Method of heat treatment of round logs
FIELD: wood processing industry.
SUBSTANCE: method of heat treatment of round logs, mainly used as structural materials for the construction of walls of wooden buildings, is that before the beginning of heat treatment along the entire length of each log in the transverse direction, holes are uniformly drilled to penetrate the drying agent, not reaching the 2.5-3 cm to the center of the log, herewith each drilling is carried out with a displacement along a spiral trajectory, at the ends of the logs holes are drilled for a length of at least 0.5-1 meter diameter, commensurate with the core of the round log, and the heat treatment of the round log is carried out with the bark.
EFFECT: reduction of rejects during a high-temperature treatment of round logs.
2 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: heating, drying.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of drying, namely, to methods of drying stem bast-fibre materials, and enables to improve the efficiency of their drying before mechanical treatment on scutching-and-breaking machine and to reduce energy consumption of drying equipment. The method of drying bast raw materials comprises its preparation, transportation with simultaneous blowing with hot air in the form of a flow of a layer limited in width and directed simultaneously from above and below the middle zone and along the stems. According to the invention the fed flow of heated air flows downwards and upwards through the stem layer due to the change in the trajectory of its motion on the predetermined law by means of mounting on the upper and lower surfaces bounding the air stream of inclined deflectors on the specific scheme.
EFFECT: intensifying the process of drying flax stock through the rational use of coolant.
SUBSTANCE: inventions can be used in field of chemistry, as well as in field of processing subterranean formations. Method includes stages of supply of boron-containing material, selected from the group, consisting of ulexite, probertite, kernite and their mixtures, introduction of boron-containing material into preliminarily heated to temperature from 426.7°C to 537.8°C furnace, as well as its heating for from approximately 5 min to approximately 120 min, removal of boron-containing material from furnace and cooling it to room temperature. Obtained is product with boron content within the range from 20% to 40% and time of cross-linking, determined by Vortex Closure Test method, which constitutes from 35% to 95% counted for the time of cross-linking with application of initial material, or increased time of cross-linking from 45% to 90% in comparison with the time of cross-linking of initial material. Obtained product is used as linking agent for obtaining liquid for performing fracture of subterranean formations.
EFFECT: inventions make it possible to ensure fast and effective drying of boron-containing compounds, with obtaining compounds, characterised by content of accessible boron exceeding 10 wt % and reduction of linking time, as well as resistance to moisture absorption.
18 cl, 1 dwg, 5 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in grinding of coal of natural moisture, its activation by means of drying and subsequent burning in a flare. Coal is activated by means of its drying to moisture content that corresponds to moisture of supermicropores. Coal activation prior to burning will make it possible to increase temperature of burning flame heart by 100-150°C and to reduce presence of the fraction of non-burnt fuel by 10-30% within the ash. Burning speed increases 3-4 times.
EFFECT: improved intensity and characteristics of a coal fuel burning process, increased volume of burnt fuel due to usage of coal of certain moisture content corresponding to moisture of supermicropores.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to injection moulding. Integral multi-chamber drying hopper assembly consists of combination hopper, electrical heating and compressed air feed system and temperature control system. Combination hopper comprises, at least, two sub hoppers, each being furnished with independent inlet, independent outlet and independent-control compressed air feed channel. All outlets of sub hoppers are communicated with thermal control chamber arranged there under. Thermal control chamber bottom accommodates main outlet and main air feed channel. Thermal control chamber and every sub hopper are equipped with independent temperature control systems. Branch compressed air feed channels are combined in compressed air feed system via compressed air feed lines.
EFFECT: power savings, higher quality of drying of plastics.
