Afterburner combustion chamber of turbojet engine

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: afterburner combustion chamber of turbojet engine contains chassis, connected to the turbine, nozzle, fuel, or fuel-air collectors, injectors are connected with the jets. The spray nozzles are equipped with micro-swirlers. Each of the micro-swirlers is a cone-shaped nozzle casing with roundings of a small radius R at the base of the cone located near the atomizer. Nozzles with a micro-swirl are connected behind the manifolds by the flow of air so that the injected fuel or fuel-air mixture coincides in the direction of travel with the flow of air and combustion products behind the turbine in the afterburner combustion chamber. At the base of the cone of the nozzle body is a cylindrical spray nozzle.

EFFECT: invention allows to reduce emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere and decrease the length of the afterburner combustion.

2 cl, 3 dwg

 



 

Same patents:

Reheat burner // 2550294

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power industry. Reheat burner (1) includes channel (2) with pipe (3), located in channel with possibility of fuel injection in plane (4), perpendicular to longitudinal axis (15) of the channel; the end (14) of pipe (3) is located downstream before high speeds area (16), and swirlers (7) protrude from each of the channels walls; channel (2) has side walls (10) and upper and lower walls (11) and it has rectangular, square or trapezoid section; channel (2) and pipe (3) restrict eddy formation area (6) in direction of hot gases (G) flow before plane (4) of injection, and area (9) of mixing after plane (4) of injection; area (9) of mixing includes high speeds area (16) with constant cross-section and slowdown area (17) with expanding cross-section, this area being located after the previous one in direction of hot gases (G) flow; and burner in high speeds area (16) of area (9) of mixing has smallest cross-section. Width (w) and height (h) of slowdown area (17) increase in direction of burner outlet (19). Inner wall (20) of slowdown area (17) has a protrusion (21), forming a section in which hot gases separate from inner wall (20) in slowdown area. Protrusion (21) is located in a circumferential direction on inner wall (20) of slowdown area. Eddy formation area (6) has at least one section in which its width (w) and height (h) increase in direction of burner outlet (19).

EFFECT: invention provides prevention of backflash in burner, reduction of NOx and CO atmospheric emissions.

6 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: flame stabiliser for augmenter of bypass turbojet including first and second circular inner circuits 3, 5. Primary flow passage 4 is arranged there between. Outer circular circuit 2 and first inner circular circuit 3 makes passage 1 for secondary flow. Besides, it comprises at least one support of strut 8 made from metal for attachment to said outer circular circuit 2 by top plate 9 and at least one flame stabiliser strut 7. Said flame stabiliser strut 7 features monoblock structure of composite and is composed of two rigidly interconnected walls 28a, 28b arranged to make a neck with V-shape profile. Top parts 31a, 31b of said walls located in secondary flow have means 34a, 34b for attachment to strut support 8. Top parts 31a, 31b of said walls are flat and opposed.

EFFECT: perfected design.

17 cl, 7 dwg

Afterburner chamber // 2447364

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: afterburner chamber of combined-cycle plant is installed in transitional gas flue connecting gas turbine exhaust with waste heat boiler. Chamber contains several orders of flame tube heads of diffusion stabilising type, including angle stabilisers or gas collectors with fuel feed spray injectors located inside them. Flame tube heads are assembled of modules on top of which there are transversal angle bars inclined to output side spaced with pitch equal to distance between burner units. Transversal angle bars have shot fuel collectors in-between, which are connected with main collector. Flame tube heads arranged along the chamber length. Burner unit is the first unit installed upstream in the centre of afterburner chamber; it should be switched on first of all at start-up.

EFFECT: provision of temperature field uniformity before heat exchanger within all range of loads, reduction of hydraulic losses in gas flue, reduction of labour and installation content.

3 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: pylon includes front and rear bodies of aerofoil section. Pylon bodies are tubular. Pylon includes at least two tubes located one after the other with rounded front edge. One end of tube is fixed on combustion chamber wall through the support, and free ends of tubes are plugged. Tubes are inclined to axis of chamber at sweep angle. Pylon also includes fuel supply system to combustion chamber. Air and fuel is supplied to combustion chamber during the start. At subsonic and supersonic air flow velocities the temperature of the air coming onto the pylon increases over self-ignition temperature of fuel-air medium. It leads to fuel-air mixture ignition.

