Spectrometric method for determination of cloud propagation path of toxic gaseous substances in atmosphere
FIELD: measuring equipment.
SUBSTANCE: continuous circular scanning of the atmosphere near surface layer above a controlled object area along the inclined paths is carried out by not less than two fourier-spectroradiometers. By using the results of the spectroradiometers operation, the laws of angular movement of indicated cloud are established experimentally relative to each instrumentation and for each direction and moment of time when one of devices has reacted. The direction of view axis is predicted for the rest instrumentation, in which they are supposed to indicate the cloud at the same time. The coordinates of intersection points of projections of axes of instrumentation view fields projected onto a topographic map are determined. The equations describing the change over time of the cloud coordinates are found, which make it possible to predict the direction and dynamics of its propagation. The sequence of coordinates found in time is approximated by a line which is a desired propagation path of the indicated cloud of toxic gaseous substance.
EFFECT: possibility for determining the path and predicting the propagation direction of clouds of toxic gaseous substances is provided.
SUBSTANCE: natural radiation of the atmosphere and background is measured for some set of frequencies in area of the line of absorption of the measured gas. The design values of the natural radiation of the atmosphere and background are calculated based on the a priori or standard data on the vertical profile of temperature, atmosphere pressure, concentration of the measured gas, background radiation. Deviation of the measured gas profile from the standard is determined according to difference between the measured and calculated values of the natural radiation at the selected set of frequencies. To get data on the concentration of the measured gas at the given height the difference of natural radiation (differential signal) is measured at the first pair of frequencies located on the low frequency slope of the absorption line of the measured gas that corresponds to the set height. The same difference is measured at the second pair of frequencies located on the high frequency slope of the same line. Based on the deviation of the linear combination of the difference (differential) signals from its design value for the standard atmosphere and background the gas concentration is calculated at the given height.
EFFECT: higher measurement accuracy.
5 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: system includes sub-satellite (shipborne) and satellite means of measuring oceanographic characteristics. The sub-satellite measurement means are represented by four sets of measurement sensors and integrated measurement devices, the first (1) of which is mounted on the bow of the ship underwater, and the second (2) on the bow of the ship above the water, the third (3) on-board the ship, the fourth (17) on a carrier (18) in the form of a probe linked to an anchor-buoy line device (19). The first (1) set consists of sensors for measuring temperature, electrical conductivity and pressure of the seawater, oxygen concentration, light scattering coefficient in the water, a device (12) for collecting overboard seawater, a multibeam echo sounder and side-looking sonar. The second (2) set consists of sensors for measuring temperature, humidity and atmospheric pressure, direction and speed of wind, a device for measuring fluorescence of phytoplankton and dissolved (yellow) organic substance, a device for measuring radiant temperature of the sea surface, a device for measuring spectral brightness of the sky, the sea and irradiation of the sea surface with solar radiation. The third (3) set consists of a device for measuring spectral attenuation of light in the seawater, a device for measuring fluorescence of phytoplankton chlorophyll and the dissolved (yellow) organic substance, a device for measuring concentration of chlorophyll and the dissolved (yellow) organic substance, a device for measuring concentration of carotenoids, pheophytin and carbon. The fourth set (4) consists of a device for measuring vertical profiles of dissolved methane, content of alpha-, beta- and gamma radioactivity nitrates, the zonal and meridian components of the flow speed and sound speed in the seawater. The satellite measurement means include a lidar, which comprises a red and green range laser, a device (6) for determining coordinates of the ship, a device (8) for determining coordinates of the beam for scanning the water surface with an artificial Earth satellite. Readings of the sub-satellite measurement means are used in correcting satellite data in a device (11) for correcting satellite information and storing oceanographic data.
EFFECT: high reliability of determining oceanographic characteristics and detecting spatial distribution thereof.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: radio engineering, communication.
SUBSTANCE: method includes obtaining images of areas in the visible wavelength range, as well as in the wavelength range of fluorescence of atmospheric nitrogen under the effect of ionising radiation using matrix photodetectors. The ratio of the contrast of adjacent elements of images in the visible spectrum and similar contrast of the image in the nitrogen fluorescence range is determined on images of an uncontaminated area. The monitoring process includes constantly determining the value of said contrast ratio for all elements of the obtained images. If the obtained value differs from the value determined for part of the uncontaminated area, parts of the area whose image was captured by the matrix photodetectors is considered radioactively contaminated.
EFFECT: high reliability of monitoring results.
