Measurement of micro-jams and slips of bottomhole motor using fiber-optic sensors
FIELD: measuring equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method for measuring micro-slips and micro-jams in a downhole motor is provided. It includes the following stages: placing in the borehole a downhole motor with an elastomeric stator and at least one fiber-optic sensor inside the elastomeric stator; obtaining a measurement value corresponding to the tension inside the elastomeric stator from the fiber-optic sensor; and processing a measurement value to determine the frequency of at least one of the micro-jams and slips of the downhole motor.
EFFECT: increase in the service life of the downhole motor by reducing the loads on the elastomeric stator.
20 cl, 20 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in system comprising water transfer module with pumps, intake tank with supply pipeline, module for analysis of diagnostic parameters, Instruments module, block for input of intake tank volumes, block for water inflow analysis, module for analysis of the diagnostic parameters provided with blocks for input of geometrical characteristics of the intake tanks, input of hydraulic characteristics of supply pipeline, analysis of water pumping from intake tank, Instruments module is equipped with water level transmitters installed in the supply pipeline and in the intake tank, the water transfer module is equipped with shutdown-regulating device with actuator installed in the supply pipeline, control device, at that outputs of the blocks for input of the geometrical characteristics of the intake tank, input of hydraulic characteristics of the supply pipeline, and block for analysis of water pumped from the intake tank are connected to input of the block for analysis of water inflow.
EFFECT: possibility of system use to solve objectives relating diagnostic of water flowrate.
5 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: longitudinal stress values are defined continuously during the motion of a rolling stock at the mechanical interaction of a rolling railroad wheel with a rail when mechanical oscillations are excited at tested sections of rail bars with recording, converting of the received oscillations to acoustic oscillations with signal amplification, and at the analysis of spectrum of the excited oscillations in frequency and amplitude depending on a value of longitudinal mechanical stress at the rail bar sections. According to results of data processing changes in the spectrum of the excited oscillations are analysed and sections of railroad tracks are identified with deviations in an amplitude-frequency curve in a real-time mode.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of control and safety of train traffic.
SUBSTANCE: motor vehicle (MV) weight sensor contains a set of discrete sensing elements located between separate upper cover and lower cover the material of which is selected based on condition of providing sensor elastic deformation in bending approximately the same as for adjacent layer of road bed. Upper and lower covers can be made of material the Young 's modulus of which is not less than Young 's modulus of material of discrete sensing elements, and thermal linear expansion coefficient of this material can me approximately equal to thermal linear expansion coefficient of road bed adjacent layer material.
EFFECT: higher measurement accuracy and increased lifecycle time of sensor in specific road conditions.
22 cl, 15 dwg
SUBSTANCE: measurements of surface deformations ε are carried out in controlled points on a structure, which is in stressed-deformed condition. Controlled points are selected so that they are capable of additional loading regardless of the structure. In controlled points they create with the help of the available external force P, additional stresses that match in direction with the measured ones, deformation is stepwise increased by Δε, change of the external force is measured ΔPi. Loading is increased until
EFFECT: simplified process of measurement and no damage to integrity of the investigated structure.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of measurement of voltage of initial shift (plasticity) of liquids in pipelines, for example milk in hoses of milking machines. The offered method of measurement of voltage of shift of milk column consists in that using one pressuriser the water column pressure h1 = 20 - 25 mm is pre-set in a glass vessel connected by piping with a differential water manometer and a capillary, and the capillary piping is locked by a clip, and using the second pressuriser the portion of milk is sucked into the capillary to the column length l0 = by 1 - 2 cm, then the pipeline is locked by a clip, the water column h2 = 25 - 30 mm is established, the clip is unlocked. Meanwhile, using a stop watch the time of shift of milk column t1 under the action of h1 pressure is measured, and then the time of shift of the milk column t2 under the action of the pressure h2 is measured. The voltage of initial shift τ0 is determined by the formula τ0=9.8(D/4l0)(t1 _t2)(t1/h1-t2/h2), where D - diameter of the capillary, mm. The device for measurement of voltage of shift of milk column contains the pressuriser connected with piping with the differential water manometer and glass vessel to which the horizontally located capillary and the second pressuriser is connected, and the piping from the vessel to the capillary and to the second supercharger is designed with a possibility of locking by a clip.