EFFECT: simpler pylon design, providing fuel supply, mixture formation, ignition and combustion of fuel-air mixture throughout the front of combustion chamber in cruising mode of engine operation.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: air-and-fuel burner of combustion chamber of gas turbine engine includes fuel-spray nozzle made in the form of body with fuel supply and spray holes, air flow stabiliser, axial and tangential air swirlers equipped with confuser-diffuser nozzles with inner and outer path walls. Annular cavity is located between walls of axial swirler nozzle and outer path wall of the nozzle of tangential swirler. Perforation is made on diffuser part of the nozzle of axial swirler.

EFFECT: improving reliability of combustion chamber and increasing fuel economy of gas turbine engine at decreasing soot emission in exhaust gases, decrease of smoking and avoiding soot deposition on the burner surface owing to depletion of air-and-fuel mixture in local areas of the burner.

1 dwg

FIELD: heating systems.

SUBSTANCE: fuel atomiser (2) for aero-mechanical injection system of air-and-fuel mixture to combustion chamber of turbomachine. Atomiser includes main tubular structure (4) with XX' axis open streamwise on lower end (4a) for supply of air-and-fuel mixture, and tubular fuel pipeline (6). Fuel pipeline is located inside main structure (4) with possibility of interacting with it in order to form annular channel (8) and is open streamwise on lower end to main structure (4) through spraying plug (10) of fuel with possibility of supplying fuel under pressure PC to the main structure. Atomiser also includes at least one air supply channel (12) connected to turbomachine compressor stage and open to annular channel (8) so that air can be supplied under pressure PA to this channel. In addition, fuel atomiser includes tubular gas channel (16) located inside fuel pipeline (6) and having a lot of holes (18) open to the above fuel pipeline for gas to be injected to it under pressure PG in order to create foaming of the fuel introduced to main structure (4). Pressure PG exceeds pressure PA and exceeds pressure PC. Holes (18) of gas channel (16) are located at least in one transverse plane and open to fuel pipeline (6) through spraying plug (10) of fuel. The above fuel atomiser can be a part of aero-mechanical injection system of air-and-fuel mixture to turbomachine combustion chamber the centre of which is located on YY' axis of injection system, which, in addition, includes air injecting device located downstream the fuel atomiser.

EFFECT: invention allows minimising hazardous emissions owing to decrease of time characteristics of fuel spraying and its evaporation at all operating speeds of turbomachine.

14 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: gas turbine combustion chamber consists of an outer and inner casings and a flame tube incorporating a front device made as a tapered blade-type swirler with its blades arranged between its inner and outer walls. The said swirler inner and outer walls are furnished with closed interconnected spaces in the blades with their outer edge provided with an open channel communicating with the aforesaid closed space. The swirler outer wall accommodates a bracket with an open space communicating with the aforesaid swirler outer wall space and a flange to be attached to the combustion chamber outer casing flange.

EFFECT: utilisation of pit-shaft petroleum gas by combusting it in the ground gas turbine combustion chamber.

3 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; gas turbines.

SUBSTANCE: proposed low-emission combustion chamber of gas turbine operating, mainly, on compressed gas with low effluents of nitrogen oxides and carbon contains prechamber and cylindrical fire tube with air inlet holes arranged over circumference of fire tube. Prechamber consist at least of two modules with space for preliminary mixing of fuel and air. Ration of distance between axes of neighbor modules to inner diameter of fire tube is 0.4-0.5. Ratio of length of preliminary mixing space of each module to diameter of its exit nozzle is 0.6-0.8. Fire tube has fuel-air mixture burning space and space for mixing not gases with air. Fire tube contains solid inner wall and perforated outer envelope with ring channel in between to feed cooling air into mixing space. Ratio of length of burning space to inner diameter of fire tube is 0.9-1.1. Air feed holes are made in mixing space.

EFFECT: reduced emission of harmful substances owing to organization of "rich-lean" burning of fuel by preliminary mixing of fuel with air in prechamber and prevention of delivery of cooling air into burning zone.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: the fuel-air burner refers to heat engineering arrangements.

