Multilayer building element, method of its manufacture and technological line for manufacturing multilayer building element
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, namely to multi-layer building elements containing a heat-insulating layer. Multilayer building element includes external elements and a heat-insulating layer placed between them. Herewith the upper and the lower surfaces of the external elements of the multilayer building element are formed with a longitudinal slot along the entire external element. Multilayer building element further comprises longitudinal connecting elements entering the slots of the upper and the lower surfaces of the external elements of the multilayer building element. Multilayered building element is made with the possibility of both horizontal and vertical laying. In the heat-insulating layer, technological slots are made for electrical wiring guides. Technological line for producing the multilayer building element and a method for manufacturing the multilayer building element are also described.
EFFECT: technical result is creating a multilayered building element that is simple and convenient to be combined in a construction that gives a minimal shrinkage with the possibility of using a multilayer building element for erecting walls of bearing, internal partitions, floors and ceilings, as well as manufacturing finished walls with all technological holes by gluing and screeding during production; a high-performance production line for producing the multilayer building element using known equipment, with low energy consumption, as well as providing the possibility of supplying external elements vertically oriented, as well as a continuous and low-cost way of manufacturing the multilayer building element.
7 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to manufacture haydite concrete blocks with a face texture layer includes preparation of a moulding mass, its laying into a mould in the form of split or detachable casing with a replaceable process tray installed in it and made in the form of a texture matrix. The moulding mass is applied for the face texture layer. At the same time the moulding mass is glass fibre concrete, which is first applied by spraying onto the texture matrix with a layer of 2-4 mm. The moulding mass for the main layer is prepared from the mix of haydite with fractions of 10-20 mm with concrete at the ratio of 65-75% haydite, balance is concrete. The specified mass is poured into the mould in 25-35 minutes after application of the face texture layer to the upper edge of the mould. The contents of the mould are exposed to vibration pressing for 1-2 minutes. The available free space in the mould of 1-2-5 cm to the edges of the mould is poured with concrete without haydite fractions. Afterwards the moulded mass is exposed to additional short-term (several seconds) vibration pressing. The moulded mass is exposed to drying in a drying chamber with subsequent withdrawal of the block from the mould.
EFFECT: expansion of functional capabilities due to production of blocks with stable size, their increased strength and reduced weight.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of construction materials, particularly, heat isolation blocks. Production of heat isolation blocks with flat moulded or faced concrete stone, heat isolation layer and concrete inner layer integrated by appropriate reinforcements comprises filling proportioned amount of concrete, facing stone, heat isolation layer with reinforcements and proportioned amount of concrete of inner stone. Note here that concretes are compacted by compaction and vibration of concretes of face and inner stones through heat isolation layer located there between to produce integral heat insulation bock prepared for demoulding.
EFFECT: higher quality.
SUBSTANCE: construction material is made in the form of unit from rows of bottles fixed together, in which the bottles are stacked in horizontal rows, besides the necks of neighbour bottles are oriented in opposite directions with thrust into the side walls of the unit, made of completely or partly transparent material, and the bottles are secured with each other via lateral surfaces by means of cement mixture.
EFFECT: simplification of the manufacturing process, increase of the strength of construction material.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to methods and ways to erect and construct cast-in-place concrete frame buildings with different number of floors with multilayer walls that do not require insulation, additional treatment and finishing of internal and external surfaces, from multi-layer panels with longitudinal internal cavities, and also to equipment for production of construction materials, to large-panel folding formworks. In the method to manufacture multi-layer panels, the decorative layer is applied by the method of concrete guniting, and longitudinal through channels are formed in a heat insulation layer. In the multilayer panel they arrange a strengthened layer between the decorative layer and the heat insulation layer, and the heat insulation layer is equipped with through longitudinal channels. In the folding formwork they arrange additional end boards with folding, non-folding and collapsible boards, and upper end boards are equipped with fixators for longitudinal pipes. In the process line for manufacturing of multi-layer panels they use a multi-stream section for filling of formworks, comprising several lines with tilters for reloading and distribution of formworks along the lines in the inlet zone and for step feed of filled formworks from the outlet zone into the stacking zone, and the section of drying of finished panels in formworks is equipped with chambers of heat treatment and a stacking crane, besides, the process line is equipped with facilities for unloading of panels from formworks with subsequent tilting of panels with a decorative layer upwards, their washing and drying. In the method to erect a cast-in-place concrete frame building with decorative external finishing they use multi-layer panels with a strengthened layer, arranged between the decorative and heat insulation layers, in which cavities for pouring concrete are made in the form of vertical channels arranged in the heat insulation layer.
