Removing of by-products, e.g. particles or vapours produced during treatment of a workpiece (B23K26/16)

ethod of cutting billet, executed of magnesium or magnesium alloy // 2641443
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: method of cutting materials with a laser beam can be used in engineering for cutting magnesium alloys. In the cutting process, the products of destruction are removed from the cutting area by means of gas. As a process gas, an inert gas of high purity is used. Process gas is supplied at an acute angle to the surface of the front cut directly to the surface of the billet, angle 2-10 to the axis of the laser beam under pressure not less 6 bar.EFFECT: possibility is provided to cut magnesium and its alloys with a laser beam without igniting the metal at the front and the surface of the cut, and its particles removed from the cutting zone.1 dwg

Installation for fabricating part by selectively melting powder // 2603737
FIELD: machine building.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an apparatus and method of making part by selective melting of powder. Installation comprises a means producing a beam, for example a laser beam or an electron beam, and a means moving a point of impact of beam over a layer of powder. Collecting element splashes molten powder (24) formed during local melting of powder with beam (11), comprises hole (15) for passage of beam (11).EFFECT: installation incorporates means of moving said collecting element (14) together with beam (11) over layer of powder.11 cl, 6 dwg

Coordinate device // 2535434
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to coordinate device and can be used in high-precision processing hardware, primarily, for processing of articles by laser tools. Bed 1 supporting coordinate axes 2, 3 has the cavity that makes a spark-quench chamber 9 with openings 8. Working zone is communicated via openings 8 and spark-quench chamber 9 with gas-dust bend pipeline 7. Spark-quench chamber 9 openings 8 are communicated with working zone 6 by throttling device. At laser processing, air from working chamber and combustion products flows via throttling device in spark-quench chamber 9. Note here that flow rate drops to make combustion product particles settle in said chamber. Combustion products are discharged from spark-quench chamber via hatch. Plugs are used to adjust air intake from chamber part accommodating head with laser tool to allow air flow rate control for efficient removal of combustion products.EFFECT: efficient removal of combustion products.4 cl, 6 dwg

ethod and device for manufacturing moulds for engraved printing intended for production of security papers // 2505413
FIELD: printing industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method and device for manufacturing moulds for engraved printing, intended for production of security papers, which uses a laser beam (2) for engraving pattern (3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3) of engraved printing directly on the surface of the moulding material (1), in particular metal, made with the ability of laser engraving. Laser engraving of the moulding material (1) is carried out in layers in several separate stages of engraving. The stages are carried out one after another with the absolute register so that the pattern (3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3) of engraved printing is gradually engraved on the surface of the moulding material (1) to the required depth of engraving. The surface of the engraved moulding material (1) is cleaned from wastes of a process of laser engraving after each separate stage of engraving, while the laser engraving unit is in the inoperative state.EFFECT: improvement of quality of engraving.24 cl, 10 dwg

ethod of producing gradient materials from powders and device to this end // 2401180
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises sequential application of powder layers from different materials in working hopper piston travel with sintered material and programmed selective sintering of preset area in the plane of every layer. Said preset layer area sintered, said piston is moved upward for the thickness of layer to force powder form said layer. Then piston is moved to previous position, anther powder is applied in the plane of layer to it to be selectively sintered. Proposed device comprises working chamber with inlet opening, laser, working hopper with piston, feed hopper, carriage to feed and lay powder. Besides proposed device comprises cleaning roller arranged to move perpendicular to aforesaid carriage travel. Note here that said carriage is furnished with rolling roller and additional cleaning roller. Gas-discharge lamps are arranged along the edges of said inlet opening with reflectors to heat powder surface, their power making at least 5 kW.EFFECT: higher quality and efficiency.2 cl, 2 dwg

