welded or glued to the base, the input for the inert in the conjunction with the input sides of the first and the second channels for the flow and the output for the inert in the conjunction with the output sides of the first and the second channels for the flow, while the channels for the flow are formed with a woven mesh that is inserted and fixed between the base and membranes.EFFECT: concentration of brines with a high degree of salt concentration, reduced energy consumption, reduction of production areas.5 cl, 9 dwg, 2 ex

Device for desalination of sea water // 2642658
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: device for desalination of sea water includes a body located inside and fixed on the frame structure with a suction valve, and a valve for discharging concentrate by a plunger pump, the movement of vertically arranged plunger working on reverse osmosis principle and containing a coiled flexible material that is twisted in shape of cylindrical pipe which is a reverse osmosis membrane, to the lower position passing beyond the limits of the body under the action of its weight, and lifting to the upper position is performed by a flexible coupling, one end of the lifting device is connected to the lower end of the plunger, and at the other end connected to a source of unidirectional intermittent motion in the form of sea wave energy converter.EFFECT: simplified design and improved reliability.8 cl, 1 dwg

ulti-stage aeration installation // 2642562
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: multi-stage aeration installation includes at least three vertically oriented aeration units containing the first aeration unit, which receives the mixture of liquid and gas from a source gas and a liquid and two or more located below the aeration units. Each aeration unit forms a vertically elongated aeration chamber comprising an upper inlet and a lower outlet. The lower outlet of each of the aeration units delivers a fluid stream containing liquid and gas to the upper inlet located below one of the aeration units. One or more of the aeration units located below contain an inlet for additional gas. Each aeration unit includes an aeration head connected to the upper inlet and positioned in the space for the head located below the aeration unit so that the fluid stream passing through the upper inlet into the aeration chamber must pass through the aeration head. The aeration head aerates the liquid with gas in a fluid flow in the head space of the lower aeration unit.EFFECT: increasing the efficiency of the system, reducing the base area of the processing systems.16 cl, 4 dwg
ethod of clearing water from sulphates by reagent method // 2641930
FIELD: mining.SUBSTANCE: water is treated with lime and an alumina-containing component, after which water is treated with calcium hydroxy aluminate in an amount necessary to effectively bind the sulfates, and aluminium hydroxide, which co-precipitates calcium sulfate and calcium hydroxy aluminate in an alkaline environment. The water is clarified by settling and filtration.EFFECT: increasing the efficiency of water purification from sulfates with effective water softening, which leads to a significant decrease in the level of mineralization of the treated water.2 tbl,1 ex
ethods of purifying fluid emulsion using microporous materials having filtration and adsorption properties // 2641929
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method for separating a stream of a fluid emulsion having a continuous aqueous phase into a hydrocarbon stream and an aqueous stream in which a stream of a fluid emulsion is passed through a microporous membrane to produce a hydrocarbon product stream and an aqueous product stream, the membrane comprises substantially a hydrophobic, polymer matrix and substantially a hydrophilic, finely divided, fine-grained, essentially water-insoluble filler distributed throughout the matrix. The polymer matrix has an average pore size of less than 1.0 micron, and the purity of the product streams is independent of the stream rate of the aqueous product and the pore size of the membrane.EFFECT: improving the efficiency of oil separation from water in real time.20 cl, 9 tbl

Gas flotation tank // 2641926
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: flotation tank (10) for removing foreign matter from fluid supplied thereto contains the lower part defining the bottom (50) of the tank (10), a wall (45) defining the sides of the tank; a row of adjacent chambers inside the tank separated from each other by separating walls (65), an oil-collecting chute (15) enclosing each chamber and separated from each chamber by an overflow gate (35). Each chamber has an inclined partition (40) communicating circular movement to fluid in the chamber. The overflow gate (35) is located opposite the inclined partition (40). One of the chambers of the row of adjacent chambers is in fluid communication with branch pipe inlet (20) located near the inclined partition (40) of the row of adjacent chambers. Each chamber is in fluid communication with adjacent chambers through a connecting channel (75) located in the lower part of the separating wall (65) of each chamber and opposite the oil-collecting chute (15). The connecting channel (75) is made for passing the fluid from the chamber to the back side of adjacent camera inclined partition (40). In the separating wall (65), a connecting hole (60) is made between two adjacent chambers. The channel is made in inclined partition (40) at least in one of chambers of the row of adjacent chambers (70) for passing fluid and made for passing flow of fluid between the adjacent chambers through the inclined partition (40) of at least camera. An outlet branch pipe is communicated with one of chambers of the row of adjacent chambers. The connecting hole and the fluid passage channel are provided alternate adjacent chambers.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to provide device for gas flotation preventing, reducing or limiting bypass of water with elimination or decrease of dependence on the connecting pipe.15 cl, 13 dwg

Water purification plant // 2641923
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: water purification plant contains a programmable control unit 27, filters of coarse 1 and fine 2 mechanical purification, the first 3 and the second 4 reverse-osmosis membrane filters, a pump 5 for pumping water, an input 9 and an output 33 solenoid valves, an electronic pressure sensor 8; mounted in the pipeline on stream water meters 10, 11, 12 from the first to the third, the first 13 and the second 14 monitoring nodes of concentration of impurities in the water, the first 15 and the second 16 sensors of "dry running", a pressure relay 17 of purified water, a return valve 18, shut-off valves 19, 20, 21, 22 from the first to the fourth, pressure gauges 23, 24, 25, 26 from the first to the fourth, a UV radiation chamber 7.EFFECT: invention allows to obtain the purified water of the required quality at the outlet of the plant, depending on its further use.2 cl, 3 dwg