SUBSTANCE: least radiation temperature is measured (Tr) for thermal radiation leaving upper areas of cloud cover, and also air temperature near Earth surface corresponding to the same area. They compare value of temperature Tr with the value of temperature (TI) of the sought-for isotherm. If Tr≤TI, then they additionally measure near-surface atmospheric pressure and determine dew point temperature. Using the produced data, they calculate air temperature (TA) in a convective cloud by altitudes with specified discrecity. The calculated value of temperature TA is compared with the value of temperature TI of the sought-for isotherm. If TA≤TI, then isotherm altitude is altitude of cloud air location at this step.
EFFECT: possibility to determine altitude of any isotherm in convective clouds, possibility to use the method for various areas and seasons without clarification of empirical coefficients.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental systems of information collection and processing and may be used for diagnostics of industrial region atmosphere condition. The substance of the invention consists in the fact that the system of environmental monitoring of atmospheric air of industrial region includes a system of satellite communication, which is a reserve channel of data transmission, at the same time its inlet is connected with outlets of three data collection sources: quick-acting gas sensors of environmental control of atmosphere condition, the GPS system, 2nd group of sensors of environmental control of environment condition; the system of information security support, the second centre of data processing and comparison, connected with the second inlet of the central dispatching point, and a unit of analysis of the logic of data processing and comparison, besides, the inlets of the information security support system are connected accordingly with outlets of the modelling centre, the mobile telephone system, the first group of sensors of environmental control of environment condition and with equipment of the city telephone network, and the outlet - with the first inlets of the first and second centres of data processing and comparison, the second inlets of which are connected with outlets of the unit of analysis of the data processing and comparison logic, inlets of which are connected accordingly with the second outlets of the first and second centres of data processing and comparison.
EFFECT: increased reliability of functioning of a system of environmental monitoring of atmospheric air of industrial region.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of building Doppler lidars and laser Doppler speed meters designed for measurement of wind speed and detection of turbulent processes in atmosphere. The method consists in modulation of a probing beam with the help of harmonic function, detection of reflected or scattered light by a photodetector, and identification of the main harmonic of the detected signal, which is compared to a modulating signal by means of their multiplication in a radio frequency multiplier. A complex signal of differential (new Doppler) frequency is generated, proportionate to speed, which is subject to measurement.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase spatial resolution, stability and reliability of measurements, to increase distance of investigated zone probing, as well as to simplify an optical circuit.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: system comprises a unit (1) of receiving transactions from the sensors of environmental control of air condition, a unit (2) of identification of the sensors of environmental control of air condition, a first (3), a second (4) and a third (5) memory units, a unit (6) of counting the amount of transactions received, a first (7) and a second (8) comparators, a first (9) and a second (10) addressing units of input transaction records of the sensors of environmental control of air condition.
EFFECT: increase in the system operating speed by eliminating the time consumption to detect the extreme environmental situations that require immediate response.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydrochemistry of swamps and can be used for measurement of background concentrations of substances in swamp waters. Essence of the invention is as follows: homogeneous sections of a swamp are determined based on an analysis of depths of a peat deposit and swamp phytocoenoses. A background concentration of a substance in swamp waters is measured as an upper limit of a geometrical average for the homogeneous section of the swamp. Allowable concentration of a substance is measured in swamp water based on comparison of two samples in conditionally background and disturbed states for such a level of a man-caused impact on the water object, at which its state does not change considerably.
EFFECT: measurement of background concentrations of substances in swamp waters.
3 cl, 4 tbl, 2 dwg
FIELD: radio engineering, communication.
SUBSTANCE: information control system for integrated safety control of a hazardous production facility comprises means of obtaining field data of a technological process and the environment, which include sensors 1 for detecting concentration of vapour of a liquid substance in the air, sensors 2 for detecting level and loss at equipment for transfer of hazardous substances at areas 3, sensors 1 for detecting concentration of vapour in air, sensors 2 for detecting the level and loss, temperature sensors, placed on areas 4 for storage of hazardous substances, a pump control apparatus 23, connected to a panel 22 of an emergency response area 4, sensors 1 for detecting concentration of vapour of a liquid substance in air, sensors for the level of the liquid substance and loss and video cameras 5, placed on racks 6, programmable switches 7, the inputs of which are connected to the sensors 1, 2, and the outputs are connected through primary information routers 8 to virtual data panels 9 of the technological process and the environment and to local process networks 10 of storage areas 4, each provided with a foreman's automated workstation 11, each of the networks 10 of the areas being connected through an area router 12 to a single process network 13 of the enterprise, connected through a video hub 14 to video cameras 5, and through a router 15 to an administration network 16, which is connected to a shop foreman's automated workstation 24, a shop service automated workstation 25, a database server 18, and through a central router 19 to an information analytical centre 20 for integrated production safety evaluation, as well as an enterprise monitoring service 21, configured for different-level local and centralised control action with simultaneous information of territorial monitoring services 26 on emergency situations.
