Composite-type rockfill dam
FIELD: hydraulic construction.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering construction, in particular to dams made from ground materials, and can be used in construction of high composite-type rockfill dams with a core to create deep reservoirs on mountain rivers in seismically active regions. In earthquakes and uneven deformations in core of such dams, water-conducting cracks can occur, which reduce performance and reliability of structure. In order to improve reliability of structure in case of intensive seismic action and manifestations of uneven operational deformations with occurrence of water-conducting cracks in dam core and its base, composite-type rockfill dam with core comprising central part 1 of mixture of disconnected mineral soil with clay aggregate and enclosing its closed shell 2. Closed shell 2 is made of the same mixture with reduced content of disjointed mineral soil of smaller size and with increased moisture content of clay aggregate. In such a dam, simultaneously with core water impermeability increase in contact zones, healing effect of cracks resulted due to their colmatation by particles of disconnected mineral soil is achieved. In dam core junction upper zone to rock foundation sides 4, enclosing core central part closed shell 2 can be strengthened by geotextile cloths 7.
EFFECT: invention is promising for use in hydraulic facilities construction, in land reclamation and in the field of environmental engineering.
1 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydrotechnical construction, namely to soil dams built in areas with high seismicity. The invention is aimed at the reduction of cost of the structure and increase of the damping ability of the seismoisolating dam layer. The aseismic soil dam built in narrow cross sections includes the main soil part of the dam body and the seismoisolating layer with dynamic characteristics significantly differing from those of the soil of the main part of the dam body. The seismoisolating layer is located along the whole contact of the dam with the base and boards of the cross section (canyon). The seismoisolating layer is formed by the installation into this layer of inclusions in the form of similar utilised metal-cord tyres from cars, which cavities are filled with gumbrine. The tyres are arranged parallel to the base and boards of the cross section (canyon) with an equal step chequerwiseboth in the same row, and between rows, the quantity of which is no less than two.
EFFECT: design features of the offered design of the seismoisolating layer allow weakening more effectively seismic waves at the expense of an increased damping and diffraction ability.
SUBSTANCE: earthquake resistant subsurface dam being constructed in broad sites, comprises the upper main part of the dam body and seismic isolation layer of the dam body located between the upper main part of the dam body and base, dynamic characteristics of which are significantly different from those of subsurface of the main part of the dam body. Seismic isolation layer is formed by installing inclusions in the form of one-type recycled metal-cord tire casings of heavy vehicles in this layer. The cavities of these tire casings are filled with gumbrine. The tire casings are arranged horizontally at regular intervals in staggered order and in the horizontal plane. In the vertical plane the tire casings also arrange at regular interval in staggered order with number of rows not less than two. Design features of the proposed structure of seismic isolation layer permits to attenuate seismic waves more effectively due to the increased damping capacity and diffraction.
EFFECT: cheaper construction and improvement of damping capacity of seismic isolation layer of subsurface dam.
SUBSTANCE: static, dynamic or vibration sensing is carried out preliminary at the selected points to the depth from 1 m with respect to the top of the earth fill. At the same time the samples of compacted soil of undisturbed structure are selected in order to determine the moisture and density of skeleton of the specified soil from several drilled wells at points at a distance of not more than 1 metre in plan from sensing points. Laboratory researches of standard compaction with definition of compacting factor depending on the density of soil skeleton, are carried out on the selected samples of soils from the body of compacted fill. Construction of correlation dependence is performed between the specified values of compaction factor and values of the resistance to penetration of standard cone into the soil during sensing, taking into account determinations previously performed in the laboratory followed by evaluation of compaction quality of the earth fill.
EFFECT: improving the accuracy of definition and identifying the areas of non-compacted soil for its subsequent local postcompaction.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering, in particular to the construction of high-head dams made of local building materials with unearth impervious elements. Earth dam contains the thickened concrete diaphragm 1 as impervious element. Diaphragm 1 is separated form the concrete pad 10 by the perimeter seam 11 and longitudinal inspection galleries 5 are made in it at intervals by height. Horizontal joints-cuts 9 closed for inspection galleries 5, which prevent the disclosure of joints toward the downstream pool, are made on the upper edge of concrete diaphragm 1. Part of concrete diaphragm 1, located above its foundation part, is made of particularly hard concrete mixes pressed by layers. Screen 7 of asphalt concrete or rolled concrete enriched with cement mortar is also made on the upper edge of diaphragm 1. Concrete diaphragm 1 is cut into separate sections by vertical functional-sedimentary joints 8.
EFFECT: increase of strength of impervious element of the dam and possibility of carrying out the required repair is provided.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering and can be used in the construction of rock-fill dams on rivers in hard-to-reach areas with limited resources of natural building materials suitable for the construction of watertight element. Diaphragm of rock-fill dam on the rocky foundation 1 is made in the central area by filling the longitudinal cavity with water-resistant material. This cavity is formed between the prefabricated panels 5 installed back-to-back one upon the other. Process longitudinal cavity is formed by placing the prefabricated panels 5, supported by a vertically mounted metal tubular studs or metal studs 3 with longitudinal grooves, for example I-beams, channel beams, rails, interconnected by rods 4 into the single frame, providing the overall stability of the diaphragm during the construction period. Metal tubular studs 3 are made with holes for injecting the tiered impermeable and plastic material 6 of the diaphragm, filled firstly with rock macrofragmental material.
EFFECT: safety of rock-fill dam, arranged between the steep rocky banks in the narrow alignment, with characteristically high flood levels in the river is improved, construction periods are reduced.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for use in hydraulic engineering, in particular, to create dams of tailing dumps in areas with significant anthropogenic load on water facilities. The method includes preparation of the base for the dam and laying of soil material into the dam bank. Soil material is represented by anthropogenic bottom deposits of contaminated water facilities having permissible filtration capacity and sufficient strength according to hydroeconomic calculations. Anthropogenic bottom deposits are previously prepared by dehydration in containers from geotextile material to moisture of 40-50% and compaction under by gravity on a specially prepared site. Afterwards containers with dehydrated residue are delivered to the place of construction by dump trucks and are laid by mobile cranes in layers. The promising direction is usage of this device in areas of far north, since in these areas usually there are no sufficient soil materials suitable for creation of antifiltration elements. Local materials used to fill the dam bank are in permafrost condition and their usage causes significant difficulties. Utilisation of heterogeneous bottom deposits is provided, environmental compatibility and fail-safety of dam operation increase, erected structures are more stable.
EFFECT: reduced filtration losses, timing of construction, minimised complexity and labour intensiveness of works.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering. Device comprises a frame 1, antenna units 6, arranged along the perimeter of frame 1, and motion sensor 5. Device hung on propulsion unit 7 with hydraulic drive 8, which moves along the dam crest, with processing unit 4, integrated in it. Hydraulic drive 8 allows setting the frame 1, consisting of two parts, joined by means of hinges 2, to operating position to move it along the upstream slope. It is possible to detect defects and damages both of the protective coating along the upper slope, and soil condition, constituting the body of dam, located underneath, for formation of demultiplexing and subsidence at early stage of their formation.
EFFECT: quality of the performance of operational monitoring is improved, and the presence of propulsion unit with hydraulic drive permits to speed up significantly the performance of investigation of low-pressure earth dams.
SUBSTANCE: earth dam comprises a body, a base with an upper layer of ice-saturated soil, drainage slots and tubular drains. Drainage slots are made for the depth of the upper layer of ice-saturated soil of the base upstream the upper and lower slope of the body. A tubular drain is laid onto the bottom of the last slot.
EFFECT: efficient drainage of a thawing frozen base of a dam in process of construction of an earth dam in permafrost area.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises the following processes: erection of retaining prism, construction of dismantling dredge piping, receiving and alluviation of hydraulic fluid, formation of sediment pond, lighting, accumulation and storage of process water in it, discharge, intake and return of technically pure water in water recycling system. The sediment pond for storage of recycled water reserve and the final lighting of the hydraulic fluid from the central zone of the hydraulic fill is formed behind the contours of the hydraulic fill.
EFFECT: increase in intake capacity and stability of the hydraulic fill.
SUBSTANCE: stone dam contains impervious element in the form of soil-cement-concrete screen covered with film. The screen is recessed under the upstream face of the dam. It is designed as an inclined plate, leaned via the inclined sliding seal on the concrete prism. Near the bottom border of the soil-cement-concrete screen there are galleries. They are located every 20-40 m of height and serve to control the status of the screen and for its repair. Reinforced concrete gallery for cementation of rock base is arranged on the contact of concrete prism with rocky foundation.