ethod of purifying waste water from molybdenum ions // 2641826
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: treatment is performed with the reagent - waste of production, which is used as iron-containing clay with an iron content of 2 to 20%, or waste of metalworking in the form of chips of non-alloy steel with an iron content of 45 to 85%, pre-treated with sulfuric acid with a concentration of 0.01 to 0.1 N for 0.5 to 1 hours, followed by standing for 16 to 24 hours. The resulting sorption paste or sorbent is introduced into the waste water, continuously mixed for 50 minutes, then left to stand for 3 to 5 hours, and the precipitate is removed.EFFECT: invention allows with a high degree of the purification to remove molybdenum ions from wastewater using natural materials and wastes with a high iron content.2 dwg, 9 tbl, 6 ex
ethod of reagent-free water treatment // 2641822
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: water treatment method includes a combined physical action in which ultrasonic vibrations and rotating opposite-directed electromagnetic fields are used. At the same time, to generate ultrasonic vibrations and rotating electromagnetic fields, magnetic cores magnetic of the ferrite ring system are used, which have a distance from each other, eliminating the overlap created by the rotating magnetic fields, wherein each ferrite ring has an electric coil, on which three-phase AC voltage is fed in the resonance sound frequency range of 32÷35 kHz.EFFECT: increasing the water stability and simplification of the treatment process.2 dwg

ethod of control of water resources of megapolis subscribers // 2641759
FIELD: human vital needs satisfaction.SUBSTANCE: method contains the registration of the presence in the water of the signs of pollutants and the analysis of the drainage water sample for exceeding the maximum permissible values of contaminants in the drain water. It implements the division of the sewerage network into the dependent 10 and independent 4, 6, 8 non-overlapping areas with a minimum, especially one, water discharges from them. The registration of the presence of pollutant signs in water is carried out when the allowable concentrations are exceeded in the analysis of a water sample taken at a random time and at a randomly chosen point located at the outlet/outlet of the water of independent disjoint areas and dependent non-intersecting areas in which the presence of signs of pollutants from signs of pollutants of disjoint areas, the water discharges of which are connected to the network of these dependent disjoint regions. At the stage of the survey of non-overlapping areas, prospective subscribers are identified, and the analysis of the drainage water sample for exceeding the maximum permissible values of pollutants in the discharge water is performed only by prospective subscribers.EFFECT: decrease in capital costs.9 cl, 3 dwg

Horizontal settler // 2641753
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: horizontal settler includes a rectangular reservoir at the bottom of which a silt pit is made. In the upper and lower parts of the reservoir there are guide rails parallel to the walls of the reservoir. The horizontal settler also contains a blade as a scraper, guide rollers through which the cables of the respective electric winches are thrown. Inside the pit is a retractable sludge tray containing an axis that can be pivoted 180°, the top of the pit on the wall is a cable-tightened cable to the electric winch for hermetic closure of the silt pit.EFFECT: invention ensures the continuity of the settler, reduces the cleaning time, protects against floating waste, increases the reliability of the device.2 cl, 3 dwg

Device for separation of solids and liquids and method of their separation // 2641752
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: separator of solids and liquids, which uses substance A and is capable of dissolving water and oil, and where the removal of water and oil from the object to be processes is performed, with the object being a mixture of water and solid or oil and solid substance, or water, oil and solid as an object to be processed and containing substance B, which circulates in a closed system, causing the state of change in the closed system, a compressor, which compresses substance B, the first heat exchanger where the exchange of heat condensation of substance B and evaporation heat of substance A, an extender for decompression, which returns condensed substance B to the state before compression, the second heat exchanger, in which the exchange of evaporation heat of substance B and condensation heat of substance A, processing tank, which blends substance A, condensed in the second heat exchanger after the evaporation of substance A and during the separation from water and oil in the first heat exchanger, and the object to be processed, and the pump for pumping substance A. The method for the separation of solids and liquids is claimed.EFFECT: increase in the efficiency of the change in the state of substance A.10 cl, 3 dwg
ethod for increase of activated water performance and device for its implementation // 2641274
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method for increase of activated water performance consists in placement of a second capacitor with perforated electrodes forming a secondary electric field with impulses phase-shifted by the width of the pulses of the primary field, between the electrodes of the activator-capacitor with the primary rectified pulsating electric field of increased intensity inside it with a pulse ration equal to 2. Both fields have field intensity adjustment, which is controlled by capacitors of variable capacity with a large value of dielectric permeability. The method is implemented in a device comprising two coaxially located cells in which the unperforated and perforated electrodes of larger diameter of the first cell are electrically coupled to the unperforated and perforated electrodes of smaller diameter of the second cell and, conversely, the non-perforated and perforated electrodes of smaller diameter of the first cell are electrically coupled to perforated and non-perforated electrodes of larger diameter of the second cell. The drinking water is supplied by successive passage into the cavity formed by the perforated electrodes of the first and second cells, and the anolyte and catholyte are output by successive passage of the cathode and anode cavities of the cells.EFFECT: expansion of qualitative and quantitative indicators of activated water.4 cl, 4 dwg