EFFECT: wider range of systems for controlling safety of facilities, high reliability and broader functional capabilities of an integrated monitoring system for preventing possible emergency situations, using programmed integrated evaluation of safety of a hazardous production facility.
6 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to meteorology and can be used for assessment of integral atmospheric moisture above ocean. Essence of the invention is as follows: values of radio-brightness temperatures are obtained via five radio measuring channels having frequencies of 10.65 GHz, 18.7 GHz, 36.5 GHz of horizontal polarisation and 23.8 GHz of vertical and horizontal polarisations. Values of integral moisture are calculated using a dependence considering values of radio-brightness temperature and coefficients of an adjusted Neuron Network. The numerical values of the above coefficients of the adjusted Neuron Network are obtained by mathematical modelling of outgoing radiation of the Ocean-Atmosphere system and by performing a numerical experiment using Neuron Networks as an operator of solution of an inverse task with further adjustment of the method on global satellite and surface measurements combined in space and in time.
EFFECT: improving assessment accuracy, enlarging the range of application conditions.
SUBSTANCE: normative document-regulated complex of measures for temporal reduction of harmful emissions from air-pollution sources is performed after computation-assisted preliminary determination of principal air-pollution sources expected for the period of unfavorable meteorological conditions. Sources are graded according to their contribution into the total air pollution. During the period of unfavorable meteorological conditions, air pollution levels for various harmful substances are monitored at checkpoints. Using these data, inverse problem of impurity dissipation is solved to reveal individual sources, which have not reduced harmful emissions before the beginning of unfavorable period. On these sources, unscheduled emission control is performed.
EFFECT: increased control efficiency.
FIELD: applied meteorology, may be used in practices for preventing effects of disasters connected with origins of typhoons and other atmospheric whirls.
SUBSTANCE: method involves neutralizing kinetic energy of atmospheric whirls by initiating atmospheric stream flow; directing high-speed stream flow toward rotating air flows in atmospheric whirls. As a result of interaction of air flows approaching zone to be protected, whirl of lower energy is destructed by stream flow and its cloudy massif is dissipated along axis of stream flow.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in protecting of coastal territories from destruction by typhoons, hurricanes and cyclones.
FIELD: devices or methods for influencing weather conditions, particularly for controlling atmospheric vortex generation conditions.
SUBSTANCE: method involves transforming near-surface circulation air flows locating adjacent vortex formation into vertical air flows by means of land-based structure and turbulizing thereof so that newly formed flows are entrained by total flow system above the structure. The flows enter into cooperate with ascending flows and reform thereof. Cooperation of redirected flows with cylindrical structure channels and with main ascending flow results in forced reduction in scale of total air mass turbulence and in main vortex flow degeneration in energy so that energy thereof transforms into energy of lesser newly formed and developed vortexes. The land-based structure may be formed as grid with cylindrical channels located in ground surface area.
EFFECT: possibility to control vortex formations.
FIELD: optical atmosphere research technologies.
SUBSTANCE: according to method, firstly by means of mathematical model of ideal atmosphere projection of observation trajectory on earth surface is calculated. On second stage with same meteorological and technical conditions projection of observation trajectory on earth surface is determined in real atmosphere. Value of concentration of carbon monoxide is found from difference between projections of observation trajectories on earth surface.
EFFECT: higher speed of operation, higher sensitivity.
FIELD: optical atmospheric research.
SUBSTANCE: device has radiation source, diaphragm, optic focusing system on first measuring base. On second measuring base signals processing block on basis of amplifier is positioned as well as block of control indicator of carbon monoxide concentration, photo-detectors row, two computers, threshold voltage source and voltage source for setting observer angle, four voltage amplifiers, temperature sensors for lower and upper surface-adjacent atmosphere layer, atmospheric pressure detector. Elements of device on first measuring base are jointly positioned at platform on first holding post at fixed height. By means of platform under effect from voltage source it is possible to change observer angle within 85-89 degrees relatively to second measuring base.
EFFECT: higher reliability.