6 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: heating system, drying.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to woodworking industry and can be used during production of composite materials, wood flour, biofuel both of bulk and granular type (pellets, granules, timber or bark bricks). Method of separating the bark from chips and their drying, which involves chips storehouse, manipulators with grab buckets, petrolatum and water capacities, separator, pumps, fans, pipelines, electric motors, swivel plates, cylinders, hydraulic motors. The method is differed by the fact that loading manipulator with grab bucket grabs the chips which are not separated from bark from the pile, and not opening bucket grab jaws, it lowers chips with bark down to boiling petrolatum, where the portion of chips is kept in bucket grab for not more than 2 minutes, and then it moves bucket grab with chips to the outside and keep it above capacity with petrolatum, bark and chips are dried; at that, drying process of bark takes more time than timber, bark is separated from chips, and chips and bark from which petrolatum is evaporated become dry, and loading manipulator with bucket grab is stopped above capacity with water rotating in it, and bucket grab opens jaws, chips and bark are emptied to water capacity; at that, bark, being lighter, is accumulated at the top of the capacity, and chips are in lower layer; then, loading manipulator with bucket grab takes upper bark from water capacity and transfers it to separator, where it is finally separated from chips and supplied with the pump from the swivel plate of separator to bark pipeline, and then the same loading manipulator takes by means of bucket grab the lower layer in water capacity and transfers chips separated from bark to separator, where chips are taken with pump to its pipeline; during separation of bark from chips and their drying there provided is keeping of chips with bark in boiling petrolatum for not more than 2 minutes and keeping above petrolatum capacity for not more than 5 minutes; at that, petrolatum temperature is 125-140°C, water rotation speed is not less than 3 m/s, final humidity of chips is 8-12%, bark is 4-6%.
EFFECT: implementation of the proposed method of separating bark from chips will allow processing unpeeled timber, paper wood, fire wood, branch timber, fencing wood, slabwood, half-timber for chips, and then separating bark from timber and drying them, and goods are produced from dried chips and bark.
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: method for determining maximum temperature of drying agent provides for determination of maximum temperature and heating period of the product by an experiment, and is based on the tests performed for many times, and as per the results of which there determined is heating period of the product, provides qualitative measures of the specimens within the limits specified by the appropriate standard, and on condition that product heating temperature and exposure period during drying process do not exceed appropriate values when the specimens are tested. The new feature of the method is that two batches of specimens of thermolabile products are used for experiments; specimens are subject to drying, at that, in the first specimen batch, drying period is determined every 10°C to the final product humidity, and in the second one - maximum drying period at which qualitative measures of the product remain within the limits specified by the appropriate standard. Then on the basis of the obtained data, there built is combined diagram of drying period to final humidity and maximum drying period versus reciprocal value of absolute drying agent temperature, and maximum allowable temperature of drying agent is determined as per crossing point of those diagrams for each concrete thermolabile product.
EFFECT: method provides the possibility of using the obtained results for choosing temperature drying conditions, thus improving the quality of finished products.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to woodworking industry and may be used in production of biofuel both in loose and granulated form (pellets, granules). Method of fine timber fraction drying in petrolatum consists in that fine timber fraction and petrolatum heated to temperature of 125-140°C are supplied to mixing cylinder in proportion of 70% of timber fraction and 30% of petrolatum in volume and mixed with the rate of at least 3.0 m/sec, simultaneously moving it to the top part of cylinder, petrolatum forcing water out of timber. Then horizontally rotating augers force the mixture into separator, wherein timber fraction is separated into components and separated from petrolatum, petrolatum being evaporated from timber on cooling transporter.
EFFECT: maximally efficient drying of timber fractions of different sizes in single technological process.
FIELD: the invention refers to the methods of definition of admissible temperature regimes of drying dispersed thermal lability products in the conditions of multi-stage changing of the temperature of the drying agent at the input into the apparatus and may be used for development of the technology of drying products in food and other fields of industry.