EFFECT: simplified erection of a cast-in-place concrete frame building with increased strength characteristics of a building frame with prefabricated monolithic walls that do not require additional finish and repair of inner and outer surfaces, simplified process of pouring a concrete mix into longitudinal cavities of multi-layer panels during erection of building walls regardless of weather conditions, higher reliability, strength and aseismic stability of a structure, facilitated manufacturing, tilting and transportation of panels.
23 cl, 119 dwg
SUBSTANCE: thermal squared beam comprises wooden parts-lamels, connected to each other by means of pins, with deepening of the latter by 1/3 of part thickness, and a sealant between parts-lamels. The sealant is a thermal insert either from foam polyethylene or from polyethylene with a single-sided or double-sided reflecting coating using foil and/or metallised lavsan, either from a different heat-sound insulating material. Dimensions of the thermal insert by length and width are equal to dimensions of wooden parts-lamels, and its thickness is taken within the 3 mm and above. Plastic spacer rings are installed onto pins, with thickness less than thickness of the thermal insert by 0.5-1 mm, in which holes are made for these rings in advance. With reduction of pin quantity on the squared beam the outer diameter of spacer rings is increased.
EFFECT: higher heat and sound protection properties of a squared beam.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to multi-layer power structural elements in the form of columns, towers, beams, grooves, etc., used in construction. A multi-layer power structural element comprises inner and outer layers, made by winding of reinforcing threads or rovings onto a mandrel, impregnated with a polymer binder with specified protective properties to form a solid layer, and a structural layer placed between them and stiffly connected to them, made of previously prepared volume elements, providing for adhesion of inner and outer layers. The previously prepared volume elements are made in the form of meshed longitudinal power elements with transverse links formed from reinforcing threads or rovings impregnated by a polymer binder, and the formed cavity between the external and internal layers connected by the structural layer serves to introduce a filler. Also a version of a multi-layer element is described.
EFFECT: increased reliability of an item due to provision of higher adhesion of layers with simultaneous provision of non-combustibility of protective layers, higher strength and heat resistance, increased speed of manufacturing of a finished item.
19 cl, 1 tbl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: multi-layer thermal block for construction comprises a stiff spatial element - a matrix, besides, the block comprises three bearing concrete layers and two thermal insulation layers from foam plastic arranged between them, for instance, foam polystyrene, having holes for connection of three concrete layers into a single monolithic structure with the help of formation of solid links during pouring, besides, heat insulation layers are shifted relative to bearing layers along the vertical line and along the horizontal line for production of a slot and comb connection of blocks, which insulates bearing layers from each other by thermal insulating layers along edges of the block in the zone of contact with an adhesive mixture. Concrete links in one heat insulating layer are shifted relative to links in the other heat insulating layer to the maximum possible value and have the size of cross section required for provision of strength of the structure, and in case of the slot and comb connection the adhesive layer having the highest heat conductivity, in process of mounting it is broken into 5 segments, in accordance with the number of layers. Also the method and the device for its manufacturing are described.
EFFECT: higher strength of connection between block layers, higher thermal protection properties of a block and heat and wind protection properties of an erected structure, higher quality of mounting, reduced time of construction.
4 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to flaky items used in construction for heat insulation of buildings and premises in it. The heat and sound insulation unit comprises filler webs laid one onto another, every of which comprises a corrugated sheet with corrugations of zigzag shape and a flat sheet connected to it. In each filler web, at least at one longitudinal side of the filler web, the flat sheet is arranged with a transverse size below the corrugated sheet by value of at least half of a pitch of a zigzag-shaped corrugation, thus producing a compensator from corrugations protruding beyond the flat sheet, capable of being compressed in transverse direction for gapless laying of the filler web into a building structure. A serrated line of corrugated sheet bend matches the edge of the flat sheet of the web. In the first version of block laying into a building structure the block is pressed with its longitudinal side with a compensator to the element of the building structure, and in this condition it is installed into the filled space of the building structure. The block compensator due to action of springing forces fills a gap produced between the block and the element of the building structure. In the second version, in case of layer-by-layer installation of block filler webs into a building structure, block filler webs that are adjacent along the height of the building structure are laid with a rotation relative to each other by 180°, and thus the compensator of the below block filler web is covered with a flat sheet of the filler web sheet. In the third version, in case of layer-by-layer installation of block filler webs into a building structure with equal longitudinal and transverse dimensions, block filler webs that are adjacent along the height of the building structure are laid with a rotation relative to each other by 90°, and thus gapless laying of the block is provided at all sides of the building structure.
EFFECT: invention provides for higher heat and sound insulation properties of blocks due to elimination of gaps between elements of building structures and fillers.
4 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: multilayer building block consists of a decorative face layer, a bearing layer and a heat insulating layer provided in between, which are fixed to each other with polymer rods. The block is arranged in the form of a prism, trapezoid bases of which are ends of the block, and non-parallel prism faces of identical area are upper and lower bases of the block. The parallel side face of the prism of larger area is an outer side of the decorative layer of the block, the parallel side face of the prism of smaller area is an inner side of the bearing layer of the block, besides, the angle between planes of prism bases and the outer side of the face decorative layer makes 89 and less degrees, on one of bases in the decorative and bearing layers there are slots, axes of which are in planes parallel to the face side of the decorative layer, with the area of section of each slot of more than 5 sq. cm., on the other base there are ledges arranged as complying with slots. The method of construction of the multilayer construction blocks is also described.
EFFECT: higher labour efficiency in erection of a building, elimination of damages on a decorative layer when erecting a building, compensation of uneven subsidence of a block during laying, strict dosing of mortar, reduced flow of concrete mortar in laying and reduced costs for erection of a building.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: wall unit is arranged in the form of a faceted structure from a hardened material, having a face surface arranged on the outer face side of the unit, an inner surface arranged on the inner side of the unit, lower, upper and side surfaces, at the same time the unit comprises a face layer, an intermediate layer and an inner layer arranged serially along its width, besides, the face layer has thickness of s1, which is less than the thickness s2 of the intermediate layer, and the thickness s3 of the inner layer is less than the thickness s1 of the face layer, the latter contains cement, a plasticiser and ground haydite with fractions within 1 to 5 mm, the intermediate layer of the unit contains cement, a plasticiser and haydite with fractions within 5 to 20 mm, the inner layer of the unit contains sand, cement and a plasticiser, the specified thicknesses of the unit layers are selected depending on the width S of the unit and are in the ratio of s1:s2:s3=(0.10-0.17)S:(0.89-0.79)S:(0.007-0.037)S, the unit comprises a L-shaped crest made in the face layer and covering it at two adjacent lateral and lower sides, and also a L-shaped groove made in the face layer and covering at two other adjacent lateral and upper sides of the unit, the crest and the groove are installed in a single plane, parallel to the face surface of the unit, the surface of the crest and the groove, the face and inner surfaces are arranged as solid and smooth, and the lower, upper and lateral sides of the unit arranged between the face and inner layers are made as rough with grooves stretching inside the unit from 0.1 mm to 20 mm between fractions, at the same time the length of the unit L at its face side is selected depending on the width S of the unit within the limits of L=(0.99-1.01)S, the length Lin of the unit at its inner side is selected as equal to the length of the unit at its face side, the face surface of the unit is arranged at the distance s4 from the crest axis, the inner surface of the unit is arranged at the distance s5 from the crest axis, which is more than the distance s4, besides, s4 and s5 are in the ratio s4=(0.08-0.16)s5. Also the versions of units design are described, as well as a material for manufacturing of a unit, versions of molds for manufacturing of a unit, the method to manufacture the unit and a line for unit manufacturing.
EFFECT: reduced weight of units, its higher strength, provision of possibility to increase strength of units connection in a wall, simplified technology of production by usage of moulds from unified elements, using a simplified method for manufacturing of units and a line for method implementation.
41 cl, 61 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device for thermal treatment of construction materials and items from them comprises a chamber with generators of infrared radiation, heat-insulated doors, a control panel, devices and instruments regulating parameters of emission flows and internal pressure in the chamber. Generators are made as paired symmetrically infrared emitters and reflectors of complex configuration made of curvilinear sections creating a reflector in the form of two mirror cylindrical surfaces symmetrical relative to the vertical plane of the chamber of cylindrical surfaces having a common line. In the cross section the centres of curvature of curvilinear sections of the reflector in the chamber are arranged on a straight line stretching via centres of infrared emitters. At the same time radii of curvature of curvilinear sections of reflectors are related to each other as 1:π:π2. The chamber is made as closed. On side internal surfaces of the chamber vertically and in the arch of the chamber there are horizontally installed identical generators of infrared radiation. At the same time in each generator in the cross section the centres of curvature are arranged on straight lines crossing at the angle of 60° , one of which stretches via the centres of infrared radiators installed inside the sections of smallest radius of curvature. Centres of the largest radius of curvature are tops of equilateral triangles, the base of which is a section of a straight line that connects centres of smallest radii of curvature, at the same time completion of the largest radius of curvature. At the same time radii of largest curvature of vertically and horizontally installed generators start from one point.
EFFECT: increased quality and strength of items due to even distribution of heat along area and depth of infrared radiation penetration.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to fixation of lifting eyes on a concrete element during its installation. A lifting eye is made of a metal rod and is at least partially located inside a cavity made in the concrete element surface. The above method involves transfer of at least the forces acting in longitudinal direction of the concrete element and applied to the lifting eye to the above concrete element by means of a support. A support is placed at least partially into the above cavity of the concrete element in which the lifting eye is located.
EFFECT: improving lifting eye fixation efficiency.
10 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: disk-shaped working element of a concrete finishing machine includes a drive shaft that can transfer a torque moment to a smoothing disk, with that, in cavities of the smoothing disk there located are magnetrons creating microwave radiation, the electric power to which is supplied by means of sliding contacts through a rheostat, by means of which it is possible to control a microwave radiation gradient.
EFFECT: obtaining high quality of treatment of a surface of concrete items; obtaining a high-strength surface layer.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, particularly to production of cellular concrete particles. Proposed method comprises separate preparation of mortar and water, making foam of surfactant and water, mixing said mortar with foam, foam making, moulding the mix in the mould and thermal processing of article. Mortar is made by mixing water and cement at the following ratio, in wt %: cement - 25.0-58.0, water - 43.0-29.0. Cement is added into vessel with water at constant mixing to obtain homogeneous mortar. At a time, foam-like medium is made by mixing anionic and/or nonionic surfactant in amount of 0.05-0.2% per 30.0-9.0% of water degassed by thermal treatment at 20-95°C. Mixing is conducted by rubber disc fitted on drive shaft at 1000-3000 rpm. Obtained foam-like medium is added to mortar and mixer by mixer composed by piston engaged with drive to reciprocate vertically to produce homogeneous mass. Said mass is poured into molds and solidified at 1-37°C. Now, semi-finished moulded article is withdrawn to be cured at ambient temperature to solid state.
EFFECT: higher precision of finished articles.
10 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction and can be used for high-quality processing of uncured reinforced concrete surfaces of articles moulded from concrete mixes for civil and industrial construction. Concrete surface finisher working disc tool consists of body, motor, drive shaft and smoothing disc. Besides, it comprises cathode immersed in concrete mix and rheostat to control electric field gradient and to transmit electricity via current collector to drive shaft and smoothing disc. Note here that is it possible to influence processed concrete surface by electric effects.
EFFECT: higher surface quality and hardness.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction and can be used for high-quality processing of uncured reinforced concrete surfaces of articles moulded from concrete mixes for civil and industrial construction. Finisher disc tool comprises drive shaft to transmit rotation to smoothing disc made from magnetically conducting material wherein high-power magnets are secured. Said smoothing discs can rotate in opposite directions at different angular velocities. Note here that outer smoothing disc is rigidly secured to planetary train. Inner smoothing disc is rigidly attached to the shaft. Outer and inner smoothing discs have recesses made in adjacent zone of rotation to accommodate alternating poles of high-power magnets.
EFFECT: higher surface quality and strength, decreased roughness and power consumption.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction machinery and may be used for smoothing as-formed concrete surfaces. Proposed device consists of drive shaft with gear rigidly fitted thereon to actuate vertical cylindrical unbalanced gears. One-way bevel gears are rigidly fitted on primary horizontal drive shaft to engage with four unbalanced bevel gears with vertical axes.
EFFECT: higher quality of smoothing, better compaction.
SUBSTANCE: working element of a smoothing machine comprises a shaft, a frame, two rolls. Smoothening rolls have a barrel-like shape and are capable of rotating in a plane arranged at the angle to the axis of rotation of the working element itself.
EFFECT: production of wavy macrorelief of a processed surface with a specified pitch and a slant angle.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of decorative concrete articles. Proposed method comprises preparing mix of intermediate layer of the mix of crushed glass cullet, liquid glass and water, laying concrete mix and intermediate layer mix, maturing and thermomoist processing, plasma fusion of article face surface at plasmatron power of 9 kW and plasma burner feed rate of 0.1 m/s.
EFFECT: higher quality, accelerated glasing, power savings.
3 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction engineering and may be used construction of industrial and civic structures. Proposed device comprises rotor of radial rotary automatic device for shaping slides arranged to reciprocate to make mould for moulding U-like carcass in mould closed position and withdrawing the latter with shaping slides opened.
EFFECT: lower production costs.
FIELD: building materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for decorative finishing of concrete and reinforced concrete articles. Method comes to laying relief forming member in mould, covering it and laying concrete of decorative face layer. Used as relief forming member is porous hydrophilic material with layer of powder gas generator and layer of colouring agent applied in succession to its surface. Moisture permeable cloth is used as covering and structural concrete, as decorative face layer.
EFFECT: simplified process, increased service life of face surface of concrete articles.
1 ex, 3 tbl