Solid-propellant rocket engine (versions)
FIELD: engine devices and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: solid-propellant rocket engine in the first version comprises a body with a solid fuel arranged therein, a nozzle unit installed on the rear bottom of body, an igniter includes a solid fuel igniter mounted in the front and/or rear bottom of the body. The igniter is mounted in the front bottom of the body along the axis of a central channel. The igniter includes a laser connected by a cable to a power supply source and directed by the laser beam focus of given pulse shape to a layer of flammable substance which is applied to the end of the igniter, and the igniter is placed in a perforated shell and installed in a casing with radial clearance. In the igniter installed in the front bottom of the body, the casing with its one end is airtightly connected to the laser, and on its other end there is a flare, on which a deflector of radially directed ejection of flame from the igniter is installed to the surface of through solid fuel central channel. In the igniter installed in the rear bottom of the body, the casing with its one end is airtightly connected to the laser, and the other end of the casing there is a branch pipe which to which the igniter is mounted eccentrically to the central channel in the rear bottom of the body with the possibility of concentrated ejection of flame from the igniter through a prechamber to the solid fuel end. In the second version the solid-propellant rocket engine contains armouring coatings on the ends of solid fuel, and the igniter is mounted in the front bottom of the body and is a laser. The laser drives ignition of solid fuel of directed laser beam radiation focus of specified shape of pulse through the prechamber to solid fuel end, for this purpose in the armouring coating of the solid fuel end there is a local zone of ignition with the possibility for combustion transition into the solid fuel central channel. In the third version of the rocket engine the laser is mounted eccentrically in the rear bottom of the body eccentrically to the nozzle, driving ignition of solid fuel by directed laser beam radiation focus of specified shape of pulse through the prechamber into one of the cells of pyramidal shape made on the end of solid fuel, with subsequent transition of combustion over entire honeycomb pyramidal-cellular surface of solid fuel end.
EFFECT: enhancement of reliability and reduction of ignition time of solid fuel.
3 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: gas dynamic ignitor contains prechamber with output hole, accelerator with nozzle, acoustic resonator and main lines with control valves of oxidant and fuel supply to the accelerator. The accelerator with nozzle and acoustic resonator are coaxially installed in the prechamber and against each other with transverse clearance. The ignitor also contains afterburner chamber with head at input and nozzle at output installed on same axis in series after accelerator and prechamber, and hydraulically connected with them. The prechamber output hole is made ion form of central through hole in head and is connected with through channel via the nozzle of the afterburner chamber. The head has ring header with injectors towards the chamber nozzle. The fuel main line after the control valve at input is connected with accelerator and additionally with ring header of the head via the pneumatic control valves. The prechamber cavity is connected with gas main line by the pneumatic control valve in the fuel main line to the accelerator. The through channel cavity is connected by has main .line with the pneumatic control valve in the fuel main line to the ring header of the afterburner chamber head.
EFFECT: invention increases reliability of ignition of the fuel mixture, excludes possibility of the ignitor burnout due to overheating of the structure, reduces delay time of the fuel mixture ignition, extends range of ignited gaseous components, and improves reliability of the ignitor operation.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to rocket production, namely to a chamber of a liquid-propellant engine (LPE) or a gas generator with laser ignition of fuel components. A chamber of LPE or the gas generator includes a pressure vessel, a mixing head with oxidiser and fuel injectors fixed at a flame bottom, a combustion chamber with a nozzle; with that, the chamber housing has an external pressure shell and an internal fire wall, between which a regenerative cooling circuit is located, and a laser device for ignition of fuel components; with that, the laser device includes a nozzle tightly installed in a hole made in the wall of the pressure vessel on its side surface and a laser plug; with that, an attachment point of the nozzle to the housing is chosen so that a laser beam leaving it can be focused in a reverse-flow area and near the internal fire wall, inside which a nozzle is installed; with that, the reverse-flow area is located at minimum possible distance from the flame bottom of the mixing head and from the internal fire wall, which is determined experimentally at model setups.
EFFECT: invention provides improvement of reliability and repetition of ignition of a fuel mix in a chamber of an engine or a gas generator.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: combustion chamber of a liquid-propellant engine, which operates on such fuel components as liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen or liquid oxygen and liquefied natural gas, which includes a housing of the chamber with a supply line of fuel for cooling, a mixing head with a supply line of fuel, a gas line with a supply line of an oxidising generator gas, a gas-distributing grid, an ignition device fixed on the external surface of the gas line, according to the invention, in the centre of the gas line, the gas-distributing grid and a central bushing of the housing there is a sleeve that is rigidly attached with one of its ends to the housing of the gas line, and with the other one along the external surface it is installed as to a cone into the central bushing of the housing of the mixing head and on the end of the internal surface of the sleeve there are centring ribs along which an ignition device is installed with its free end.
EFFECT: improving reliability and repeated start of a combustion chamber.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed engine comprises control system with on-board computer, turbo pump unit and gas generator connected via gas duct with chamber and igniters at combustion chamber and gas generator. Spark plugs are arranged at combustion chamber and gas generator. Electrical generator is fitted on turbo pump unit shaft. Activator of gas generating mix is arranged inside aforesaid gas duct. Compressed air cylinder is connected to starting turbine. Gas generating mix activator can include two electrodes connected by HV conductors with HV unit connected with electrical generator. This engine can comprise central swivel made at gas duct on chamber axis. Central swivel can be shaped to cylinder. Central swivel can be shaped to sphere. This engine can incorporate turbo pump unit shaft rpm transducer connected with on-board computer.
EFFECT: higher specific thrust and reiterated starting.
11 cl, 17 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed nozzle comprises case, subsonic and supersonic parts and seal-and-start device with afterburner tube and support. Flat swirler is arranged in said afterburner tube perpendicular to its axis at a distance from outlet cross-section at rigid mounts. Lengthwise axes of the latter are located in planes extending through afterburner tube axis. Flat swirler is provided with one or several bores and lining with low ablation temperature fitted at its front end surface.
EFFECT: decreased scatter of internal ballistic parameters at acceleration.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: in compliance with this invention, cylindrical shell is made from composites. All heterogeneous shell elements are fabricated of easily deformable fabric laid over heating surface of prepreg, its amount being calculated for every process revision and reinforcing fibres being arranged at the angle. Said heterogeneous shell elements are made by seaming at mandrel with sealing at required number of cycles repeated to design diameter of the shell. Heated surface features the relief corresponding to shell diameter differences at length equal to fabric prepreg length at this process step. Rocket engine charge igniter body from composites comprises cylindrical shell with outer heat-resistant coating and flat bottom on one side and free threaded end capped by detachable plug on opposite side to make an internal chamber to house said charge with elements of its ignition. Inner part of said cylindrical shell is made of easily deformable fabric laid over heating surface of prepreg, reinforcing fibres being arranged at the angle. Inner part of said cylindrical shell has internal thread with circular plies of shell profile thread extending onto cylindrical part and bottom composed of embedded part with flat end from the side of inner space and threaded tang from outer side.
EFFECT: simplified design of igniter body, better manufacturability.
8 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises electric power source and laser radiation unit with waveguides, at least one laser spark plug with focusing lens fitted at combustion chamber nozzle board with inner and outer walls. In compliance with this invention, every laser ignition plug is arranged on periphery of nozzle plate at the angle to combustion chamber axis and composed of hollow barrel. The latter is arranged outside the combustion chamber and connected by metal sleeve with the inside of combustion chamber. One microchip-laser is arranged inside said barrel and connected by connected tube with the lens at the end sealed relative to said metal sleeve. Damping means is fitted inside every barrel. It is made of material of high heat conductivity. Rubberized metal is used as said damping means. Heat accumulator is arranged inside the barrel. Heat accumulator is composed of a cylinder with central bore arranged concentrically with barrel axis. Aforesaid lens can be fitted inside metal sleeve and recessed therein relative to combustion chamber nozzle board internal wall inner surface. Depth of said recess can make 0.1-1.0 of focusing lens diameter.
EFFECT: reliable repeated ignition of fuel.
10 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: at ignition of solid propellant charge, the ignition composition is fired, combustion products are displaced along charge surface to heat the latter and to ignite it. Firing of igniter composition is made in steps using the combustion products of fired portion of said composition for displacement and distribution of not ignited composition over the free volume. Igniter composition combustion products nearby the charge surface accelerate and create the area with turbulent flow mode. Another invention of the set relates to rocket engine including combustion chamber, charge with unarmoured nozzle end and igniter arranged in chamber composed of charge unarmoured nozzle end recess in nozzle bottom opposite the electric primer. Igniter is composed of several packages of combustible material accommodated in igniter composition, one above the other, and locked therein by splitter. Said splitter is made of resilient material and arranged between unarmoured nozzle end and nozzle bottom opposite the electric primer. Said chamber is communicated with antenozzle volume via circular gas duct arranged in outer diameter of nozzle bottom.
EFFECT: higher reliability of ignition.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: in a device for laser ignition of a gas generator of a liquid propellant rocket engine comprising zones of combustion and mixing of fuel components, comprising a source of electric energy, a block of excitation with optical fibre, at least one laser spark plug with a focusing lens, installed on a nozzle plate of a combustion chamber, having inner and outer walls, differing by the fact that the laser spark plug is installed at the periphery of the nozzle plate at the angle to the axis of the combustion chamber and is made in the form of a hollow sleeve installed outside of the gas generator connected with a metal bushing with the inner cavity of the gas generator, inside the sleeve there is at least one microchip-laser connected by a vacuum tube with a focusing lens at the end, sealed relative to the metal bushing. The angle of setting of the laser plug to a fire bottom makes from 60 to 80 degrees. The laser focusing may be arranged in the zone of combustion of fuel components. Inside each sleeve there is a damping facility. The damping facility is made of material having high heat conductivity. The damping facility may be metal rubber. Inside each sleeve there is a heat accumulator. The heat accumulator is made in the form of a container of cylindrical shape with a central hole, the cavity of which is fully or partially fixed with a heat-accumulating material, and is installed concentrically to the axis of the sleeve. The heat-accumulating material is sodium acetate trihydrate. The focusing lens is installed inside the metal bushing and is deepened into it relative to the inner surface of the inner wall of the fire bottom of the gas generator. The value of deepening of the focusing lens is arranged such that the focusing lens is installed inside the sleeve, for instance, near its bottom.
EFFECT: increased reliability of an ignition device.
11 cl, 17 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises cylindrical pipe with cylindrical ampoule filled with starting fuel fitted therein and clamped by shutoff valve screwed in pipe body. Said ampoule consists of cylindrical body, membrane assemblies at its inlet and outlet, said membranes being tightly secured along body edges and can be broken by working fluid. Shaped adapter is fitted at pipe inlet to decrease cavity air volume at ampoule inlet to its minimum. Pipe body inlet is fitted via angle piece directly at gas generator head. Said pipe is mounted in gas generator at position approximating to vertical. Supporting fluoroplastic rings are fitted between starting ampoule, shutoff valve and pipe jointly with rubber seal rings. Drain openings are made at ampoule inlet edges and pipe body. Angle pieces are welded to pipe body to support drain pipes. Baffles with filling and drain devices are spaced apart inside said ampoule and feature minimum axial overall dimension and cross-section area. Note here that filling device is arranged at the boundary of starting fuel zone and inert gas pad. Baffles are spaced apart inside said ampoule and feature minimum axial overall dimension and cross-section area. Note here that helical springs with bent-off lock rings are fitted in piston ends.
EFFECT: fast, reliable and multiple firing.
7 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed solid-propellant rocket engine consists of combustion chamber with nozzle unit, powder charge, igniter and electric igniter. High-pressure chamber in head part of engine is formed by circular cavity in engine housing and perforated disk. Holes in perforated disk open into radial cavities made in disk from side of powder charge. Igniter is made in form of weighted amount of powder placed in sealed case made of combustion material and is arranged inside high-pressure chamber. Electric igniter is installed at angle to longitudinal axis of engine. Longitudinal axis of electric igniter lies in one plane with row of holes of perforated disk and rail cavity.
EFFECT: provision of reliable and uniform ignition of charge at reduced spread of characteristics within wide temperature range, improved reliability of engine.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed solid-propellant rocket engine contains housing with fitted-in channel charge and igniter. Igniter is arranged in spade limited by front bottom of engine and end face of charge. Diaphragm is installed between igniter and end face of charge. Said diaphragm is made of combustion material in form of disk with local cutouts over periphery.
EFFECT: reduced initial peak of pressure in solid propellant rocket engine.
2 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: rocket engines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method of manufacture of solid-propellant charge igniter includes vacuum forming of surface of polymeric film case which is carried out directly on seat in rocket engine housing, for instance in engine cover.
EFFECT: improved mass and dimensional characteristics of rocket engine, simplified technology of manufacture.
7 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed solid-propellant impulse rocket engine contains multigrain charge, combustion chamber with nozzle unit and front throttle hole and semiclosed perforated prechamber tube with igniter weighted portion and igniting hole at closed end face connected with front throttle hole. Prechamber tube consists of two sections divided by cross partition with hole. Igniter weighted portion is arranged in section with igniting hole to form clearance between partition and surface of weighted portion. Perforation in said section is made only in part of length of tube projecting over surface of charge.
EFFECT: reduced distribution of charge at ignition.