Device for reagent-free treatment of water // 2641137
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: device for reagent-free treatment of water includes a cylindrical non-magnetic body 1 with a magnetostrictive source of ultrasonic vibrations 2 inside it and an outside electromagnetic system 3 comprising a magnetic circuit 4 and windings 5 with leads for connection to a power supply source. A housing 6 made of diamagnetic material is mounted on cylindrical non-magnetic body 1 with magnetostrictive source of ultrasonic vibrations 2. The housing 6 has a through hole 7, a groove for the electromagnetic system 3 and a connector for connecting the leads of the winding to the power supply source. In the electromagnetic system 3, the magnetic conductor 4 is made in the form of several ferrite rings located at a distance which does not allow the overlapping of the magnetic fields. At each of ferrite rings there is a coil of at least three windings 5 with leads which are connected in a star circuit to a source of alternating three-phase voltage which creates alternating voltage in resonance sound range of ferrite ring frequencies of 32-35 kHz. The housing 6 with electromagnetic system 3 is filled with hardener, for example, epoxy resin.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase antiscale efficiency, performance properties and to reduce power consumption.2 dwg
Groundwater treatment plant // 2641132
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: groundwater treatment plant comprises a vertical cylindrical body 1 divided by a horizontal grid 2 into an aeration zone 3 located at the top and a filtration zone 4 at the bottom of the body 1. The body 1 is also provided with a cylindrical mixing chamber 5 disposed coaxially with the body 1. The aeration zone 3 is connected to the pipeline 12 to supply water for flushing and to the pipeline 6 to supply source water for cleaning, which is connected to the pipeline 8 to supply a water-air mixture through the ejector 7, at the end of which there is a nozzle 9. The aeration zone 3 is provided with a gas outlet 10 comprising a relief valve and a gas exhaust pipe 11 configured to vary its length within the aeration zone 3. The filtration zone 4 contains a floating load 13 with a grain size of 3-5 mm and a collection system 14 connected to the drainage pipelines of the purified water 15 and flushing water 16.EFFECT: invention allows to increase the degree of water purification from iron and suspended solids while reducing the cleaning time.3 dwg
Installation of purifying water from general alpha-radioactivity and radon // 2641122
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: water purification installation contains a degasser in the form of a column (1) with a cover (2) and with the branch pipes for supplying the purified water (3) and the gas outlets (4) at the top of the column and the branch pipes for the air supply (5) and the outlet of the purified water (6) at the bottom of the column filled with a nozzle (7), a holding tank (8), a device for the air supply (9). The installation is equipped with an additional branch pipe (10) at the bottom of the column (1) below the layer and the second branch pipe (11) in the middle of the column (1) above the nozzle layer (7), and one of the branch pipes is attached to the rinsing water supply (12) and the second branch pipe is attached to the outlet of sewage or the storage-tank. A stop valve (13) is installed on the branch pipe of the purified water outlet. The nozzle is located between two perforated diaphragms (14) and (15). The column is equipped with ultrasonic radiators (16) located along the perimeter of the volume filled with a nozzle.EFFECT: installation provides increased radiation safety during operation, increased efficiency of water purification and cleaning of the nozzle material, followed by the removal of radioactive fallout for disposal.2 cl, 1 dwg

ethod and device for removing nitrogen at wastewater treatment // 2640767
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: wastewater treatment plant includes a reactor, a sensor for determining the concentration of oxidized nitrogen in the reactor and for generating a signal for the concentration of oxidized nitrogen reflecting the concentration of nitrite, nitrate, or a combination of nitrite and nitrate, a control device for processing signals for the concentration of oxidized nitrogen and ammonia and to adjust the dissolved oxygen (DO), the duration of the aerobic phase, and/or the duration of the anoxic phase in the reactor to the base and the ratio or sum of the concentration of ammonia and the concentration of oxidized nitrogen, the control device being able to vary the DO concentration profile between the lower set DO value and the upper set DO value, wherein the controlled outgoing stream containing ammonia and nitrite is fed to the anoxic reactor where selectively grown and the anammox bacteria are retained.EFFECT: removal of nitrogen from wastewater and production of high-quality treated wastewater with reduced energy consumption, consumption of chemical reagents and cost.20 cl, 16 dwg

ethod of extraction from the technological condensate of hydrocarbon and ammonia // 2640533
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: use a setup with two columns (1 and 2). In column 1 H2S and concentrate NH3 are extracted by methods of stripping and absorption. In column 2 NH3 and purified condensate by methods of rectification, absorption, cooling and partial condensation of the vapour-gas mixture in the upper section. The condensate from the absorption stage in column 2 is recirculated to column 1. Purified and cooled condensate is used as an absorbent and washing liquid in the packed sections of columns 1 and 2. The crystalline ammonium salts formed in the process decompose in high temperature zones. In this case, the condensate is returned from the upper section of column 2 to the feedstock of column 2.EFFECT: increase of the clarity of separation between hydrogen sulphide and ammonia in a wide range of their concentrations, especially with a high content of these impurities.3 cl, 1 ex, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
Device for filtration of liquids // 2640532
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: device for filtration of liquids refers to filters with rotating filtering elements and designed for filtering water from impurities, and producing drinking water from sea water. It comprises a body with a filtering element which represents a frame with a metal string wound in spiral. The novelty is that a magnetizing device and a swirler-cavitator are mounted on inlet branch pipe, the magnets and radiators are additionally installed in the body in the front of filtering element. The filtering element and magnets are mounted on electric motor and driven in rotation.EFFECT: improved quality of filtered water due to additional magnetizing, irradiation and filtering.1 dwg
Device to produce electroactivated water // 2640530
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: device to produce electro activated water is designed in the form of the capacitor formed by the coaxially positioned electrodes, isolated dielectric, forming capacitor plates, having a cavity with an inlet for supplying water and an interelectrode cavity separated by an insulating coaxially located partition on the cavities serving for the removal of catholyte and anolyte, each of which has its own opening for the exit of catholyte and anolyte.EFFECT: simplification of the device, increase of its efficiency.3 dwg
Complex method for removing carbon dioxide from low-temperature waters containing hydrocarbonate-ion // 2640524
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: complex method for removing carbon dioxide from the low-temperature waters containing hydrocarbonate-ion, consisting in the removal of dissolved carbon dioxide by aeration with ensuring the irreversible removal of hydrocarbonate-ions HCO3- contained in the water by the chemical pre-transfer to the insoluble or low-soluble carbonates.EFFECT: elimination or reduction after the termination of aeration of the possibility of formation of dissolved carbon dioxide as a result of spontaneous conversion of the substances remaining in water.1 cl
Fluorophor and method for obtaining salt inhibitor containing fluorofor as fluorescent mark // 2640339
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: salt inhibitor is an allyl-containing fluorophore of the formula (I) or (II) as specified in the description. The method for obtaining the said salt inhibitor comprises radical copolymerization of acrylic acid or of acrylic acid and actually fumaric acid with a compound of formula 1 or 2 in an aqueous medium under heating in the presence of the initiator. Copolymerization is carried out at a weight content of fumaric acid monoester of 20 to 80%, fluorophore of 1 to 10% of the total monomer weight. The content of acrylic acid is the rest. The mass fraction of monomers is from 15 to 30%.EFFECT: invention provides biodegradable salt inhibitor containing a fluorescent mark, the optical properties of which do not depend on the content of hardness salts in the water circulation systems, and the use allows to prevent the process of precipitation of low-soluble salts of alkaline earth metals with the proximate analysis and monitoring "real-time" concentration of the inhibitor in the water circulation systems without sampling.2 cl, 4 tbl, 7 ex
ethod of purifying wastewater waters of oil-processing and petrochemical production from toluene // 2640260
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method of purifying toluene-containing wastewater from oil refineries and petrochemical enterprises is provided. The destruction of toluene is carried out with a concentration of not more than 50 mg/dm3 using a microorganism strain of Pseudomonas japonica PMBC in-11715 in conditions of immobilization of bacterial cells or in the absence of immobilization. The content of toluene decreases from 50 to 5 mg/dm3. Full purification from toluene is carried out within 48 hours.EFFECT: invention allows to increase the efficiency of the destruction of toluene.2 dwg, 3 tbl, 2 ex
ethod for purifying water solutions from heavy metals and radionuclides // 2640244
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method is carried out by sorption on a sorbent, using as a filter media of the track membranes. The powdered adsorbent with a particle size of 0.01-5000 microns or colloidal solution previously placed in a package of arbitrary shape, made of track membranes on the basis of polyethylene terephthalate with a thickness of 50-75 microns with a pore size of 0.01-10 microns. The sorbent occupies 5-80% of the total volume, and the edges of the end part of the package are hermetically sealed by gluing. Silica gel SiO2, cation exchanger KU2(Na), Berlin azure are used as a powdered sorbent.EFFECT: method provides a structurally simple and efficient technology for removing heavy metals and radionuclides.2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