SUBSTANCE: the mode envisages drying of several samples of dispersed material, definition of maximal temperature and duration of heating of the product by an experimental way at conducting repeated tests, according to whose results they define duration of heating of the product, carrying out drying of each sample at constant temperature of the drying agent, drying of each following sample at more high temperature, definition at the same time of maximal duration of drying during which the qualitative indicators of the product remain in the limits of the standards, then building on the basis of the received data of charts of dependence of the logarithm of making the absolute temperature of the drying agent at maximal duration of processing of the product with this agent from opposite meaning of the absolute temperature of the drying agent in the shape of functional connection or in the shape of functional connection: where τmax -maximal duration of processing the product with the drying agent at the temperature Td during which its qualitative indicators remain in the limits of the corresponding standards: a, b, c, d-empirical coefficients for this product, and definition according to these charts of the field of admissible temperature regimes, new is that in the conditions when at each stage the product is processed with the drying agent at the given temperature installed for this stage the field of admissible temperature regimes is defined in such a manner that duration of the processing of the product at this stage at the given temperature be lower them maximally admissible duration of processing the product at this temperature, and the total duration of processing of the product on all stages must be defined from the conditions of functional connection: where Δτi -duration of processing of the product with the drying agent on i-stage at the temperature Ti; - maximal duration of processing of the product with the drying agent at temperature Ti which is defined from functional correction (1) or (2); τtot- total duration of processing of the product on all stages of the process.
EFFECT: the mode allows define the field of admissible temperature regimes of dispersed thermal unstable material in conditions of multi-staged regime of drying and preserve the quality of the product in the limits installed with the corresponding standards.
FIELD: food-processing industry, in particular, plant product drying technique, more particular, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, greens and spices.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has two drying chambers, receiver, heat-exchanger, sluice chamber, vacuum and air pumps, fan and air heater. Apparatus is further equipped with two heat-exchangers-condensers. Each of drying chambers is connected with one of heat-exchangers-condensers, and also with receiver to which vacuum pump is connected. Apparatus of such construction allows existing equipment to be used.
EFFECT: simplified construction and operation, elimination of possible expenses for manufacture of costly and massive technique.
FIELD: drying solid materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises pilling raw coal, allowing the pile to stand for a time interval wherein the coal slips down, breaking the layer of dried coal on the slope, and removing the dry fine coal. The natural angle of the slope of the raw coal is 55-65°. The duration of drying on the southern slope is 5-6 days, and on the northern slope is 7-10 days. Before removing the dry fine coal, a layer of 100-120 mm thick is broken down.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and quality of drying.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: woodworking industry.
SUBSTANCE: drying method of round timber involves convective chamber drying, with that, prior to drying, the timber is subject to autoclave soaking with a 16-18% water solution of a mixture of ammonium nitrate and carbamide or ammonium nitrate and calcium nitrate, which are taken in the ratio of 1:1, and drying is performed before the timber reaches equilibrium humidity considering future operating conditions.
EFFECT: method allows eliminating the formation of shrinkage cracks, improving the appearance, providing stable timber dimensions during operation, thus increasing the service life of round timber materials.
2 dwg, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method includes treatment of coal extracted from coal deposits for opening of its splices with rock. At the same time the coal is placed in layers at the intermediate storage, arranged on the southern slope of a knoll (mountain, hill) or a pit heap, the site of which has an angle of inclination 10-25°, exposed in spring-autumn periods to solar radiation with the number of "thawing-freezing" cycles with transition of temperature via 0°C equal to at least 7. Besides, the thickness of the coal layers is taken on the basis of the calculation sufficient for daily heating-cooling, and after thermal processing the coal is shipped from the warehouse for subsequent demineralisation.
EFFECT: increased opening of coal splices with rock.