SUBSTANCE: the fuel-air burner of the combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine has a fuel injector, an axle and tangential air swirlers fulfilled in the shape of channels with open butt-ends and blades inside. The fuel-air burner additionally includes a air-inlet-mixer, located between the body of the injector and the input butt-end of the axle swirler. The low along the flow butt-end of the air inlet -mixer is fastened together with the input butt-end of the axle swirler. The upper along the flow butt-end of the air inlet -mixer is made open. The fuel injector is provided with openings of feeding and dispersion of gas fuel located inside the air inlet-mixer before the input edges of the axle swirler.

EFFECT: allows to increase economy, completeness of burning of fuel and reduce ejection of detrimental substances.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: mobile unit consisting of a housing of a furnace of a pyrolysis type, a module for supply of air and energy carrier to a furnace combustion chamber, which contains a waste gas utilisation system, consists of the following main assemblies: a chassis of a transport vehicle with a control cabin, a spring-suspended cabin shock absorption system relative to the chassis, on which a platform with a vibration insulation system is located relative to the chassis of the transport vehicle. Furnace rotation can be provided by means of a gear or chain transmission, the rotation of which is set from a shaft rotating a wheel, on which it is fixed. The shaft is rotated from a drive of an electric or a diesel motor, and in the centre of the end surface of the housing a provision is made for a mounting seat for installation of a burner, and an external branch pipe of the burner is connected by means of a rotating detachable connection along the symmetry axis of the shell with a fuel mixture supply pipeline to the burner. And the furnace design represents a metallic shell-like container being the furnace housing, which can also contain a hinged cover for loading of waste, and the inner surface is made from heat-resistant steel resistant to a corrosive medium, which is provided on the inner surface with screw projections. Besides, the fuel mixture burner includes a housing with a swirl chamber and a nozzle insert. The housing has an inlet branch pipe having a hole, an inlet cylindrical chamber coaxial to it, a swirl chamber located coaxially in relation to the inlet chamber and made in the form of a cylindrical shell provided on the side surface with at least three tangentially located holes, the axes of which are located at a tangent with regard to the swirl chamber. And a nozzle insert with outer diameter D1 is located coaxially to the swirl chamber. Inside the insert there are three in-series calibrated holes, which are coaxial to each other and to the cylindrical surface of the swirl chamber: a conical hole with diameter D of the lower base of the flattened cone, a central cylindrical hole with diameter d2 and an outlet conical hole with diameter d3 of the lower base of the flattened cone. Diameter d2 of the central cylindrical hole of the nozzle insert is equal to diameter of the upper base of the flattened cone of the conical hole and to diameter of the upper base of the flattened cone of the outlet conical hole.

EFFECT: improving productivity of thermal deactivation and utilisation of organic waste.

4 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: unit comprises a furnace, loading and unloading devices; the furnace is designed inclined with reference to horizontal bearing surface of the base unit and installed on two regulated supports, with one end fixed on the base block and on the other end of which two symmetrically located supporting bearing blocks are fixed. The housing of the furnace is designed from two cylindrical, coaxially located, core barrels: external and internal, connected to each other, at least by three longitudinal stiffening ribs forming with core barrels channels for feeding into the furnace of air which moves through the ring branch pipe enclosing the external core barrel of the furnace housing in which, at least, three holes for air supply to canals are provisioned. On the internal surface of the furnace the vanes for lifting and mixing of particles during rotation are mounted, and the combustion zone of the furnace is heated with the torch with a flame distribution zone, meanwhile the torch consumes fuel and air mix supplied by the pipeline, and the air necessary for combustion is supplied into the furnace by a countercurrent method. Combustion products are released into the atmosphere through a flue which has the afterburner intended for purification of discharged gases from unburned products. At the furnace inlet the loading device designed as a conveyor is located which supplies waste of layered glass to a grinder, and the crushed glass by means of a rotating roller is fed by the loading conveyor into the rotating furnace, at the outlet from which the device for unloading of glass particles designed as a collection cart is located, and the torch has a housing with a vortex chamber and a nozzle insert. The housing is designed with the inlet branch pipe with a opening, an inlet cylindrical chamber, coaxial with it, the vortex chamber located coaxially with reference to the inlet chamber and designed as a cylindrical barrel with a lateral surface, at least, three tangentially located holes the axes of which are located tangentially with reference to the vortex chamber, and coaxially to the vortex chamber the nozzle insert with an external diameter D1 is located, and in the insert three calibrated holes are provisioned which are consistently located, coaxially to each other and to the cylindrical surface of the vortex chamber: conic hole with the diameter D of the lower base of the truncated cone, the central cylindrical hole with the diameter d2 and outlet conic hole with the diameter d3 of the lower base of the truncated cone. The diameter d2 of the central cylindrical hole of the nozzle insert is equal to the diameter of the top base of the truncated cone of the conic opening and the diameter of the top base of the truncated cone of the outlet conic hole.

EFFECT: raised efficiency and energy saving at multilayer glass scrap processing.

4 dwg

FIELD: heating, drying.

SUBSTANCE: present invention relates, mostly, to installations for drying of various milled products, for example, milled products in sugar industry, or of those resulting from the distillation of starch-containing products (cereals) or of beetroot, or in forest industry. A burner to destroy substances, in particular, noncondensed waste coming out from the condenser of a drying plant; the said burner is operated by fuel, oxydiser and substances for burning, the burner comprises an axial feeding input to feed the burner with waste and a set of fuel injection nozzles distributed around the axial feeding input. A plant for drying of milled products, in particular, distillation products, comprises a drying drum (1) receiving the milled products to be dried at its input and fed by drying gas which is heated by a furnace (F) connected to a heat exchanger (2), the first separating device (4) to separate dried products and drying gases at the output of the drying unit (1), and condensing units (6) for condensation fed by the drying gas; the furnace comprises the burner fed by the noncondensed waste coming out from the condensing units (6) so that the said waste are delivered to the centre of the flame in the furnace (F) in the course of operation. Method for drying of milled products, in particular, distillation products, involves the stages when the products milled for drying are dried by the drying drum (1) fed by the heated drying gases with the help of the furnace (F) connected to the heat exchanger (2), the dried products and drying gases are separated at the output of the drying unit, and drying gases are condensed with the noncondensed waste being delivered to the centre of the flame in the furnace.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of a plant.

15 cl, 3 dwg

Nozzle // 2496055

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: nozzle contains branch pipe 1 arranged inside stator of electrical machine 2 connected through frequency converter 3 to mains of three-phase alternating current, fuel diffuser 4. Inside branch pipe 1 there arranged is short-circuited rotor 5, attached by bearings 7 and provided with impeller 6.

EFFECT: obtaining finely divided fuel and reducing power consumption.

1 dwg

Vibrating atomiser // 2457396

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: vibrating atomiser includes branch pipe supplying the fuel to atomiser injector and vibration system installed on it; vibration system is made in the form of a piece of magnetostriction material with winding connected to ultrasonic generator.

EFFECT: invention allows improving fuel combustion effectiveness and reduction of hazardous substances and reducing the emission of hazardous substances to atmosphere.

1 dwg

Demountable burner // 2447359

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: method is implemented in burner to introduce solid, liquid and gas fuel to burning area of furnace, for example, rotating furnace for production of slugged cement or similar materials; it contains pipe (1) which surrounds fuel supply pipelines and supply air burning through burner to nozzle orifice made in free end (7) of burner. The above pipe (1) consists of modules (1a, 1b) which are fixed to each other by means of fixtures (9) ensuring mounting and dismounting of modules without their destruction, at that fixtures (9) are connected to inner side of burner pipe (1).

EFFECT: easy dismounting for the purpose of repair or replacement or repair or replacement of burner nozzle elements.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: as per the first version, fuel combustion device is made in the form of linear chain of convergent-divergent nozzles. At that, outlet of the previous nozzle of the chain is connected to inlet of one following nozzle of the chain, and geometrical sizes of the next nozzle of the chain exceed geometrical sizes of the previous nozzle of the chain. As per the second version, fuel combustion device is made in the form of branched chain of convergent-divergent nozzles. At that, outlet of the previous nozzle of the chain is connected to inlets of two next nozzles of the chain. In both versions, on the end of the first nozzle of the chain there is installed atomiser for supply of water or water vapour to it and electrodes for creation of electric arc meant for dissociation of this water. Each next convergent-divergent nozzle includes atomiser for supply to it of additional water or water vapour.

EFFECT: invention allows increasing efficiency of heat energy generation.

2 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: low-head straight-flow swirl burner includes air inlet chamber (1), vane swirlers with rotary vanes (6) on axes (9), which form vortex chambers (8) at Venturi nozzle (7) inlet, and are kinematically connected with control pins (5) and end disks (4) to fuel supply pipeline (10) on the inlet part of which there arranged is cylindrical plunger of slot-type fuel supply control (12), and on the outlet part of fuel supply hole to constricted Venturi nozzle (7) section. Swivel arms (11) with tension springs (16) kinematically connect wedge-shaped projections (13) arranged on axial stock (14) kinematically connected to lever (17), with steam pressure control (18) equipped with membrane (19), stock (20) and power spring (21). Load is controlled in operation as to boiler steam pressure acting by means of steam pressure control (18) on axial stock (14) with wedge-shaped projections (13) turning the levers (11). At that, fuel flow through control (12) and flow swirling degree in swirl chambers (8) with the appropriate air flow through Venturi nozzles (7) changes. Fuel-air mixture is supplied to combustion stabiliser (24) where recirculation of combustion products is performed in zone of backflows between Venturi nozzles and external wall (25).

EFFECT: improving operating economy of the boiler within the whole range of loads, and providing ease of use.

3 dwg

FIELD: heating systems.

SUBSTANCE: fuel atomiser (2) for aero-mechanical injection system of air-and-fuel mixture to combustion chamber of turbomachine. Atomiser includes main tubular structure (4) with XX' axis open streamwise on lower end (4a) for supply of air-and-fuel mixture, and tubular fuel pipeline (6). Fuel pipeline is located inside main structure (4) with possibility of interacting with it in order to form annular channel (8) and is open streamwise on lower end to main structure (4) through spraying plug (10) of fuel with possibility of supplying fuel under pressure PC to the main structure. Atomiser also includes at least one air supply channel (12) connected to turbomachine compressor stage and open to annular channel (8) so that air can be supplied under pressure PA to this channel. In addition, fuel atomiser includes tubular gas channel (16) located inside fuel pipeline (6) and having a lot of holes (18) open to the above fuel pipeline for gas to be injected to it under pressure PG in order to create foaming of the fuel introduced to main structure (4). Pressure PG exceeds pressure PA and exceeds pressure PC. Holes (18) of gas channel (16) are located at least in one transverse plane and open to fuel pipeline (6) through spraying plug (10) of fuel. The above fuel atomiser can be a part of aero-mechanical injection system of air-and-fuel mixture to turbomachine combustion chamber the centre of which is located on YY' axis of injection system, which, in addition, includes air injecting device located downstream the fuel atomiser.

EFFECT: invention allows minimising hazardous emissions owing to decrease of time characteristics of fuel spraying and its evaporation at all operating speeds of turbomachine.

14 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: centrifugal-pneumatic jet is provided for operation in combustion chambers of gas-turbine units and jets. Centrifugal-pneumatic jet contains hollow casing of air channel with section of taper, outfitted by scapular swirler of air at inlet, installed by axis of casing up to its minimal cross section fuel nozzle with centrifugal jet, including fuel-feed canal to inlet into centrifugal jet. Centrifugal jet allows swirl combustion chamber with air swirler at inlet and nozzle at outlet. Blades of air swirler are implemented as hollow and its outlet edges by radius of channel allows reach-through holes. Swirlers of fuel at inlet to swirl combustion chamber are implemented in the form of screw with through helical grooves on its external surface. Swirl combustion chamber through equispaced by circle though inclined to axis holes of spill in screw and main, in which it is installed diverter valve with casing, is connected to hollows of blades of air swirler. Wall of swirl combustion chamber from the side of nozzle is implemented of type of conical or spherical and is outfitted by equispaced by circumference inclined to axis through holes.

EFFECT: reduction of fuming level and emission of harmful substances in fuel combustion materials, high efficiency and steadiness of burning in combustion chamber and excluding of unproductive bypassing of fuel from jet into tank.

5 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in the fuel feed into combustion chamber or compressor in amount required for its complete combustion. Besides, extra fuel is fed into combustion chamber in amount required for decrease in the temperature of gases in combustion chamber to safe limit (atmospheric supercharging). At activation of said atmospheric supercharging and exiting from the turbine igniter of whatever type is fired at a time.

EFFECT: perfected process.

2 cl

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