Device and method for bubbles and foams generation // 2640242
FIELD: human vital needs satisfaction.SUBSTANCE: device comprises: the first unit configured to detect at least one characteristic of the gas in the bubbles; the second unit configured to generate bubbles comprising: an electrolytic cell configured to conduct electrolysis of the electrolyte to produce gas in the electrolyte, thereby generating bubbles; the controller is configured to adjust the second unit to generate bubbles according to at least one gas characteristic.EFFECT: invention allows to regulate the characteristic of the gas in the bubble based on the practical gas requirements, to reduce the noise level and dimensions of the device for bubbles and foams generation.13 cl, 11 dwg

Rotation-percussion evaporator and method of vacuum transfer of complex liquids on its basis // 2640198
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: rotation-percussion evaporator for the evaporation of liquids, such as crude oil and petroleum products, consists of a sealed chamber, an evaporation of the spray dispenser, providing diffusion supplied thereto prepared liquid submitted in the below evaporation chamber with low-flow, steam inlet connected to the device for pumping steam, creating a preset vacuum in the evaporator chamber, and an accumulator of non-evaporated liquid. The evaporator is characterised in that the evaporator chamber has a crown of impact blades on the blade wheel, rotating at high speed on the shaft, introduced into the vaporisation chamber through the seal and driven by the drive, so that the droplet flow of the liquid from the spray dispenser, partially evaporating, moves towards the rotating percussion blades, which cut off small drops of droplets from it and strike powerful blows on them. Percussion blades have a sufficiently large surface area and are tilted to the plane of rotation, so as to maximize the intensity of the applied strokes, resulting in part of the liquid is sprayed and evaporates, while the other spreads on a surface percussion blades as dynamic films which, crushing and evaporating, flow down to the edges of the percussion blades, acquiring the velocity of percussion blades, break off from the edges of the percussion blades, disintegrate and continue to move, spraying and evaporating, towards the walls of the evaporation chamber, experience powerful impacts when they collide with the walls of the evaporation chamber, after which they partially evaporate and spread on the inner surface of the evaporation chamber in the form of a dynamic film that evaporates and flows downwards where the accumulator of unevaporated liquid is located, while the formed vapor is withdrawn through the intake using a steam evacuation device, for example a vacuum pump. A method of vacuum distillation of complex liquids based on a rotary-impact evaporator is also claimed.EFFECT: rotary percussive evaporator can effectively evaporate liquid possessing an unfavourable for traditional evaporation of thermophysical properties, as well as liquids with useful components affected thermochemical reactions and coking, direct heat input during the evaporation in the rotary percussive evaporator is not provided and not needed.4 cl, 3 dwg

ethod for treating wastewater from dissolved organic contaminants // 2639810
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to wastewater treatment processes containing dissolved organic contaminants by wet oxidation, specifically by supercritical aqueous oxidation, and can be used for purifying domestic, process, surface, agricultural wastewater. The method for purifying wastewater from dissolved organic contaminants includes treatment of wastewater under the supercritical aqueous oxidation conditions to the complete oxidation of organic compounds with the production of a gas stream, purified water stream and heat. Before oxidation, fine buckwheat or sunflower husk is introduced in wastewater with a particle size of 50-200 mcm, the resulting suspension is served on the membrane concentration obtaining purified water and a wastewater concentrate supplied to the device of the supercritical aqueous oxidation.EFFECT: reducing energy costs and increasing economic efficiency.2 dwg, 1 tbl

ethod for cleaning oil-cotaining wastewater // 2639276
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method for cleaning oil-containing wastewater is also proposed. The method includes cleaning oil-containing wastewater in a filter containing a housing with detachable filter cassettes, providing a filtration rate of 0.1-0.3 m/h. As the filtering load, granulated foamed polystyrene foams are used with a grain size of 2-3 mm with a bulk density of 17-22 kg/m3 at a thickness of the cassette of 0.3-0.5 m. A strain of hydrocarbon oxidizing bacteria Rhodococcus and / or Pseudomonas and/or Acinetobacter or a biologic oil decontaminator is introduced into the volume of the filtering charge in an effective amount.EFFECT: method provides a deep cleaning of oil-containing wastewater.2 dwg, 4 ex

ethod of magnetic activation of liquid high molecular hydrocarbons and device for method implementation // 2638921
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: method of magnetic activation of liquid high-molecular hydrocarbons, in which a current pulse is passed through the conductors located in a liquid flow to create a magnetic field in a liquid flowing through a diamagnetic tube and a device for implementing this method, in which the magnetic field formers are outside the pipe, and metal conductors are installed inside the pipe, the insulated ends of which are led out to the outside of the pipe and are connected to pulsed power sources via the controlled switches.EFFECT: increasing the magnetic activation of hydrocarbons allows to reduce the heating temperature of hydrocarbons during processing by thermal decomposition and to reduce coking on the heating surfaces.5 cl, 1 dwg

ethod for nonchemical cleaning of saponite-containing water and compaction of saponite-containing sediment // 2638370
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: to implement the method, radiation of the running hydro-acoustic waves of audible and ultrasonic frequency ranges is formed, contaminated saponite-containing water is effected by radiation, hydro-acoustic coagulation and precipitation of saponite-containing particles, compaction of the water dam bodies and acoustic drying of the sediment are carried out. While the hydroacoustic radiators are placed on the floating sonar module (13) installed within the area of discharge of polluted saponite-containing water (5), in the central part of the sump and near the intake of clear water (7) optionally at least two mobile booms (11), forming transverse, overflow compartments of the sump (6), at least two mobile in-dam booms (12), forming longitudinal, hollow compartments of the sump (6) are used, wherein the floating sonar module (13) is installed in series behind the second boom (11). Optionally, at least three floating sludge pumps (14) are installed to ensure the selection of preliminary compacted saponite-containing sediment, its movement to the hollow compartment of the sump (6), in which the concentration, compaction and sediment dewatering are carried out. On both sides of the booms (11) and (12), floating pumps (15) are installed for their mounting or demounting. In addition, a hydroacoustic seal of the saponite-containing sediment is used for its dewatering (16) and drying (17).EFFECT: method provides fast and high-quality clarification of large amounts of saponite-containing water, condensation and drying of the resulting saponite-containing sediment, cleaner operation of sumps.9 dwg, 1 ex

ethod for removing floating substances // 2638361
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method of removing floating substances (1) from the water surface of the capacitive structure (2) includes the removal of floating substances (1) to the discharge chute (3), the overflow edge (4) of which is located horizontally above the working water level (5) of the capacitive structure (2) and the bottom of the chute (3) is sloped for gravity drainage of the floating substances (1). Overflow of the floating substances (1) in the exhaust chute (3) is carried out with a thin layer resulting in a short-controlled rise of the water level (6) in the above structure of the overflow edge (4) of the discharge chute (3) by using the control device (7) installed on the wastewater discharge of the capacitive structure.EFFECT: invention effectively removes the floating substances in a capacitive structure without the use of consumables while reducing the amount of associated water.1 dwg

Device and method of preparing solution containing cations and anions // 2638352
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: current method for selecting the type of ions and concentration is a traditional way of chemical dissolution. Device for the preparation of a solution (5) contains the following: at least, two modules (10, 10') to release cations, each of which is configured to release, at least, one kind of cations; at least, two modules (12, 12') to release anions, each of which is configured to release, at least, one kind of anions; and a controller (14) configured to manage, at least, one specified module to release cations and, at least, one the specified module for release anions to release relevant types of ions.EFFECT: method allows to automatically prepare a solution by means of appropriate regulation of cations and anions.12 cl, 9 dwg

Dosing device provided with acoustic signal means // 2637555
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the dosing device which is used to add small amounts of additive to liquid flow in a pipe, in general, in water flow during liquid flow past the dosing device. The dosing device (1) is provided with an additive (2) for delivering a dose of additive to liquid which flows in the pipe, and this device (1) first includes a nozzle (3) with an inlet (4) and an outlet (5) for connecting the device (1) to the pipe, a body (6) with a hole which is connected to the nozzle (3) and provided with fastening means for fastening the body (6) to the nozzle (3) with volume containing the additive (2), the dosing device (1) is provided with sound means which are blocked by the presence of said additive (2) and unlocked when the additive (2) completely or almost completely consumed, whereby the sound means generate sound in unlocked state by mechanical means under action of the liquid flow, and at that the sound means take the form of a piston with a head movably connected to a tubular body (12) connected to fastening means (19), wherein the sound means have total specific gravity lower than water, and the fastening means (19) are located in the section of the dosing device, where the additive is located and which is used as the last one, where the fastening means are blocked by the additive (2), gripping or enclosing the fastening means (19) until the additive (2) is consumed and the sound means are unlocked, according to the invention, the piston with its head is suitable and it also relates to the channel wall which is located outside the body volume (6) which is defined by the first wall (8a), if the head produces a mechanical sound or interacts with concentric rotating blades which are moved along the fixed gear ring if the head is provided with means for interacting therewith so as to generate a crack sound.EFFECT: invention provides the dosing device equipped with sound means which are blocked by the presence of the additive and unlocked when the additive is completely or almost completely consumed, and the sound means generate sound in the unlocked state under the liquid flow effect through the device, and this is carried out mechanicaly.18 cl, 18 dwg