FIELD: heating, drying.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to accelerated drying of different kinds and cross sections of timber by means of equipment providing moisture transfer by action of relatively high temperatures, moisture content and alternating-sign pressure. A method for timber drying in a chamber isolated from atmosphere involves heating of a drying agent by means of heating devices connected in upper part of a shell as per a parallel scheme to main pipelines, devices for heating and circulation of high-temperature liquid heat carrier, reversible fans and flow dividers, which provide flow and distribution of the drying agent along a pile through diffuser channels, each of which is symmetrical to rows of gaskets of the pile, moisture levelling along the timber cross section by a moistening system with further exposure, removal of the drying agent from the chamber to a condensation device and control of a technological process by means of pressure, temperature and humidity control devices. A new feature of the proposed invention is that timber heat treatment is performed by hot recirculating water till average temperature of 35-45°C is achieved, which softens it, equalises humidity and quickly unfreezes it during winter season, by filling the chamber to upper pile level by means of an additionally introduced pipeline circuit provided with possibility of water return or transfer to the next chamber, and the heating process is continued by a steam-and-air drying agent till evaporation temperature is 100 to 120°C, thus maintaining the pressure of up to 1000 mm Hg; with that, the steam-and-air drying agent is removed from timber depending on timber type by constant or periodic vacuum pulses with further vacuum treatment by a vacuum pump till the pressure in the drying chamber is 100 to 150 mm Hg.
EFFECT: drying by evaporation at alternating-sign pressures of 1000 to 100 mm Hg using constant or periodic vacuum pulses considerably accelerates moisture evaporation speed and provides fault-free drying at inconsiderable change of bending, tensile and compression strength.
FIELD: drying solid materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises preliminary continuous piecemeal treatment of lumber. The lumber is dried and/or defrosted by heating, the surface of the lumber is cleaned, and surface moisture is removed by step by means of squeezing , e.g., with the use of roller step mechanism.
EFFECT: reduced labor consumption.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: methods of drying woods.
SUBSTANCE: method can be used at woodworking factories, for example for making furniture. Method of drying is based upon step-by-step change in parameters of drying agent depending on humidity of woods. Timber is preliminary subject to boiling at atmospheric pressure in 15-17% solution of sodium chloride during 2,5-3,0 hours. Then timber is subject to convective drying at four-step increase of temperature from 40° to 60°C and simultaneous four-step reduction of relative humidity of drying agent till achieving value which provides preset final humidity of wood species. Drying agent can have temperature of 40° and relative humidity of 90% at first step, temperature of 50° and relative humidity of 85% at the second step, temperature of 60° and relative humidity of 80% at the third step and temperature of 66° and relative humidity of 50% at the fourth step.
EFFECT: improved quality of drying; reduced time of procedure.
2 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: wood treatment.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises supplying live steam to the drying chamber, leveling humidity over the cross-section of timbers, and heating timbers. The operations are performed with the use of sectional looped air ducts, fans, distributors, air heaters, and deflectors which provide uniform distribution of the flow over the height and length of the timber pile. The flow of the live steam and saturated air-steam mixture is distributed in two stages: in diffusers mounted between the fans and air heaters and through deflectors at least at two levels over the height of the pile.
EFFECT: improved method of drying.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: wood-working industry.
SUBSTANCE: for production of thermo-impregnated wood the wood is simultaneously dried, impregnated and thermo-modified by immersion the preform in the impregnating composition and subjecting to physical field action. The ratio of the impregnating composition to the volume of the loaded wood is not less than 2:1. Initially the preforms are placed in 2 or more non-insulated baths of smaller size, located in the basket, and then all together they are immersed in a common insulated bath with the impregnating composition, and the impact on the preform is carried out by creation of elastic disturbance of the pulsed nature with the amplitude of more than 200 dB. The device for production of thermo-impregnated wood comprises an insulated bath 1, an impregnating composition 2, a heater 3, metal non-insulated baths 4 with an open top, a basket for loading preforms 6, a non-tight lid 7 including water-cooled parts 8 mounted obliquely. A horizontal part 9 of the bath 1 is provided with a system for collecting and discharging the vaporised liquid. A pipe 10 is located above the mirror of the impregnating composition 2 and is connected to the pump for smoke and vapour recovery of the impregnating composition 2. On the outer wall of the bath 1 an emitter 11 of the pulse generator of elastic disturbances is mounted. The heater 2 is connected to the supply mains through a thermostat controller 12.
EFFECT: improving the quality and depth of impregnation, increased economic efficiency of the method, increased productivity.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex