Method of establishing a casing pillow of shell
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, in particular to methods for constructing circular piles for transitions, through water barriers for road and railway transitions. Method of forming a pile of a shell includes immersing a tubular core and a tubular stamp to form an annular cavity filled with concrete, with the subsequent extraction under vibration of the core with simultaneous sealing of the soil plug. According to the invention, before or during the extraction of the core, a particulate material, in particular sand, is fed into the cavity of the latter filled with water.
EFFECT: method for constructing circular piles for transitions, through water barriers for road and railway transitions is proposed.
SUBSTANCE: pipe concrete pile with a reinforced base comprises an outer metal shell in the form of a pipe with a reinforcement frame made of longitudinal reinforcement rods arranged along the shell contour, filled with concrete. The outer metal pipe shell is made as non-extracted. The pipe-concrete pile additionally comprises a reinforcing element formed from an inner pile, made of a cylindrical part and a driven tip in the form of a truncated cone, and an expansion element formed from a concrete structure of cylindrical shape, divided into segments with the possibility of their displacement in radial direction with a rotation around the horizontal axis, and combined in a mounting position with an inner pile. The inner diameter in the upper part of the expansion element is more than the inner diameter in the lower part.
EFFECT: reduced material intensity and labour intensiveness, higher manufacturability and reliability of design.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device for formation of wells for augered piles includes an expander, casing pipes and an impact device. The expander has a cylindrical-conical form with the diameter of the cylindrical part larger than the diameter of casing pipes, inside the cylindrical part there is the left thread for the lower casing pipe, and the conical part is equipped with stiff ribs.
EFFECT: reduced side friction during driving submersion of inventory casing pipes and their withdrawal in process of augered piles body concreting, elimination of soil and soil waters inside casing pipes in process of their submersion.
SUBSTANCE: reinforced sand pile for foundations on waterlogged clayey bases includes placement of a cylindrical sand pile in the base soil. Along the outer contour the pile is reinforced with a geosynthetic material, operating for stretching and constricting transverse deformations of sand soil.
EFFECT: higher bearing capacity of a sand pile, reduced subsidence of foundations on waterlogged clayey soils, reduced material intensity.
SUBSTANCE: method to produce wells in soil for erection of filling piles includes simultaneous submersion of a stamp and a casing pipe by hammering to a design elevation, withdrawal of the stamp and the casing pipe, previously a set of a working element is submerged into soil, including a casing pipe with a head, a stamp with a body arranged coaxially to the casing pipe, with a striker and a tip, at the same time the stamp with the body, the striker and the tip is used as a rammer protruding from the casing pipe.
EFFECT: higher extent of soil compaction and bearing capacity of foundations on filling piles in unstable, loose and waterlogged soils.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to manufacture cast-in-place piles consists in suspension of a casing pile to a pile driver, its resting against soil, filling the lower part of the casing pipe with a loose material and its compaction with a falling hammer of the pile driver to form a plug in the casing pipe, afterwards the casing pipe is submerged to the specified elevation by hitting the plug with the hammer, and then by dropping of the hammer from high altitude, the plug is knocked out with simultaneous formation of bottom broadening under the casing pipe, installation of a reinforcement frame and concreting of a pile shaft with simultaneous withdrawal of the casing pipe. After the casing pipe achieves the design elevation, the plug is pushed out with the help of higher strikes of the hammer until it starts moving, at the same time with every hit, while pushing the plug, the casing pipe is withdrawn to the height from 2 to 3 cm, and after pushing the plug to the depth equal to the half of the casing pipe diameter, withdrawal of the casing pipe is stopped, and it is again driven into soil with at least 20 hits of the hammer. The plug is pushed out leaving its safe remainder, at the same time the plug material forms an integral part of the pile foundation. The additional amount of loose material is added to the casing pipe, which is rammed using the hammer with simultaneous withdrawal of the casing pipe, thus forming a broader pile foot. Prior to installation of the reinforcement frame, the casing pipe is set into the finished pile foot, and the plug remainder is fully pushed out. The reinforcement frame is installed into the casing pipe with its forced deepening into strong bearing soil, and the entire pile body is concreted by means of continuous laying of cast concrete with simultaneous raising of the casing pipe.
EFFECT: higher rates of pile body concreting, increased bearing capacity of a cast-in-place pile due to reinforcement of weak soils, reduction of material intensity and labour intensiveness.
15 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: plant for soil compaction comprises a hollow casing pipe and a narrowing cap, which includes tabs hingedly fixed on the hollow casing pipe. The narrowing cap is equipped with at least one tab rigidly fixed on the hollow casing pipe.
EFFECT: higher strength of a cap and its tabs, provision of compaction of soil having stronger interlayers.
7 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: aseismic pile comprises a cylindrical fabricated structure made of reinforced concrete placed into a sand concrete hollow reinforced cylinder, on the bottom of which there is granite sand, with a layer of around one metre. The space between the reinforced cylindrical structure and the sand concrete reinforced cylinder is filled with sand for the height of the hollow cylinder.
EFFECT: invention provides for foundation reliability, reinforcement, preventing building damage in case of considerable earth oscillations under seismically dangerous conditions, lower material intensity.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of construction and may be used to erect piled foundations in weak and heaving soilds. Application of the device is especially efficient to erect cast-in-place piles for light wooden, frame buildings, transmitting small loads to foundations and exposed to deformations from seasonal freezing of heaving soils. The device comprises a casing pipe, a core arranged in the form of a pipe, closed with plates at the upper and lower sides, besides, chains are attached to the lower plate. Chains are placed into a tight shell made of waste materials (plastic, cardboard, veneer, etc.). In the upper and lower plates there are holes, through which a reinforcement rod stretches, which also passes via a shell with chains. In the lower part of the shell the reinforcement rod is fixed with an orifice, and in the upper part - with a nut. Between the casing pipe and the well wall there is an anti-heaving material (bitumen mastic, organosilicon compounds, polymer films, sarking, sand and gravel mix).
EFFECT: device makes it possible to increase the bearing capacity of a pile and prevents exposure of building and structure foundations to soil heaving forces.
SUBSTANCE: shell pipe is made of hollow metal or reinforced concrete cylinders joined by means of electric welding or bolt joints. In order to increase bearing capacity and improve process capabilities, there is a diaphragm installed into inner cavity of pile, providing for formation of compacted zone of soil under spike, controlling depth of its submersion and specified bearing capacity. Diaphragm is made in the form of truncated cone oriented towards pile head and with hole in its upper part.
EFFECT: increased bearing capacity, reduction in material consumption and labour costs.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of construction, in particular to pile design. Reinforced concrete driven pile of circular section contains sharpened bottom end having shape of rotation paraboloid truncated in focal plane, lower to truncation plane, paraboloid changes into spherical belt, at the very end spherical belt transits into cone. Formula provides the second version of reinforced concrete driven pile making.
EFFECT: improved shape of pile tip, with the purpose of more complete usage of impact or vibration energy and reduction of time needed for pile submersion in ground.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: building structures, particularly shallow foundations.
SUBSTANCE: method involves creating well by ground excavation, introducing preparatory portion of hardening material in well hollow including calculated part of hardening material; arranging explosive charge in lower well part; securing explosive charge; blowing explosive charge up to create cavity for widened foundation post part; crushing and widening above calculated part after explosion; introducing additional portion of hardening concrete in well up to 4/5 of well height; filling it with calculated part of above material portion. Concrete for casting is used as preparatory hardening material.
EFFECT: reduced time, increased simplicity of foundation building and reliability.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: building and construction.