EFFECT: group of inventions is aimed at decrease of labour costs and improvement of accuracy of determination of voltage of initial shift of controlled liquid.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: rescue equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to reducers of breathing apparatus. The reducer has a housing and three chamber made in it separated by the walls: high-pressure chamber (HPC) and the reduced pressure chamber (RPC), separated by the first wall, the control chamber (CC) separated with the second wall from the RPC; the seat with a hole in the first wall; the partition with a movable plunger and a valve located in the RPC, separating the CC to piston and annular cavities; first channel connecting the RPC with piston cavity of the CC; the second channel connecting the annular cavity of the CC with the environment, the third channel with a throttle, which connects the RPC with the annular cavity of the CC, a check valve connected to the second channel. The method of regulating the gas flow in the reducer comprises supplying gas to the HPC, displacement of the plunger with the valve and forming a gap between the seat and the valve; entering the gas flow from the HPC and the RPC, accordingly, to the gas consumer; entering the gas flow from the RPC to the CC through the first channel; moving the partition with the plunger and the valve under the action of the gas pressure difference on them, changing the gap between the seat and the sealing element of the valve; flowing of gas from the HPC through the third channel with a throttle in the annular cavity of the CC, moving the partition with the plunger and the valve, and changing the gap between the valve and the seat, regulation of supply and pressure of the gas entering the RPC and the consumer.
EFFECT: providing regulation of a gas flow in the reducer with the given value of the reduced pressure of gas at small amplitude of the pressure oscillations.
8 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of horticulture, namely to control means to assess the physical and mechanical properties of berries. The device consists of a portable housing with control buttons located in it, alphanumeric LCD display, force measuring sensor connected to the electrical measuring device provided with a peak detector and compensator of packaging, as well as a grip for berries mechanically connected to the force measuring sensor through the rod force distributor and made in the form of a hinged fixed and spring-loaded movable gripping cup-shaped jaws, and a control device of gripping berries fixed to the housing, and kinematically connected to the shank of the movable gripping cup-shaped jaw for providing opening and closing the gripping jaws. In addition, the device comprises a movable spring-loaded pressure rod arranged so that its pressure surface is located between the gripping cup-shaped jaws and in its motion without berries there is no mechanical contact with the elements of gripping berries, and in the presence of fruit between the gripping jaws, it presses it with its pressure surface to its the inner surface of the gripping jaws, a mechanical actuator of the pressure rod mounted on the portable housing, and the device of determining the coefficient of relative strength of berries.
EFFECT: device provides improved performance in carrying out control operations by combining the operations.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: in the formula
EFFECT: reduced labour inputs in the determination of pressure of safety valve opening start without the valves' demounting from a pipeline by means of measuring the forces required to open the valves at two different pressures in their inner cavity and by the following calculation of pressure of safety valve opening start.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to flow regulators, particularly, to flow regulators with bowl-shape seat. Regulator consists of valve body to define fluid flow and valve seat, drive case engaged with valve body, control member arranged in drive case and adapted to displacement relative to valve body and valve seat for regulation of fluid flow at displacement between open position and closed position whereat said control member engages with valve seat, and spring articulated with control member to displace the latter to open position. Said control member has the surface directed to valve seat and furnished with recess. Recess can be reamed, or concave, or conical or have any other suitable surface.
EFFECT: higher reliability, perfected adjustment.
19 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: reference sample comprises a metal base with a central zone of reference complex stressed condition through the base thickness. At the edges of the base at one or different sides there is one or several zones of pad welds from another metal, coefficient of linear expansion and yield point of which is lower than the coefficient of linear expansion and yield point of the base metal. The base is first exposed to high-temperature tempering, afterwards control marks or a grid of measurement bases are applied onto surfaces of the central zone of the base at two sides, for two test measurements after high-temperature tempering of the base before applying pad welds and in the end of thermal treatment of the base already with pad welds. The form of the base, locations of pad welds and the mode of thermal treatment are defined in advance as a result of computer simulation modelling by the method of finite elements with account of grades of the base metal and pad welds metals and the required reference complex stressed condition of the central zone of the base through its thickness.