SUBSTANCE: proposed solid-propellant rocket engine contains housing with channel charge, charge fitted in channel and igniter including housing with one of several nozzles-holes. Exit section of nozzle-hole of igniter is located at distance equal to 2-8 equivalent diameters of nozzle-hole from ignited surface of charge. Angle of tilting of axis of nozzle-hole to ignited surface is not less than 45°.
EFFECT: reduced mass of igniting composition required for operation of engine.
FIELD: rocket catapult.
SUBSTANCE: proposed solid-propellant gas generator for rocket catapult launcher has housing with front cover, support grill, pyrotechnical cartridge and granulated solid fuel charge. Said charge is placed in sealed sectional envelope of polymeric film in form of cartridge carrier turned into cylinder with central channel and adjoining inner surface of housing. Partially perforated tube-igniter fitted in central channel is connected with front cover of gas generator and support grill. Perforated section of tube-igniter adjoins support grill, being equal to 1/5-1/4 of its length. Pyrotechnical cartridge is installed in front cover and is hydrodynamically coupled with tube-igniter. Sections of cartridge carrier are made to full length of combustion chamber of gas generator housing.
EFFECT: provision of effective launching of rocket from launch tube at minimum action onto gas generator.
12 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed solid-propellant rocket engine contains combustion chamber with front and nozzle faces, powder charge with unrestricted nozzle end face and igniter on nozzle face. Igniter in arranged in space formed by unrestricted nozzle end face of charge and cavity in nozzle face. Support made of flexibly deformable material is installed on front face of combustion chamber.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of nozzle igniter.
FIELD: rocketry; methods of ignition of solid-propellant charge.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comes to ignition of igniter, propagation of burning products to charge, heating of charge surface and subsequent ignition of charge. First combustion products from igniter placed in semiclosed space of engine combustion chamber are directed to front end face of charge. After ignition of part of charge surface, combustion products from igniter are delivered to rear end face of charge. After combustion of igniter combustion products of charge formed at front end face are passed through space into prenozzle space of engine. Method of ignition of charge is implemented in solid-propellant rocket engine containing combustion chamber with nozzle unit, igniter and multigrain charge with support grid. Tube is secured on support grid from side of nozzle unit coaxially to chamber. Tube is divided into two spaces by partition with through holes closed by diaphragm. Diaphragm is installed between end face of partition and end face of igniter arranged in space pointed to front end face of charge. Annular channel is formed between free end of tube and front bottom of combustion chamber. Area of said channel is chosen to provide the following condition: summary area of holes in partition should be smaller than area of channel which, in its turn, should be smaller than area of cross section of tube.
EFFECT: increased reliability of solid-propellant rocket engine with charge with large relative elongation in wide temperature range.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: the solid-propellant rocket engine has a body, charge, nozzle and an ignition device with a pyrotechnical component positioned in a perforated housing. The ignition device housing is made in the form of a woven sleeve formed by means of a tape of composite material with formation of delivery holes, whose total area makes up 0.3 to 0.5 of the area of the side surface. Rigidly installed inside the sleeve, on the side of the front bottom of the engine, is a hollow split bush with radial lugs on the inner surface, a weighed portion of pyrotechnical component is positioned in the cavity. A stepped piston is installed in the bottom of the sleeve, in its axis of symmetry. A compensator made of elastic material is installed on the piston with a stop at the end face of the pyrotechnical component enclosed in a destructable shell.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of the solid-propellant rocket engine within a wide temperature range of operation due to excluded concentrated power action on the charge surface.
SUBSTANCE: invention can find application in engines and self-contained on board energy sources-powder pressure accumulators and guides and nonguided ammunitions. Proposed method of ignition of solid-propellant charge includes ignition of ignition composition and additional accompanying charge, transporting of their combustion products along surface of charge, surface and ignition. Combustion products of igniting composition and additional accompanying charge are mixed in high-pressure chamber and are formed into jets moved in spiral along surface of charge. Remaining particles of igniting composition are settled on surface of charge. Proposed method of ignition is implemented in pressure accumulator containing ignition unit, housing with charge of solid propellant and threaded cover accommodating additional accompanying charge. Additional accompanying charge is placed in high-pressure chamber. Said chamber is formed by walls of threaded cover installed at front end face of charge provided with conical projection, and partition. The latter is made in form of hollow truncated cone with blind bottom at smaller base and radial slots on end face pointed to charge larger base. Projection of charge is arranged inside housing forming ring space connected with high-pressure chamber by gas channels made opposite to each other in bottom of cone tangentially to its generatrix.
EFFECT: improved reliability of ignition of charge, in particular , end face burning charge of powder pressure accumulator at below-zero temperatures and with limitation as to cleanness of combustion products.
3 cl, 3 dwg