ethod for cobalt sulfides production using desulfovibrio sp. bacteria strain // 2637389
FIELD: biotechnology.SUBSTANCE: method provides placement of sulfate-reducing bacteria in a synthetic medium containing metals, with addition of nutrients including solutions of vitamins, salts, cofactors, lactate, sodium sulfide, with further cultivation for 10 days at a temperature of 28°C, a precipitate collected from the bottom of the vessel, containing cobalt sulfide crystals, is dried. At that, the sulfate-reducing bacteria are represented by Desulfovibrio sp. ED-20, resistant to elevated concentrations of cobalt ions and deposited in the All-Russian Collection of Microorganisms of the Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology under the registration number VKM B-3048D.EFFECT: invention allows to shorten the period of biochemical purification of highly concentrated sewage.1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
ethod and equipment for purifying water from strontium // 2637331
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method of purifying drinking water from strontium is carried out by ion exchange. A filter is used with a charge consisting of a monodisperse strongly acidic cation in Na- or H-form with a granule size of 0.6-0.7 mm. The process is carried out in a filter with a clamped loading layer with a ratio of diameter and load height of not more than 0.8. The filter equipped with drain slotted caps in a sheath of a metal mesh with a mesh size of 0.28-0.50 mm.EFFECT: increasing the selectivity of the extraction of strontium, stabilizing the flow of treated water, increasing the depth of purification from hardness salts and salts of strontium, increasing the length of the filter cycle.2 cl, 1 tbl
ethod of group concentration from acid solutions and separation of ions of elements by ionic liquid // 2637236
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: to carry out the method of group concentration from acidic solutions and the separation of Ti, Mo, Sn, Fe ions to 10 ml of the aqueous phase of the acid solution to be analyzed, 1 g of fusible melt of antipyrinium acetylsalicylate [AntH3O+]⋅[AcSal-] is added, the concentrate of Ti, Mo, Sn, Fe ions is separated, nitric acid is nitrated in a microwave oven and analyzed by atomic emission spectrometry. To expand the spectrum of the ions - Ti, Mo, Sn, Fe, V, Cr, Pb, Cd, Co, Sb, Mn extracted from the acidic aqueous solution - with a low-melting antipyrinium acetylsalicylate melt to 5 ml of the analyzed solution, 5 ml of 2.0 M solution of sodium chloride is added with the same amount - 1 g of antipyrinium acetylsalicylate. The resulting system is heated to 90°C, shaken for 5 minutes, centrifuged, the elemental ion concentrate is extracted, aspirated and analyzed.EFFECT: method provides an effective group extraction of a wide range of elements.2 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex

ethod of producing activated water // 2637225
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method of water activation consists in its electrolysis between two electrodes separated by a porous diaphragm, between which a voltage is applied, the negative and positive potentials of which are connected respectively to the cathode and anode electrodes. The electrodes are made of shungite, and the anode is not completely immersed in activated water, the anode region at the air-water interface is irradiated with a laser beam, the wavelength of which lies in the range of (800÷1540) nm, and the energy density lies in the range of (2÷5) J/mm2.EFFECT: intensification of the process of electrolysis, enhancement of the stimulating properties of catholyte.1 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

Device for removing surface layer of oil-containing liquids // 2637210
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: device for removing the surface layer of oil-containing liquids contains a floating oil collecting device in the form of a sector belt conveyor consisting of an endless belt of oil-resistant material, perforated on the sides, mounted on three hollow sealed drums, one of which is made as leading, and the other - as slaves equipped with one sprocket at the ends for driving the belt perforated on the sides, and fixed with the belt by means of pivots on the movable frame. Between the hollow drums and the belt branches, a float is located in the form of a hollow or foam-filled container of rectangular cross-section and in the form of a sector in the longitudinal section attached to the movable frame and configured to swing along with the belt conveyor of the relative surface layer of oil-containing liquids around the axis of the leading drum mounted on two supports to the fixed frame together with the drive. The device also has a drainage system made in the form of two drain trays that act as scrapers mounted on a movable frame with the possibility of contacting them with the endless belt at the location of the fixed frame. The belt perforated on the sides is made in the form of corrugated surfaces inside and outside, for example, in the form of a sinusoid in its cross-section to increase the contact area between the conveyor belt and the surface layer of oil-containing fluids. The hollow drums are smooth, and the scrapers have a profile copying the profile of the belt perforated on the sides.EFFECT: productivity of removing oil products from the surfaces of reservoirs is increased.6 dwg

Device for removing surface layer of oil-containing liquids // 2637135
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices for removing the surface layer of oil-containing fluids and can be used in water supply and sewage purification structures, in chemical, metal working and other industries during the purification process, cutting fluids and solutions cleaning from foreign organic impurities, and for removal of oil products from surfaces of rivers, seas, oceans. The device comprises floating oil collecting means in the form of a sector belt conveyor consisting of endless perforated belt made of oil-resistant material mounted on three hollow air-tight drums, one of which is driving, and other ones are driven, and provided at the ends on one sprocket for driving the perforated sides of the belt and secured together with the belt by means of supports on a movable frame. The float is in the form of a hollow or air-tight vessel of rectangular cross section and placed between the hollow drums and belt branches, and attached to the movable frame and configured to swing along the perforated belt on the sides of the driving drums the relative surface layer of oil-containing fluids around the driving drum axis mounted on two supports to a fixed frame together with a drive. The device also comprises a drain system made in the form of a drain tray, which acts as a scraper for contacting with the endless belt at the installation area of the fixed frame. The float in the longitudinal section is a segment. The scraper in cross-section copies the profile of the wavy belt. The conveyor has an additional container - a float in form of air-tight hollow drum configured to swing by means of a spring and a carrier fixed to the movable frame of the conveyor. The belt perforated at the sides is wavy in the cross-section and sinusoidal on the both sides. From the upper side profile changes along the positive sinusoid, on the inner side there is an additional scraper to increase the efficiency of oil products removal, and the drums are made smooth.EFFECT: increased removal efficiency of the surface layer of the oil-containing liquids.6 dwg

ethod and device for treating aqueous medium in stream // 2637026
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: device for treating an aqueous medium in a flow comprising a reaction chamber with a supply pipe and a discharge branch pipe and the first nozzle stage element installed at the inlet to the reaction chamber ensuring a pressure drop at the inlet to the reaction chamber and a diffuser located at the outlet of the reaction chamber for deceleration of the flow. The reaction chamber is made of dielectric material and formed by the ring electrodes in series connected in the course of the flow, spaced along the length of the chamber to create a longitudinal plasma discharge in the reaction chamber. The method for treating an aqueous medium in the flow, including the flow direction under pressure to the element of the first nozzle stage with a further flow expiration into the reaction chamber for treating the aqueous medium with the formation of two-phase gas-liquid flow and the subsequent braking and condensation of the two-phase flow at the outlet of the reaction chamber. In the reaction chamber, a longitudinal plasma discharge is created that initiates the UV radiation and ozone synthesis of oxygen, emerging from the water phase in the formation of a gas-liquid two-phase flow and when braking the flow by the collapse of gas bubbles, an ultrasonic field and a local overheating of the aqueous medium flow are created.EFFECT: increasing the efficiency of water disinfection.9 cl, 2 tbl, 2 dwg
ethod of high-mineralized water distillation // 2637012
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: dispersed heated air is sparged through distilled high-mineralized water, while the electromagnetic field of the microwave or EHF range in the 300 MHz-300 GHz region is condensed and distillate vapours are condensed.EFFECT: increasing the efficiency of water distillation.1 ex

Catalytic method of removing oxygen from water // 2636996
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: catalytic method of removing oxygen from water, wherein the raw water is purified of mechanical impurities and fed to the injector, where it is mixed with hydrogen gas, a water-hydrogen mixture is produced and deoxygenated by reaction with an ion exchange material containing a palladium catalyst, characterized in that the bubbles of hydrogen gas in the water-hydrogen mixture are crushed and completely dissolved in water by means of a vortex layer device with ferromagnetic needles, under the influence of an alternating electromagnetic field.EFFECT: increasing the efficiency of the catalytic method of removing oxygen from water, when it interacts with dissolved hydrogen gas on grains of highly basic anion exchanger coated with a layer of metallised palladium.1 dwg

Sand and gravel trap // 2636944
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: sand and gravel trap comprise a main receiving container 1 and an additional damping container 2, installed in a settling container 3 of a larger volume with a pit 4. To the pit 4, a manifold 5 having a shutter 6 is connected. The bottom of the main 1, the additional 2 and the settling 3 containers has a slope towards the alluvium-wash pit 4 formed in the bottom 7. The sand and gravel trap comprise vertical partitions 8, 9 and 10. In the lower part of the partitions 9 and 10, L-shaped visors 11 and 12 are fixed, the flange of which is directed downwards. The partitions 8, 9 and 10 divide the sand gravel onto a main 1, an additional damping 2, an overflowing 13 and a settling 3 container. At the top of the additional damping container 2 arranged in the container 3, under the cover 14, a float 15 is arranged, anchored at one end of the lever 16, secured with its second end in the overflow container 13 with the rotation axis 17. A link 18 is arranged in guides 20, and with its upper end is hingedly connected to the lever 16 in its middle part, and is rigidly connected to the valve 19 with its lower end. In the lower part of the receiving container 1, there is an overflow pipe 22 connecting the settling container 3 with the overflow container 13. The end of the overflow pipe 22 lying in the settling container 3 is provided with a hose 23 with a diffuser 24 with a vertical tube 25 with a check valve 26. A float 27 is rigidly fastened to the diffuser 24. A debris-protecting device 28 provides protection against floating debris of the inlet opening of the diffuser 24. The end of the overflow pipe 22, located in the overflow container 13, is made in the form of a chamber 29, at the bottom of which there is an opening 30. To regulate the area of the opening 30, a valve 19 is provided, which is rigidly connected to the link 18. The vertical partitions 9 and 10 are fixed so that between their bottom edges with L-shaped visors 11 and 12, the flange of which is directed downward, and the bottom a slotted opening is formed for water passage from the receiving container 1 to the additional damping 2 and the settling 3 containers. The vertical partition 8 has an opening 31 located at the level of the upper position of the float 15 in the additional damping container 2 for water overflow from the container 2 into the overflow container 13. In the bottom part, the overflow container 13 communicates with a pipeline 32 for tapping clean water to the consumer. In such arrangement of the containers equipped with the vertical partitions with L-shaped visors, the flange of which is directed downwards, and making the bottom with a slope towards the pit 4, the alluvium will flow into the manifold 5 with the shutter 6, and clean water will be supplied from the upper layers of the additional damping container 2 and the settling container 3 into the overflow container 13 and further to the consumer.EFFECT: ensuring operational efficiency, simplifying and reducing metal consumption, preventing the ingress of bottom and suspended alluvium of a fraction more than 0,2 mm into pipelines with pumping irrigation and fore chambers of pumping stations.2 cl, 1 dwg
ethod for separating dissolved gases from pumped fluid and device for its implementation (versions) // 2636732
FIELD: engines and pumps.SUBSTANCE: separation of dissolved gases from the pumped fluid by the method of decreasing the pressure in the gas flow using the phenomenon of cavitation is performed by feeding liquid through the inlet branch pipe to the diametric disk rotor, dividing the fluid flow by centrifugal forces in the interdisk space into regions with increased and decreased pressure, and separate discharging the fluid and the separated gas through branch pipes. In the interdisk space of the rotor, due to a pressure drop from the rotor axis to the periphery, an adjustable cavitation region of decreased pressure is created, the size of which in the radial direction depends on the rotor speed and is proportional to the square of the speed, while the separated gas is forced out through the central hollow channel. The central hollow channel of the disk rotor for gas removal is made in the form of a tube with perforated walls or is formed by a package of discs with central holes and is connected in the lower part with a gas forced removal branch pipe, and in the upper part with the last solid disk of the rotor and the engine shaft.EFFECT: invention allows to combine the function of the transfer pump and the device for removing dissolved gases from the pumped fluid and provides the possibility of changing the fluid treatment conditions.3 cl, 4 dwg

Bladderless electrolyser // 2636725
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: electrolyser contains two coaxially arranged external electrodes: the outer electrode is a tube with a longitudinal hole, the inner electrode is a tube or rod. Dielectric bushings are installed between the electrodes. The inner surface of the outer electrode does not have a dielectric coating. A part of the external electrode that has a longitudinal hole, is a sector of a cylinder, and at the end of the electrodes there is an electrical connector for supplying to the voltage electrodes.EFFECT: invention allows to increase the productivity of the electrolyser by reducing the electrical resistance of the water layer between the working surfaces of the electrodes.3 dwg

Liquid filtration device // 2636723
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: device has a cylindrical body, a bottom, a lid with threaded hole for filtrate discharge, a central distributing-clamping pipe installed inside the body and provided with through holes and a partition, tubular filtering elements concentrically arranged around central distributing-clamping pipe, a circular cup for free ends of tubular filtering elements plugging and a tube grid for fixing tubular filtering elements, a shell for adsorbent positioned between the tube grid and lid with possibility of its disassembly, distributing-clamping pipe for installation of additional branch pipe and detachable at the distance of shell height.EFFECT: increase of technological effectiveness of the device fabrication due to its design simplification, ability to promptly assemble, disassemble and combine filtering elements depending on the end product the requirements.4 cl, 5 dwg
ethod of chemical cleaning of reverse osmosis filters by solutions of environmentally safe complexes // 2636712
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method of chemical cleaning of reverse osmosis filters with solutions of ecologically safe complexions includes 3 washing steps: etching, coarse alkaline cleaning, and fine alkaline cleaning, the etching solution contains 2.55 wt % iminodisuccinic acid; the coarse alkaline cleaning solution contains 1.275 wt % of disodium salt of iminodisuccinic acid and 0.1275 wt % OP-10; the fine alkaline cleaning solution contains 1 wt % of a liquid cleanser KleenTM MST511, 0.64 wt % of the disodium salt of iminodisuccinic acid and 0.1275 wt % OP-10.EFFECT: improvement of the filter cleaning quality with the help of solutions based on ecologically safe complexion with high complexing characteristics.1 tbl
ethod and plant for biological wastewater treatment // 2636708
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: method comprises supplying wastewater to aerotank (2) of the corridor type and treating the water with activated sludge in at least one anaerobic (AN), anoxic (D), aerobic (N) and transition zones formed over the entire length of the aerotank (2), separating the activated sludge in the secondary sedimentation tank (3) and its recirculation. Treatment of water with activated sludge is carried out in successive first anoxic (D1), anaerobic (AN), transition anaerobic-aerobic (AN/N), the first aerobic (N1), the second anoxic (D2), transition anoxic-aerobic (D/N) and the second aerobic (N2) zones of the aerotank or in successive first anoxic (D1), anaerobic (AN), transition anaerobic-aerobic (AN/N), the first aerobic (N1), the second anoxic (D2) and the second aerobic (N2) zones of the aeration tank. The transition anaerobic-aerobic (AN/N) zone is converted to anaerobic operating mode by shutting off the air supply and turning on the mechanical stirring devices (4) or to the aerobic operating mode by turning on the air supply and turning off the mechanical stirring devices (4). The transition anoxic-aerobic (D/N) zone is converted to aerobic operating mode by turning off the mechanical agitators (4) and turning on the air supply, and to the anoxic operating mode by turning off the air supply and turning on the mechanical agitators (4). The plant for implementing the biological treatment method comprises a wastewater supply device (1), an aerotank (2) divided by longitudinal baffles into at least one anaerobic (AN), an anoxic (D), aerobic (N), and a transition zone including mechanical agitators (4) and aerators (5), as well as the secondary sedimentation tank (3).EFFECT: reliable operation of aerotank-sedimentation tank biological treatment system, stability and effectiveness of biological wastewater treatment from organic substances, from nitrogen and phosphorus compounds.15 cl, 5 dwg

ethod and installation for biological wastewater treatment // 2636707
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method includes the supply of wastewater into a corridor-type aeration basin and treatment with activated sludge in zones formed over the entire length of the aerotank - at least, one anaerobic (AN), two anoxic (D1, D2) and two aerobic (N1, N2) zones. In addition, wastewater is sent to the anaerobic (AN), anoxic (D1, D2) zones and water is treated in an additional third anoxic zone (D3) located between the aerobic zones of the aerotank (N1, N2). The method also includes an internal anoxic recycle from the first anoxic (D1) or the second anoxic (D2) zone to the anaerobic (AN) zone, separating the activated sludge in the secondary settling tank and recycling it to the first anoxoid (D1) zone. The installation for carrying out the method includes a wastewater supply device (1), an aerotank (2), a secondary settler (3), mechanical agitators (4), and aerators (5). The aerotank is divided by transverse partitions into, at least, one anaerobic (AN), two anoxic (D1, D2), two aerobic (N1, N2) zones, and contains the additional third anoxic (D3) zone located between the aerobic zones (N1, N2).EFFECT: improving the efficiency and reliability of biological wastewater treatment.20 cl, 4 dwg

Diaphragm electrolyser for purifying and disinfecting water // 2636505
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: electrolyser for purifying and disinfecting water contains cylindrical electrodes vertically mounted in the dielectric sleeves, coaxially located relative to each other and coaxially located between the electrodes two microporous diaphragms forming an outer electrode chamber, an inner electrode chamber, and an average interdiaphragm chamber at the interelectrode space. Water is supplied through an inlet located in the lower end sleeve, simultaneously into all three chambers of the electrolyser. Water is drained through the outlets in the upper bushing. Clean water is drained through the outlet connected to the interdiaphragm chamber, and the flows flowing in the electrode chambers - through the outlets connected to them.EFFECT: device provides the opportunity to simultaneously receive disinfected water purified from anions and cations, suitable for consumption without additional treatment and water with the anions and cations accumulated in it.4 dwg