Procedure for laser treatment of surface of roll and crest of railroad wheel pairs // 2389805
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: wheel pair is installed and fixed in rotating facility. Matte coating eliminating reflection of laser beam is applied on surface subject to treatment with CO2-laser. Focusing system is adjusted so, that diametre of laser radiation spot corresponds to a chosen mode. Required rates of wheel pair rotation and laser beam transfer are set by means of program controlled device. Compressed air blows off a flare of products of combustion into exhaust ventilation; laser treatment is carried out under a chosen mode to obtaining geometry of paths of laser strengthening eliminating melting zones of thermal effect and mutual overlapping of laser strengthening paths.EFFECT: increased wear resistance of roll surface and crest of wheel pair due to increased hardness and due to obtaining high dispersed structure of strengthened zone.1 dwg

Device for layerwise manufacturing of three-dimentional object // 2368478
FIELD: mechanics.SUBSTANCE: device contains source (6) of electromagnetic radiation (7), upbuilding space for manufacturing of three-dimensional object (3) and connection window for passing of electromagnetic radiation (7) into upbuilding space. Additionally device is outfitted by heating element (16) for heating of connection window.EFFECT: prevention of contaminations agglomeration on connection window.21 cl, 6 dwg

ethod of production of gradient materials from powders and device for this process // 2365468
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of production of gradient materials from powders and a device for this process and it can be used for sintering the articles made of powder of different materials with laser emission and in the laser stereolithography applying powder materials. Layers of different materials are applied successively followed by a programmable selective sintering or melting of the given area of each layer. Before applying the next layer the article is moved upwards relative to the surface of the powder as high as the tickness of the next layer. The part surface is cleaned and the level of the powder surface is reduced as much as the tickness of the applied layer without changing the part position relative to the level of the powder surface. The platform for mounting of the sintered article is located on the working bunker and the platform can be moved upwards relative to the piston conveying the layer of powder. The rotating turret has feeding bunkers mounted in it. The roller for cleaning of the article is manufactured so to be moved upwards and that it can be moved parallel to or perpendicular to the axis of the roller movement for charging and laying of the powder.EFFECT: high quality of the manufactured article and high sintering efficiency.2 cl, 1 dwg

aterials cutting method // 2293006
FIELD: cutting materials by means of laser beam.SUBSTANCE: method for cutting materials, mainly metallic materials comprises steps of melting material and removing it out of cutting zone by means of laser irradiation. Material is melt with use of irradiation of main laser. Melt material is removed from cutting zone by means of irradiation of additional laser operating in cyclic-pulse mode and having mean power less at least by order than mean power value of main laser. Power density of additional laser is sufficient for boiling up melt material in focusing spot and diameter of laser beam in cutting place is less than diameter of beam of main laser in cutting place. Laser operating in continuous or cyclic-pulse mode may be used as main laser. At operation of main laser in cyclic-pulse mode, pulse duration of beam of additional laser in cutting place is less than pulse duration of beam of main laser in cutting place. Beams of main and additional lasers may be coaxial or their axes may cross by angle in range 10 - 170°.EFFECT: lowered power consumption, increased efficiency due to using two lasers with different characteristics of irradiation respectively for melting material and removing it form cutting zone.7 cl, 4 dwg

ethod for protecting laser working unit against dust and device for performing the same // 2265507
FIELD: laser working equipment and processes, namely protection against dust of laser working equipment, possibly in different branches of machine engineering. SUBSTANCE: method for protecting laser unit 2 against dust at process of laser working of object S in working zone S' comprises steps of setting pressure in zone S' practically equal to environment pressure; creating in first region between zone S' and laser unit 2 longitudinal gas flow directed to zone S' in order to prevent dust movement towards laser unit 2 and to minimize efforts acting upon object S. Device 6 for performing the method includes passage 11 passing from laser irradiation inlet 12 turned to laser unit 2 till laser irradiation outlet 13 turned to object S. Passage 11 communicates with unit controlling gas supply to passage 11 at least through one inlet window 16,17 for gas spaced relative to outlet 13. Simultaneously gas supply control unit provides gas discharging out of passage 11 at least through one outlet window 22, 23 for gas arranged near outlet 13.EFFECT: prevention of dust penetration into laser unit, possibility for high-accurate laser working of different objects.37 cl, 6 dwg

Installation for laser processing // 2140838
The invention relates to laser processing of materials, namely figured cutting flat sheets using laser radiation and can be used for the manufacture of parts of various configurations of wide range, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, aerospace and the automotive industry