FIELD: ecology, in particular, evaluation of atmospheric air quality by morphologic state of epiphytic lichens.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing at least 10 test plots of 25x25 m size on land; determining outer features of lichens on trees; providing statistic processing of observation results; calculating bioindicator state factor and comparing with standard criteria of habitat state, with value of fractal size of lichen thallus being used as bioindicator activity factor, said value being determined by computer processing of scanned lichen thallus pictures; determining extent of atmosphere contamination by taking into account that fractal size of lichen thallus is reducing as extent of atmospheric air contamination in growing sites is increased.
EFFECT: simplified lichenoindication method, elimination of influence of subjective evaluation by investigator owing to usage of quantitative factor of lichen thallus state.
2 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: the invention refers to measuring technique and may be used for sounding of atmosphere or ocean - definition of a vertical profile of a sound speed or an index of reflection.
SUBSTANCE: the technical result: simplification of realization of measuring, increasing their precision and also securing possibility of independent definition as the profile of the speed of the sound, so the profile of the index of reflection in atmosphere or in ocean. The essence: in the environment a movement of a sounding object is set up, a modulated acoustic or electromagnetic wave is directed on this object. The wave holds frequencies f1 and f2 and f1≥C/h and f2≤C/H, where C - a medium speed of the wave in the investigated environment, h - required space permission, H - a maximum distance of measuring, reradiated by the object. Corresponding relative Doppler shifts at various locations of the object are defined for frequencies f1 and f2 reradiated by the object. Attitude for these shifts is found. According to this attitude the vertical profile of the speed of the propagation of the wave is computed. Particularly an acoustic wave packet is chosen in quality of sounding object and a vertical profile of the speed of propagation of the electromagnetic wave is computed. The profile of the speed of the sound is defined along the profile of the shift of the frequency f1 with taking into account the profile of the speed of propagation of the electromagnetic wave. Particularly for various moments of time an integral shift of the phase of the wave reradiated by the object on the carrier frequency is found and along this shift a slant distance till sounding object is defined. Particularly along the parameters of received signals an azimuth and an angle of the place of the sounding object are found.
EFFECT: simplification, increasing of precision, providing possibilities of independent definition of the profile of the speed of the sound and the profile of the index of reflection.
5 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: the invention refers to measuring technique namely to arrangements of measuring(transforming) pressure of gaseous matters.
SUBSTANCE: it may be used at mobile and stationary objects for transforming the speed of wind and atmospheric pressure. The wind and pressure sensor has a sensitive elements block, an electromagnet, an electromagnet control block, a cowl the body of which is fulfilled with one pair of inlet openings the axis of which are located in one vertical plane passing through the symmetry axle of the wind sensor. Each of the openings is connected via a corresponding inlet channel with the sensitive elements block. In accord with the invention the wind and pressure sensor has additionally an atmospheric pressure sensor, a static pressure channel, four differential pressure sensors constructively united in the sensitive elements block and in the cowl body there is additionally fulfilled the second pair of inlet openings the axis of which are located in one vertical plane passing through the symmetry axle of the wind and pressure sensor transversely to the plane in which the first pair of openings is located. Each of the openings of the first and the second pairs is connected through corresponding inlet channels of the body with the first inlet of the corresponding differential pressure sensor and the second inlets of the differential pressure sensors and the atmospheric pressure sensor are connected with the static pressure channel. At that in the lower part of the body there are a number of openings located right up to the generating line of the cylinder in the narrow part of the cowl connected with the channel static pressure channel and designed for intake of an average meaning of static pressure.
EFFECT: increases number and the working diapason of measured parameters and also increases the accuracy of measuring.
FIELD: weather monitoring systems.
SUBSTANCE: system for monitoring environment contains meteorological equipment with indicators and computer of meteorological center, connected by wireless communication line, while meteorological equipment is mounted on supports of aerial electric line, and as conducting communication line electric line suspended on aerial electric line posts is utilized.
EFFECT: maximal enveloping of monitored area with minimal costs.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: angular refractometer comprises two light sources with pulse radiation at different wavelengths of the reflector, angular compensator, receiving optical system, double electrooptic modulator whose modulation frequency is less than that of the light, light splitter for splitting the light beam into two beams, two light filters, two photodetectors, and three electric channels. The information channel includes differential amplifier, measuring circuit for generation of information signal, servomotor for automatic control of movable member of the angular compensator, and refraction angle recorder. The channel for adaptation to instrument and atmospheric interference has splitting electric circuit whose input is connected with the output of the differential amplifier and electric circuit for generation of signals of adaptation and switching on of the servomotor. Third electric channel for automatic sighting has electric circuit for comparing photocurrents from the different parts of the image and generation of the control signal whose input is connected with the output of one of the photodetectors and servomotor.
EFFECT: enhanced precision.