EFFECT: increased validity of results of measurements of mechanical stresses in cross sections of various thick-walled metal structures.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: photoelastic element in plan view has a crosswise shape the frontal surfaces of which, parallel to the direction of applied efforts, are optically flat, and lateral surfaces of the photoelastic element have the constant and/or variable curvature radius.
EFFECT: increase of voltages in the central part of the photoelastic element, improvement of sensitivity of piezoelectric sensors due to the use of these photoelastic elements.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering, particularly, to aircraft condition field monitoring systems. The aircraft structure technical state monitoring system contains sensors of technical condition of helicopter blades of an oar or airplane outer wing panels and onboard recorder unit. On each helicopter blade of an oar or airplane outer wing panel there are not less than two fibre-optic Bragg grating strain sensors and not less than two vibroacoustic sensors. The system includes fibre-optic trunk cables, optical connectors, electric control buses, optical switches, fibre-optic measuring lines. Helicopter monitoring system additionally comprises optical rotating connector. The recorder unit contains reference signal unit, fibre-optic switching unit, light source unit, spectrum analysis unit, control and data analysis unit, data storage unit, The recorder unit has electric control signal input/output and electric power supply input, electric power supply unit. Strain sensors and vibroacoustic sensors are imbedded into the mass of composite material in top-loaded parts of helicopter blades of an oar spars and airplane outer wing panels.
EFFECT: possibility to monitor technical condition of blade spars and outer wing panels made of composite materials in manufacturing and in service.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to measurement equipment and is applied to determine mechanical stress in surface layer of an object. Method involves direction of unfocused visible range radiation flow of any intensity onto the test surface and registration of reflected flow by photodetector, comparison of the result with reference value obtained with known mechanical stress, temperature and surface layer roughness values for this radiation source. Stress gauge includes laser, defocusing devices for beam directed onto the test surface and focusing devices for flow reflected by the surface; photodetector of reflected signal; photodetector signal amplifier; comparator comparing voltage supplied by the amplifier with variable voltage of generator and generating voltage pulse; AND circuit encoding comparator pulse to short pulse string of reference frequency generator; temperature measurement unit; test surface roughness measurement unit; reference code storage device; digital comparator comparing signal obtained from the test surface with reference signals obtained with definite temperature and roughness; indicator displaying stress value for the test surface.
EFFECT: voltage determination in surface layer of examination object.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: measuring instrumentation.
SUBSTANCE: strain-gauge sensor includes loading element in the form of a hollow cylinder attached to the monitored object, pieso-optic converter converting tension value in stress-optical element attached in preloaded state into electrical signal, and signal processing unit. Optic axis of pieso-optic converter coincides with the cylinder axis and is perpendicular to measured deformation plane, loading element is a continuous hollow cylinder out of tensile material with wall thickness ensuring required elasticity of loading element in direction of deformations measured and determining sensitivity of strain-gauge sensor sealed at the ends and featuring hard lugs on the outside for attachment of the sensor to a monitored object and transmission of object deformation to stress-optical element.
EFFECT: enhanced functional capabilities of device.
9 cl, 14 dwg
FIELD: measuring instrumentation.
SUBSTANCE: strain-gauge converter includes loading element attached to the monitored object, pieso-optic converter converting tension value in stress-optical element attached in preloaded state into electrical signal, and signal processing unit. Loading element is a plate with cylindrical hole where stress-optical element of cylindrical form is clamped adjustably in direction of measured deformations by two rods made of material with thermal expansion factor larger than respective factor of the plate. Rod length is designed so as to ensure independence of preloading compression from temperature.
EFFECT: enhanced measurement accuracy, simpler device design.
7 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the system of "smart" cable for bridge with the use of built-in sensors based on fibre Bragg gratings (FBG) and can be used in cable load-bearing structures of cable, suspension, arched and other types of bridges. System comprises anchor glass, plate for separating wires, connecting clutches, sensor based on fibre diffraction grating and cable itself. Sensor based on fibre diffraction grating comprises strain gauge 9 with fibre diffraction grating and temperature sensor with fibre diffraction grating. The ends of optical fibres of strain gauge 9 and temperature sensor are led outwards. Assembled strain gauge 9 is rigidly connected with the steel wire in the connection coupling. Assembled temperature sensor is suspended on the steel wire in the connection coupling. Openings are punched in the plate to separate wires. Protective steel tube is dipped in advance in the front part into the connecting sleeve and anchor glass.
EFFECT: system improves survival of sensors and optic fibre during manufacture and operation of cable, provides reliable sealing of sensors and permits to transmit signals effectively and accurately from fibre diffraction gratings outward from cable.
SUBSTANCE: problem is solved by designing a fibre-optic pressure sensor, having a housing with two tubular elements, having at least one plugged end, mounted in the housing such that the second end of the first tubular element is connected to the housing and is linked with a channel for feeding working medium, and the second end of the second tubular element is open and linked with the inside of the housing through which is passed an optical fibre with two Bragg gratings, attached by areas with the Bragg gratings directly to the outer cylindrical surface of the tubular elements such that one of the gratings is located on the first tubular element and the second grating is located on the second tubular element. The problem is also solved by mounting the second tubular element to the inner wall of the housing and by mounting the second tubular element to the inner wall of the housing coaxially to the first tubular element. The tubular elements are made of the same material and have identical geometrical dimensions. The problem is also solved directing portions of the optical fibres equipped with Bragg gratings along the edge of the cylindrical surface of the tubular elements. The disclosed design of the fibre-optic pressure sensor enables to solve the problem of quality and reliable measurement of pressure of working medium of remote objects with transmission of information over a fibre-optic link for long-term operation, up to several years, without intermediate maintenance and adjustment procedures.
EFFECT: simple design of a fibre-optic pressure sensor, assembly thereof and avoiding the need to adjust sensor elements thereof during assembly, smaller size of the sensor and high reliability and accuracy of measuring pressure.
6 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed system comprises light source to transmit light onto shaft surface via multiple optic fibres made at multiple points nearby said surface in, in fact, axial direction between the ends of at least one shaft, high-temperature reflection probe built around fibre bundle to detect light reflected from shaft surface and mechanism to measure torque or oscillation at the shaft. The latter comprise coding mechanism composed of changed texture shaped to wedge-like groove on shaft surface of variable depth. Said depth generates the front and rear working point signals so that appropriate time delay can be detected from whatever two positions of said groove for determination of shaft twist angle by differentiation of reflection pattern characteristics during every rotation cycle.
EFFECT: higher precision of measurements.
23 cl, 24 dwg
FIELD: measuring equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention belongs to fibre-optical sensors and can be used for check and measurement of parameters of voltage. The fibre-optical sensor of spiral structure is the multi-turn spiral element created by a spring wire. The set of a teeth of deformation is continuously distributed on the top surface and the bottom surface of a spring wire in the longitudinal direction along a spring wire; in two adjacent turns of the spring wire the deformation teeth on the bottom surface of the top turn of the spring wire and deformation teeth on the top surface of the bottom turn of the spring wire are arranged in staggered order to each other. An alarm optical fibre is clamped between deformation teeth on the bottom surface of the top wire of the spring wire and deformation teeth on the top surface of the bottom turn of the spring wire and is connected to the test facility by the optical fibre of transfer.
EFFECT: increase of accuracy of measurement.
10 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: measuring equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention belongs to area of instrumentation and can be used for creation of distributive systems of measurement of temperature and deformation. The Brillouin system for tracking of temperature and deformation contains one - or bilateral fibre with a set of fibre Bragg gratings (FBG) on different lengths of waves and a laser system with the setting excitation, adjusted in a range essentially bigger, than Brillouin shift. FBG are distributed along the length of the placed fibre and serve as chosen reflectors of length of the wave, allowing to support operation of the device even in case of a rupture of fibre.
EFFECT: increase of accuracy and reliability of these measurements.
7 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas production.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to oil-field boring, particularly to self-contained drilling rig and to remotely controlled drilling robot devices used at well boring. The drilling device consists of a concentrically divided bore bit; also an internal bore bit rotates simultaneously with external bore bit in the opposite direction. The internal bore bit can move forward in axial direction to the external bore bit or backward from it. Forces created by internal and external bore bits are adjusted to eliminate or correct torque reaction.
EFFECT: preventing drops of driving rate caused by objectionable rotating of drilling rig and initiating required deflection of bore bit.
20 cl, 15 dwg