Method of obtaining copper - graphen composite
SUBSTANCE: water-alcohol solution of copper sulfate is prepared, ethyl alcohol is added to it to a concentration of 37.5-42.5 ml/l, acidified to pH of 1-2 and divided into two parts. A suspension is prepared from one part, in which graphite-graphene mixture is added in an amount of 0.05-0.5 g/l and surfactants Pluronic F-127 or polyacrylic acid in an amount of 25-100 ppm, dispersed for 15-20 min. The electrochemical deposition cell is assembled, placed in a copper solution and the working voltage is fed for 20-30 minutes. Then the two-electrode cell is moved to the obtained graphene-containing suspension with surfactants and the working voltage is fed to the electrodes for 120-180 min. After the specified aging in the solutions, the electrodes are dried, and the resulting composite "copper-graphene" is separated, which has a high uniformity and crystallinity, a small crystallite size, a uniform distribution of graphene in the matrix.
EFFECT: increase of the material microhardness.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a p-type oxide, a p-type oxide composition, a method of producing a p-type oxide, a semiconductor device, an image reproducing apparatus and a system. The p-type oxide is an amorphous compound and has the following compositional formula: xAO∙yCu2O, where x denotes the molar fraction of AO and y denotes the molar fraction of Cu2O, x and y satisfy the following conditions: 0≤x<100 and x+y=100 and A is anyone of Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba or a mixture containing at least two elements selected from a group consisting of Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba.
EFFECT: p-type oxide is produced at a relatively low temperature and in real conditions and can exhibit excellent properties, ie sufficient specific conductivity.
11 cl, 36 dwg, 8 tbl, 52 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a zinc or copper salt of general formula (II) which is used as a biocide, wherein M is Zn or Cu, R1 is selected from a group which includes hydrogen and methyl, R2 is substituted C1-C5 alkyl, m=0-5, n=0-2, m+n=1-5. The copper and zinc (II) salts have high biocidal activity and a wide range of action on biological objects. Said salts can be used in disinfectant compositions for various purposes, coating compositions, paper and wood treatment compositions, polymer compositions with high fungal resistance, as well as in many methods of preventing negative effect on biological objects, particularly shellfish, on organisms and materials.
EFFECT: improved method.
2 cl, 28 ex, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nanotechnology, namely the material and method of production of spherical conglomerates containing nanoparticles (NP) of metal, particularly copper, in the shell of another substance or organic polymer. At that the NP is obtained in the individual state or in the form of component parts of the nanocomposites, including polymer-containing. The invention relates to a method of production of the polymer copper-bearing composite consisting of homogeneous spherical conglomerates with a diameter of 50-200 nm of the polymer with spherical copper nanoparticles embedded in it with a diameter of 5-10 nm. The invention also relates to a method of production of the polymer copper-bearing composite consisting in thermal decomposition of the precursor of the composite at 450°C in the inert atmosphere.
EFFECT: obtaining the composite of uniform spherical conglomerates comprising a plurality of nanoparticles of copper embedded in the polymer matrix, with a narrow area of distribution in size.
4 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in chemical industry. The method of producing concentrated aqueous solutions of copper (II) chlorocuprate includes reacting copper (II) oxide with hydrochloric acid with intense mechanical mixing. The method uses 29.2-38% hydrochloric acid, which is brought into contact with copper (II) oxide in portions of 8-12% of the stoichiometric amount. The process begins at room temperature and is carried out in the absence of external heat supply with self-heating due to exothermic steps in the range of 60-80°C until the acid added in the last portion is almost completely exhausted. Water is added to the obtained residual solid phase of copper (II) chlorocuprate and mixed to convert said phase into a solution. The obtained product solution is washed off through a filter assembly.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain high output and selectivity with respect to copper (II) chlorocuprate with a fast and selective process.
1 tbl, 8 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in inorganic chemistry. The method of producing copper (+2) hydroxochromates involves preparing a reactive aqueous solution containing chromium (+6) and copper (+2), forming a copper (+2) hydroxochromate precipitate and separating said precipitate from the solution. The chromium (+6) source used is a liquid electroplating waste - a spent solution containing chromium (+6), and the copper (+2) source used is a liquid radioelectronic production waste - a spent solution from etching printed-circuit boards and/or a spent solution from copper plating printed-circuit boards.
EFFECT: invention enables to recycle liquid electroplating wastes and printed-circuit board wastes.
13 cl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be applied in microelectronics. To obtaining complex yttrium, barium and copper oxide YBa2Cu3O7-δ, from water solution, which contains yttrium, barium and copper nitrates, combined sorption of yttrium, barium, copper in given molar ratio Y:Ba:Cu = 1:2:3 is carried out at the stage of sorption from the said solution on carboxyl cationite KB-4p-2. After that, obtained material is dried and subjected to successive heating at temperature 110 - for 2 h, at 250°C - for 2 h, at 450°C - for 5 h, at 600°C - for 3 h, at 850°C - for 6 h and after that for 1 hour in oxygen atmosphere.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to simplify obtaining complex yttrium, barium and copper oxide.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of obtaining copper (II) salts. Method includes direct interaction of metal oxide with water solutions of hydrochloric or nitric acid with intensive mixing, including in presence of glass beads as grinding agent. Process is carried out with range of initial concentrations of acids from 0.4 to 2.7 mol/kg and mole ratio with copper (II) oxide in the range from (0.8:1) and to (1.8:1), with weight ratio of initial charge and glass beads (1:0.2)÷(1:1), at temperatures 15-50°C to the moment of process self-termination under current control over amount of accumulated copper (II) salts and acid spent on said purposes. After that, reaction mixture is separated from glass beads and filtered. Separated hard phase of reaction mixture is washed with 0.2-0.5 mol/kg solution of acid-reagent, after which it is returned for charge of repeated process. Washing solution is combined with reaction mixture filtrate. Obtained mixture is neutralised with 1.2-3.3 mol/kg water ammonia, dosed in small portions in such a way that pH does not exceed value 6.5-7.1. Product hard phase, precipitated during neutralisation, is left in contact with liquid phase for 12-24 hours, after which it is filtered, washed with distilled water and dried. Water solution of ammonium nitrate or chloride is used for other purpose.
EFFECT: method ensures high rate of obtaining and high output of main salts at room or close to them temperatures.
5 tbl, 26 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemistry of platinum metals, particularly synthesis of palladium compounds, specifically synthesis of heteronuclear acetates of palladium with non-ferrous metals. The method of producing heteronuclear acetates of palladium with non-ferrous metals involves reaction of an acetate compound of palladium and a non-ferrous metal compound in a glacial acetic acid solution, where the reaction of compounds, taken in molar ratio palladium: non-ferrous metal of 1:(0.90-0.97), takes place in glacial acetic acid used in amount of (600-800)% of the molar amount of palladium, at temperature (70-90)°C with evaporation of the solvent to wet or dry residue, with repeated addition of glacial acetic acid in amount of (200-600)% of the molar amount of palladium, repeated evaporation of the solvent at temperature (80-120)°C, with treatment of the dry residue, pre-heated to (70-90)°C, with a solution of a mixture of benzene or toluene and acetic acid anhydride with volume ratio thereof equal to (4-8):1 respectively, the amount of the acetic acid anhydride being equal to (20-60)% of the molar amount of palladium, at temperature (70-100)°C for (2-30) minutes, cooling the obtained suspension to temperature (40-70)°C and filtering the desired compound. In another version, the method involves reaction of a palladium acetate and an acetate compound of a non-ferrous metal in glacial acetic acid solution with solvent evaporation, where the reaction of compounds, taken in molar ratio palladium: non-ferrous metal equal to 1:(0.90-0.97), takes place in glacial acetic acid used in amount of (400-600)% of the molar amount of palladium, at temperature (80-120)°C with solvent evaporation to a dry residue, with subsequent treatment thereof with a solution of a mixture of benzene or toluene and acetic acid anhydride, pre-heated to (70-90)°C, with volume ratio thereof equal to (4-8):1 respectively, the acetic acid anhydride being in amount of (20-60)% of the molar amount of palladium, at temperature (70-100)°C for (2-30) minutes, cooling the obtained suspension to temperature (40-70)°C and filtering the desired compound.
EFFECT: invention enables to realise a simple and stable method of producing desired compounds with high output.
4 cl, 46 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing copper (II) ferrite with a tetragonal spinel structure and can be used in chemical industry in sulphuric acid production processes. Initial iron (III) and copper (II) oxides are homogenised with addition of a mineralising agent - potassium chloride in amount of 0.5-1.5 wt % to the mixture of oxides, the mixture is briquetted at pressure 10 MPa and then thermally treated at temperature 850-1000°C.
EFFECT: method enables to obtain copper (II) ferrite with shorter duration of synthesis in a single step, which enables to reduce power consumption, time expenses, labour input into the process and reduce the cost of production.
1 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a novel method of removing copper (II) ions from water in the presence of ammonia, which is based on using a floatation reagent in form of β-N-oxyethylhydrazides of aliphatic carboxylic acids of formula (I), where R is a straight-chain radical containing 7-14 carbon atoms.
EFFECT: method ensures high recovery ratio (up to 99,0%) of copper (II) from ammonia media in a single step with relatively low reagent consumption.
2 cl, 2 tbl, 10 ex, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of reforming with application of catalyst. Described is method of reforming hydrocarbons with water vapour, including contact of supplied gas in reactor of catalytic partial oxidation or installation for autothermal reforming. Reactor operates at temperature 800-1600°C and pressure of 20-100 bar. Egg shell type catalyst, consisting of active compound in form of alloy of nickel and one metal from iridium and ruthenium, on supporter, containing aluminium oxide, zirconium dioxide, magnesium oxide, titanium dioxide or their combinations. Catalyst has cylindrical shape and has one or several through holes, where distance from centre to external catalyst surface constitutes from 10 to 40 mm, catalyst height constitutes from 10 to 40 mm, with diameter of one or several through holes constituting from 3 to 30 mm. At least 90 wt % of iridium or ruthenium in catalyst are located in external envelope which has depth up to 10% of external catalyst surface or to 10% of periphery of one or several through holes of catalyst.
EFFECT: realisation of method of catalytic partial oxidation or autothermal reforming at reduced drop of pressure in catalyst layer without reduction of catalyst activity.
12 cl, 5 dwg, 2 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of petrochemistry and more specifically to a method of producing synthesis gas which is used as the feedstock, for example, for the synthesis of methanol, dimethyl ether, hydrocarbons by Fischer-Tropsch method. The method of producing synthesis gas comprises oxidative conversion of methane-containing gas at a temperature more than 650°C in through-flow riser, using as oxidant the microspherical or crushed catalyst based on metal oxides, capable of multiple redox transitions, at that the catalyst is continuously passed through the riser upwards in the methane-containing gas flow with a residence time of the feedstock in the reaction zone of 0.1-10 s, separating the catalyst passing from the reactor from the product and regeneration of the catalyst by oxidation with carbon dioxide in the regenerator from which the regenerated catalyst enters the reactor. The oxidative conversion of methane-containing feedstock and regeneration of regenerated catalyst is carried out simultaneously and continuously.
EFFECT: invention enables to improve the removal rate of the product, to reduce energy consumptions for transportation of oxygen-containing agent, to reduce the risk of explosion and ignition, as well as to adjust the composition of the synthesis gas.
7 cl, 1 tbl, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in obtaining hydrogen from reagents, including liquid hydrocarbons, gaseous hydrocarbons and/or oxygen-containing compounds, including those, obtained from biomass, and their mixture. In order to obtain hydrogen used are: section of reagents heating; section of catalytic partial oxidation with short contact time, in which synthesis-gas is obtained; section of heat recuperation; section of converting carbon monoxide, present in synthesis-gas, into carbon dioxide by reaction of water gas conversion; section of said carbon dioxide removal; section of condensate cooling and removal.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to obtain H2 and CO2 of high purity and purge gas with average heat-generating ability, which can be used in combustion processed and/or introduced into installation fuel supply system.
17 cl, 2 dwg, 5 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: a copper-chromium-zinc catalyst for heterogeneous reactions, which includes copper, chromium, zinc and aluminium oxides and an additional component is disclosed. The catalyst contains, as the additional component, 0.5-5 wt % of a silicon compound with respect to the oxide and the catalyst is formed via heat treatment of aluminium hydroxide together with compounds of said components, and has a porous structure with total specific pore volume of not less than 0.25 cm3/g and content of mesopores with a diameter of 10-40 nm higher than 60%, and the catalyst has the following composition, with respect to oxides, wt %: CuO 50.0-57.0; Cr2O3 11.0-16.0; ZnO 9.5-13.0; SiO2 0.5-5.0; aluminium oxide - the balance.
EFFECT: forming a copper-chromium-zinc catalyst having high strength, thermal stability and which can be used in different chemical processes.
6 cl, 2 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used during HCs production from natural or associated petroleum gas. Method of oxygenates cleaning from reaction water generated at stage of HCs synthesis from syngas during GTL process includes conversion of even part of the contained oxygenates under conditions of syngas chilling by even part of the reaction water at temperature over 500°C upon contact with catalyst of the oxygenates steam conversion. Further syngas cooling temperature below 400°C is performed by the cleaned water injection in the syngas flow. Method of use of the reaction water generated at stage of HCs synthesis from syngas during GTL process includes its cleaning of the oxygenates under conditions of the syngas chilling at temperature over 500°C upon contact with catalyst of the oxygenates steam conversion, cleaned water degassing. The cleaned degassed water is used to cool the syngas to temperature below 400°C and produce the water steam.
EFFECT: invention ensures effective cleaning of the reaction water of the oxygenates, and use of the produced cleaned water as feed water for boilers and water steam production.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a system for hydrogen development and a method for controlled hydrogen development. A method consists in carrying out a reaction of a metal agent selected in alkali metals, alkali earth metals, alloys and mixtures consisting of alkali metals, alkali earth metals, alloys consisting of at least one alkali metal, and at least one alkali earth metal with water for producing hydrogen and a residual product of reaction in the form of metal hydroxide specified in alkali hydroxides and alkali earth hydroxides; the metal agent is condensed by heating in vacuum; the liquid metal agent is supplied into a homogeneous reactor by extrusion by means of feed units, and water is simultaneously supplied to maintain a stoichiometric ratio of water in accordance with an amount of the liquid metal agent; the hydrogen and residual product are transported into the separation units and separated; separated hydrogen is transported into a hydrogen receiver; the residual reaction product is transported into a metal hydroxide receiver; the oxygen ingress into the metal agent feed units, water feed system, reactor, separators and hydrogen receiver by the selective use of vacuum.
EFFECT: developing the method for controlled hydrogen development.
22 cl, 5 dwg, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a copper-zinc catalyst, which includes copper, zinc and aluminium oxides and an additional silicon compound. The catalyst contains 0.5-5.0 wt % of a silicon compound, with respect to the oxide, which is mixed with copper and zinc oxides. The catalyst is formed via heat treatment of aluminium hydroxide together with compounds of said components and has a porous structure with total specific pore volume of not less than 0.25 cm3/g and content of mesopores with a diameter of 10-40 nm higher than 60%, and the catalyst has the following composition, with respect to oxides, wt %: CuO - 40.0-55.0; ZnO - 24.0-35.0; SiO2 - 0.5-5.0; AlO3 - the balance.
EFFECT: forming a copper-zinc catalyst having high strength and thermal stability.
5 cl, 3 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is referred to the production process of synthetic gas by hydrocarbon conversion, and namely to processes of oxidative conversion. The synthetic gas is produced at the combustion of a hydrocarbon stock with an oxidiser with the oxidiser excess coefficient less than 1 at a temperature less than 1400 K inside a cavity formed partially or completely by a three-dimensional matrix permeable for the mixture of the gas and oxidiser. Input of the hydrocarbon stock with the oxidiser is made through a permeable bottom of the cavity or through permeable walls and bottom of the cavity, while the output of combustion products is made through the upper cross-section of the cavity. Before input to the cavity the mixture of the gas and oxidiser or one gas of the mixture partially or completely is heated by heat produced by combustion products. The matrix is heated additionally by heat radiation reflected from the screen placed in the matrix cavity and permeable for the combustion products.
EFFECT: increased efficiency due to the increased output of the synthetic gas at the usage of hydrocarbon mixtures with the high content of non-combustible products having a low calorific value.
2 cl, 7 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: claimed invention relates to a method of obtaining olefins, including a) steam cracking of an ethane-including raw material in the zone of cracking and under conditions of cracking with obtaining a flow discharged from the zone of cracking, which includes, at least, olefins and hydrogen; b) conversion of the oxygenated raw material in the zone of conversion of oxygenate to olefins in the presence of a catalyst with obtaining a flow, consisting of, at least, olefins and hydrogen, discharged from the oxygenate-to-olefins (OTO) flow; c) combination of, at least, a part of the flow, discharged from the zone of cracking and a part of the flow, discharged from the OTO zone with obtaining a combined output flow; and d) separation of hydrogen from the combined output flow, with the formation of, at least, a part of the oxygenated raw material due to the supply of hydrogen, obtained at stage d), and the raw material, containing carbon oxide and/or carbon dioxide, into the zone of oxygenates synthesis and obtaining oxygenates. The invention also relates to a combined system for the claimed method realisation.
EFFECT: claimed invention makes it possible to obtain target products by the improved combined method of ethane cracking and OTO technology.
8 cl, 1 dwg, 5 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes adding of raw gas mix into a set of pipes containing the catalyst into reforming-furnaces, execution of reforming reaction for formation of the reformat containing H2, CO, CH4 and H2O, withdrawal of reformat, burning of fuel with heated gas oxidiser in the reforming-furnace combustion chamber unit, for obtaining of a gaseous combustion product and generation of heat for the purpose of power supply of raw gas mix reaction in pipes, combustion product withdrawal, heating of gas oxidiser by heat exchange with the combustion product, with obtaining of heated gas oxidiser, cooling of the combustion product, heating of the first feeding water flow by heat exchange with the combustion product, with combustion product cooling. Before this from the combustion product the heat is withdrawn for gas oxidiser heating, heating of the second feeding water flow by heat exchange with reformat, supply of the first and second feeding water flows into the deaerator, separation of dissolved gases from flows in the deaerator, withdrawal of the ventilating flow from the deaerator, withdrawal of flow of water feeding the boiler from the deaerator, formation of hydrogenous product from the reformat after heating by reformat of the second feeding water flow, and formation of steam product from part of the flow of water feeding the boiler.
EFFECT: increased amount of withdrawn steam.
17 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method for determining a range of sizes of suspended nanoparticles consists in passage of gas (mixture of gases) containing analysed particles, through diffusion batteries of a meshed type and their introduction to supersaturated vapours of a low-volatile enlarging substance. Then, lighting of a flux of particles with a light beam and recording of parameters of light signals shaped by enlarged particles at their flying through the pointed-out area of the flux is performed. In order to improve accuracy of determination of the range of sizes, the main flux is separated into six parallel fluxes. With that, five of them are passed through five diffusion batteries with a different slip, and one of them is passed directly. Then, these fluxes pass through six devices of condensation growth and then to a field of vision of a charge-coupled device matrix and the obtained six areas of images of enlarged fluxes of particles are transmitted to a computer for an analysis of their range of sizes. Unlike known ones, the method allows performing simultaneous processing by means of a computer of six images of enlarged particles, which characterise different dimensional ranges of nanoparticles.
EFFECT: reducing the time required for measurements and improving their accuracy.