EFFECT: increase of reliability of impervious element, ability of dam work in the conditions of extreme low temperatures, dam repair without draining the storage reservoir.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to dam building in Northern regions. Proposed dam has upstream and downstream fills, diaphragm, transition layers and drain located in downstream fill. It has also heat curtain arranged in cross section of dam in zone of transition layers and made in form of row of successive holes, each furnished with at least one heating device. Number and pitch of holes and number and parameters of heating devices are chosen to keep transition layers and drain in zone of action of plus temperatures created by heat curtain. Resistance electric heater can be used as heating device.
EFFECT: improved reliability of dam and operation of drain.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering, particularly hydraulic-mine dumps.
SUBSTANCE: dump comprises spillaway well, discharge manifold and drainage system, which provides subsurface interception of waste water filtering out of storage section. Drainage system is formed in ground base of storage section. Water receiving sections thereof are made as draining branches converging one with another within water receiving chamber of drainage system and provided with separate shutoff means. Water receiving chamber is formed under spillaway well and shares a common body with foundation part of the well. Water receiving chamber hydraulically communicates with discharge manifold by pump and water conduit. Formed inside discharge manifold is passage relating to water receiving chamber. Draining branches may be tubular and are arranged in a trench and/or pressed into the ground base from water receiving chamber. Diverging ends of two draining branches arranged in trench may be connected by tubular draining means.
EFFECT: reduced volume of building work, increased reliability and maintainability.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering, particularly for building dams in northern climatic zones.
SUBSTANCE: dam comprises upstream and downstream fills, crest, impervious member and transition layers located adjacent to the member. Dam has heat shield arranged between impervious member and the nearest intermediate layer and made as a row of successively formed wells. Wells are provided with at least one heating device. Depth, number of wells and pitch of the wells, as well as heating device parameters are chosen to subject impervious member and the nearest intermediate layer separated with heat shield to positive temperatures created by the heat shield. Electric heater or liquid heat-transfer medium may be used as the heating device.
EFFECT: increased dam operation reliability and safety.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly structures for burial storage of industrial wastes.
SUBSTANCE: waste disposal area has primary flood-breaking dam arranged at waste disposal area base and forming the first layer thereof and secondary dams. The secondary dams are mainly arranged on alluvial beach and form the next layers of waste disposal area. Drain is formed along the secondary dam. One or more secondary dams are provided with apron covering alluvial beach and drain is formed on the apron. Several secondary dams may be provided with short or long aprons. Short and long aprons alternate in each layer along waste disposal area height. Drain is located on each long apron. Apron may be formed of ground material having permeability coefficient Ka defined as Ka<0.2K0, where K0 is permeability factor of alluvial beach waste. Waste disposal area may have shield formed at waste disposal area base and including drainage layer covering shield part abutting the primary dam. Drainage layer is provided with drainage pipe and has width, which exceeds length of the secondary dam apron. Waste disposal area may include several layers. As number of layers increases ratio of long and short apron lengths decreases. Drain may be formed as drainage belt and provided with drainage pipe.
EFFECT: increased structural reliability and reduced costs.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic building, particularly facilities to store industrial waste.
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic fill section includes primary dam formed on base of the section, secondary dams and drainage system arranged in the base. Major part of each secondary dam is located on alleviation beach. Intake means of drainage system are made as drainage branches converging in water intake chamber arranged in the base of the section and spaced from its dam. Water intake chamber is communicated with water supply system of industrial plant by pump and by discharge water channel located in passageway adapted to maintain water intake chamber. At least one secondary dam is provided with apron, which covers alleviation beach. Apron has drain hydraulically communicating with draining branch of drainage system through additional water pass formed in waste arranged in the section. Drain may be formed as drainage belt and provided with drainage pipe. Draining branch may be of tubular type and arranged in trench. If water intake chamber of drainage system is located in spillaway well section water intake chamber may be arranged under the spillaway well and have common body with foundation thereof. In this case discharge water channel may be combined with discharge manifold of spillaway well and maintenance passage is formed inside above manifold. Additional water pass may be movably connected to drainage pipe of drainage belt by tubular member and by connection pipe provided with shutoff device.
EFFECT: increased reliability and reduced costs of above section.
5 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic building, particularly in permafrost ground zones.