SUBSTANCE: method includes serial vibration immersion of inventory elements into soil, which are mated between each other, and their following vibration extraction with concurrent filling of hollow in soil with concrete mixture. Inventory elements are used, which are made in form of profiled posts, having gates in lower portion, closed during immersion in soil and opened by flexible links during extraction of elements from soil and feeding of concrete mixture. At the same time profiled elements of longitudinal walling have lesser length, than length of profiled elements of vertical posts, which during immersion are pressed in for greater depth than profiled elements of longitudinal walling. First, profiled element of longitudinal walling is immersed, and then via guiding conductor profiled element of vertical post is densely mated to it and is than immersed. Concrete mixture is loaded in profiled element of longitudinal walling with its extraction with open gates and extracted element is immersed in next position adjacently to previous profiled element of vertical post being in soil. Concrete mixture is loaded into profiled element of vertical post during its extraction with open gates and extracted element if immersed into following position with concurrent mating to previous profiled element of longitudinal walling with use of guiding conductor. Then inventory elements are immersed again. Device for construction of bearing-limiting structures in soil includes crane or pile driver with vertical guide, vibration immersion driver and at least two inventory hollow elements. Inventory elements are made in form of profiled elements of longitudinal walling and profiled elements of vertical posts. Profiled elements of longitudinal walling have length less than length of profiled elements of vertical posts, which are made of hollow rectangular profiles, rigidly interconnected by solid rib along transverse axis along whole height of element, while vertical guide in lower portion is provided with guiding conductor.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, broader functional capabilities.
2 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly cast-in-place building units, namely support structures.
SUBSTANCE: reinforced concrete column is formed in retained formwork and consists of upper support part and lower foundation part. Column includes reinforcement frame grouted with concrete mix and embedded members arranged in upper column part. Upper part of frame is located in retained formwork. Embedded members are in level with foundation slab marks and with flooring panel marks. Embedded members are formed as closed contours with stiffening ribs. Column is built in single- or multi-slot hollow. Projection of geometric retained formwork cross-section center coincides with that of lower reinforcement frame part. Arms of lower reinforcement form part extending in Y-axis direction are sized in accordance with given mathematical relation. Method of column erection involves forming single- or multi-slot hollow; producing reinforcement form with embedded members; forming retained formwork; installing above components; vertically placing the reinforcement frame in hollow so that frame is spaced a distance from hollow bottom; vertically adjusting and fixing upper column part to prevent transversal displacement thereof; grouting lower column part in bottom-top direction; grouting inner retained formwork area of upper column part. Hollow has dimensions measured in Y-axis direction determined from given relation.
EFFECT: possibility of simultaneous building erection in upward and downward directions relative ground level.
7 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly for erecting support structures, namely pile foundations, injection anchors, walls in ground, cast-in-place reinforced earth constructions and other geotechnic structures used for new building erection or reconstruction of existent buildings.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming well or trench section in ground; at least partly filling thereof with hardening material or drilling agent, for instance with cement-bentonite one; substituting thereof with hardening material; immersing reinforcing cage with outer flexible shell connected to at least part of cage length in well. The flexible shell is permeable for liquid fraction of the hardening material and provides waterproofing of the cage after setting of above material and hardening material located outside the shell. Shell parameters are determined from the given correlations.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity, reliability and service life, extended field of application.
24 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly foundation building, namely for erecting pile foundations in seasonally freezing ground.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming well extending for the full thickness of seasonally freezing ground layer, wherein well diameter increases pile diameter; installing heater in the well; transferring heat; driving casing pipe with detachable tip in ground through heater cavity; concreting well bore along with simultaneous lifting casing pipe and removing heater. Heat is supplied to concrete mixture within the limits of seasonally freezing ground after casing pipe removal. Inductor made as copper wire coil covered with heat-protective layer and located outside metal pipe is used as the heater. Heating is performed within 10-12 hours along with maintaining 75-80°C temperature of concrete mix by regulating inductor power up to obtaining concrete strength equal to 80% of design strength. After inductor removal from the well gap formed between well wall and pile body is filled with non-heaving ground.
EFFECT: reduced power inputs along with maintaining high productivity and increased load-bearing pile capacity.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly pile foundation erection.
SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling hole; installing injection pipe in the hole bottom center; installing reinforcement case; injecting cement-and-sand grout through the injection pipe below lower pile end for ground compaction and widened part arrangement; concreting the pile. To create widened part of the pile and to compact ground after concrete hardening cement-and-sand grout is fed under pressure into sealed bag formed of elastic water impermeable material and connected to lower end of ejection pipe so that cement-and-sand grout expands the bag up to reaching necessary bag volume.
EFFECT: increased economy of pile forming, increased ability of clay ground compaction at pile base.
4 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: foundation building.
SUBSTANCE: pile has body made as shell filled with concrete and formed as members having trough-shaped cross-sections and extending in longitudinal direction. Members have side walls abutting the central wall and extending at obtuse angles from it. The shell has frame. Central walls of frame members are of ellipsoid shape and filled with concrete.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity and reliability.
FIELD: building, particularly to erect cast-in-place pile having large diameter in collapsible ground layer of large thickness.
SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling pilot hole; installing casing pipe connected to puncher; punching the well ground by dropping load on the puncher through casing pipe to reach design point and enlarging the casing pipe; arranging reinforcement case in the pipe; filling the well with concrete mix as casing pipe moves upward; compacting the concrete mix. In the case of pile with 300-1500 mm diameter forming and in the case of collapsible ground layer thickness up to 18 m or 18-50 m ratio between pilot hole depth and collapsible ground thickness is 1:(4.5-6) and 1:(1.5-5). The puncher has reinforced concrete tip and head made of tube with outer diameter equal to inner diameter of pilot hole. Welded to the head are centering rings. The tip has ring to engage thereof with technological control rod provided with thread, washer with retainers and nut on opposite end thereof. Ratio of height H of upper head part provided with centering rings to length of casing pipe to be installed in the head is 1:(20-30). Ratio between outer puncher diameter D and outer diameter d at tapered part ℓ thereof is equal to 1:0.8. Length ratio between cylindrical head part L and cylindrical tapered part ℓ is equal to 1:0.6. Angles γ of head and head transition area leading to tapered part ℓ are equal to 30°. Difference between outer puncher diameter D to outer casing pipe T diameter is 90-100 mm.
EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and decreased material consumption.
FIELD: building, particularly to create bored piles in cased wells during building and building structure foundation erection.
SUBSTANCE: method involves heating ground surrounding place of pile erection and heating concrete mix with induction heater. The concrete mix is vibratory treated in pulsed mode at the beginning of heating operation by applying electromagnetic field generated by induction heater to metal reinforcement bars, wherein high-frequency current of induction heater is subjected to low-frequency modulation. At concrete mix setting beginning the pulsed mode is changed into high-voltage one. Device for above method realization comprises induction heater comprising steel pipe put on asbestos-cement pile casing pipe and winding made of copper coiled bus linked with high-frequency power source. The winding is connected to metal pipe. Diametrical longitudinal orifices are made in the steel pipe. The power source comprises circuit providing high-frequency current modulation with low frequency.
EFFECT: possibility of simultaneous heat and vibration application to concrete mix, reduced cost of the device along with reduced number of working tools, simplified control, provision of concrete shrinkage and compaction under heating, which is performed by single device.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly foundation and retaining wall erection with the use of injection piles.
SUBSTANCE: injection pile comprises concrete shaft formed directly in well and comprising reinforcing cage made as metal injection pipe lowered in well to refusal and spaced from well wall. The injection pipe is provided with lower perforated section having side injection orifices arranged in several layers beginning from lower injection pipe end. Well diameter is not more than 3d, where d is outer injection pipe diameter. Perforated section length is more than 3d, but less than L and is equal to (0.2-0.7)L, where L is well depth. Retaining wall is built on pile foundation comprising injection piles. The retaining wall includes reinforcing cage made as metal pipe having upper part used as head. The retaining wall is composed of concrete blocks laid in several rows one upon another. Blocks of lower row form retaining wall base. At least upper block installed on lower one has through orifice, which is vertically aligned with mounting orifice formed in lower block. Common cavity defined by above orifices is reinforced and concreted.
EFFECT: simplified structure, reduced cost of pile foundation and retaining wall construction.
21 cl, 3 ex, 3 dwg