SUBSTANCE: head comprises diaphragm built in impervious member in crest area. The diaphragm is made of concrete and has reinforcement extending the full height thereof. The diaphragm is also provided with anchoring panel arranged in lower diaphragm part. The extension has height of not less than 0.5 m and is fixedly secured to lower diaphragm surface. The diaphragm is formed by pumping nonfrost-susceptible mix into preliminarily thawed crest area and into impervious member head. The diaphragm is formed as pile of cohesive soil in crest area and impervious member head. The cohesive soil is introduced in preliminarily thawed crest area and in impervious member head for depth of not more that 0.5 m, wherein the diaphragm is covered with heat-shielding layer. Diaphragm at dam crest area and impervious member head is created by cementing dam crest and impervious member head. Cementing tubes arranged in cementing holes are used as the reinforcement. Cementing anchoring panel is arranged in lower diaphragm part.
EFFECT: increased structural reliability and reduced costs.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic building, particularly to build water retaining structure of in-situ materials.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming structure body, which abuts channel sides, wherein channel sides define inclined planes and are flattened in areas near water retaining structure; arranging watertight barriers, drainage and slopes of lower pool sides; arranging drainage of upper pool side slopes; flattening canyon sides and forming ledges in water-tight layers of upper and lower pool layers; creating opened channels along ledge surfaces near slope bottom; forming manifolds along longitudinal structure axis in upper and lower pools; communicating opened channels in upper pool with side drainage; communicating opened channels in lower pool with side drainage and with structure drainage and connecting thereof with manifolds opened in canyon, wherein the channels are spaced from the structure so that the most dangerous side surface of manifold slope ground failure wedge is beyond the structure body.
EFFECT: increased reliability of water retaining structure due to prevention of structure base and lower slope damage as a result of ground motion and suffusion.
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly to store industrial waste in flood-plains.
SUBSTANCE: sludge pond comprises ground basin defined by enclosing structure, trench arranged at sludge pone base between the enclosing structure and river, protective dam located between trench and river. Ridge of protective dam extends over maximal predicted level of water in river. Impervious protective dam member closes water-permeable layer at base thereof and is connected with aquiclude at dam depth. Trench bottom is below everyday water level in river. Trench interior communicates with water recycling system of industrial plant by water supply system. The sludge pond may be provided with drain arranged in waste and spaced from base. The drain extends along enclosing structure and is provided with vertical spaced apart water conduits. Upper end of each water conduit is hydraulically communicated with drain, lower one is communicated with water permeable base layer. Protective dam ridge height is selected from Ve≥Vd, where Ve is volume of emergency ground basin defined by protective dam, Vd is calculated volume of liquefied waste discharge from sludge pond in river direction. Drain may be formed as drainage band provided with drainage pipe. Impervious layer is created at drain base.
EFFECT: increased reliability of waste storage and decreased risk of underground water pollution.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic building, particularly to store granular waste, for instance dressing plant residuals.
SUBSTANCE: two-stage slurry dump comprises two ground dams, which intersect valley. Lower dam defines lower basin, upper dam defines upper basin. Dump comprises hillside ditches having lower ends arranged in lower pool of lower dam, hydraulic conveyance system, water supply means, which feeds water from settling pond to industrial plant. Upper dam is located on shore wastes, which are aggregated in lower basin up to predetermined level in front of dam. Upper dam and lower dam are spaced apart a distance enough to create basin for clarified water pond forming in front of upper part of lower dam. Upper dam is permeable dam to clean water and to permit water passage from settling pond of upper vessel into clarified water pond. The clarified water pond is made as opened pool or as a basin at least partly filled with coarse draining material. The slurry dump is provided with means to increase waste load-bearing capability located at upper dam base and with means to supply water from clarified water pond to industrial plant.
EFFECT: reduced amount of building works and increased quality of reused water.
10 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic and industrial building, particularly to create fill ground structures, dams, motor roads, stacks and bases thereof.
SUBSTANCE: method involves preparing base for dam erection; filling dam body with ground and compacting thereof. The ground material is sludge taken from aluminum waste sludge storage facility and consists of electric filter dust and residues of gas cleaning and flotation operations. The sludge is prepared by dewatering thereof to obtain 0.4-0.5 humidity. Then the sludge is compacted to provide porosity of not more than 0.60.
EFFECT: provision of aluminum waste utilization, reduced costs.
3 dwg, 1 ex