Multijunction solar cell
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: multijunction solar cell includes the first sub-element consisting of a compound of InGaAs. The first sub-element has the first lattice constant, and the second sub-element with the second lattice constant. The first lattice constant at least by 0.008Ǻ larger than the second lattice constant and, in addition, a metamorphic buffer is provided that is made between the first and the second sub-elements. The buffer contains a sequence of at least three layers, the lattice constant of this sequence increases toward the first sub-element. The constant lattice layers of the buffer are larger than the second lattice constant, one layer of the buffer has the third lattice constant that is greater than the first lattice constant. Between the metamorphic buffer and the first sub-element, N compensating layers are made to compensate the residual voltage of the metamorphic buffer. The lattice constant of the corresponding compensating layers is smaller than the first lattice constant by an amount ΔAN>0.0008Ǻ, and the compensating layers have an indium content of more than 1%, and the thicknesses of the N number of the compensating layers are selected from a certain ratio.
EFFECT: increase in the efficiency of the multijunction solar cell.
17 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to solar engineering. The thermal photoelectric module with parabolic-cylinder concentrator of solar radiation comprises the parabolic-cylinder concentrator and line photoelectric receiver located in focal area with uniform distribution of the concentrated radiation along the cylindrical axis, at that the solar photoelectric module contains asymmetrical concentrator of parabolic-cylinder type with mirror internal reflection surface and line photoelectric receiver installed in focal area with device of heating medium flow device channel; form of the reflecting surface of the concentrator X(Y) is determined by the suggested system of equations corresponding to condition of uniform surface illumination of the photoelectric receiver made in form of the ruler with width do out of connected photoelectric receivers and length h, and located at angle to middle of the concentrator.
EFFECT: invention ensures operation of the solar photoelectric module ay high concentrations, and uniform photoelectric receiver illumination, achievement on one photoelectric receiver of the technically acceptable voltage (12 V and higher), heating of the flow heating medium, increased efficiency of conversion, and reduced price of generated energy.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to semiconductor instruments sensitive to light. A heterostructure includes a substrate made from AlN, on which an arrangement is made for three two-layered components with p-n-junctions between layers, which are adjacent to each other and made from In1-xGaxN. Two-layered components are adjacent to each other with tunnel junctions. Width of a prohibited zone of components increases in the direction towards a surface intended for solar energy irradiation. Between the substrate and the two-layered component adjacent to the substrate there provided are relaxation layers made from solid solutions of metals of the third group. Relaxation layers allow reducing mismatch of a crystalline grid of the substrate and the two-layered components. Width of the prohibited zone of the two-layered components meets the following ratio: Eg1:Eg2:Eg3=1:2.23:3.08, where 0.65≤Eg1≤0.85.
EFFECT: due to such ratio of parameters of two-layered components, solar energy is absorbed in the whole range of a solar radiation spectrum, which allows improving conversion efficiency of solar energy to electrical energy.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: solar cell comprises a substrate on which there are at least two double-layer components with p-n junctions between the layers, interfaced with each other by at least two intermediate layers. The layers of the double-layer components and intermediate layers are made of a quaternary solid solution of AlInGaN. The intermediate layers and the interfaced fragments of the solar cell have the same band-gap. The double-layer components with p-n junctions between the layers and the intermediate layers interfaced therewith have the same lattice constant. The lattice constant is different in the intermediate layers. In the layers of the double-layer components with p-n junctions, the band-gap is different with a fixed value of the lattice constant.
EFFECT: invention improves the efficiency of converting solar radiation.
4 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: offered invention "Monolithic rapid coordinate detector of ionising particles" relates to semiconductor coordinate detectors of ionizing particles. The goals are achieved at the expense of the use of original circuit of the detector, where bipolar transistors, connected in a circuit with common collector, also due to functionally integrated monolithic design of the detector where the semiconductor substrate, generating the charge carriers, simultaneously appears to be a common collector area of bipolar structures of transistors.
EFFECT: purpose of invention is increase of speed and manufacturability of coordinate detector, that is especially important for creation of new generation of "detectors of trace neutrons" for detection of explosive substances, X-ray scanners for medical, customs and other applications characterised by higher quality of object images, compared with known analogues.
3 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to physics and semiconductor device engineering, particularly crystalline silicon-based solar cells. The crystalline silicon-based solar cell consists of p- and n-type conductivity regions, electrodes for the p and n regions, wherein according to the invention, a diffraction grating is formed on the front surface of the crystal, said diffraction grating having a period equal to the wavelength of radiation quanta, the energy of which is equal to the band gap of the crystal.
EFFECT: invention reduces the absorption depth of solar radiation quanta, reduces optical and electrical losses and increases efficiency of conversion and enables to produce ultra-thin crystalline solar cells.
SUBSTANCE: system of agricultural field microclimate control comprises wind-protective and snow-retaining elements located on the edge of the field, a water reservoir made along the edge of the field from the side of most probable entry of dry wind. On opposite sides of the water reservoir along the field the vertical blinds are placed with the height of at least half the width of the water reservoir, mounted with the ability of rotation about the vertical axis and inclination in the vertical plane. The bottom of the water reservoir can be coated with impervious material, the water sprayers can be mounted along the water reservoir, and the sources of energy for the water sprayers the system can be provided with one or more wind-driven power-plants and solar batteries.
EFFECT: increase in the degree of protection of the field due to reducing the rate and temperature of dry wind and increase in moisture content of the surface air layer, as well as the reduction of energy consumption through the use of natural energy sources.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a LED module. A module consists of several LEDs installed on a printed circuit board with the LEDs having respectively the so-called layup with a lens by which the respective LED extends beyond the printed circuit board plane, the LEDs are connected respectively with an element for the input of optical radiation of a light guide body and the respective luminous flux of matched LEDs is emitted outside from the LED module by means of respectively matched element for luminous flux input. At least one passive LED which can be activated if one of LEDs fails is provided on the printed circuit board for LEDs in order to achieve homogeneous appearance. The luminous flux emitted by these passive LEDs enters the luminous flux input element of the respective LED and is emitted outside by the luminous flux input element.
EFFECT: development of a LED module consisting of several LEDs set on a printed circuit board, failure of some LEDs is not seen from outside due to the "input" of the luminous flux, emitted by the passive LED, into the luminous flux input element of the failed LED.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to semiconductor devices, particularly polymer solar cells. Disclosed is a polymer solar cell having, arranged in series: a supporting base in the form of a transparent polymer photoluminescent substrate, a transparent anode layer, a photoelectrically active layer and a metal cathode layer, wherein the polymer photoluminescent substrate consists of an optically transparent polymer containing a luminophore, selected from luminophores of general formula (I), where R is a substitute selected from: linear or branched C1-C20 alkyl groups; linear or branched C1-C20 alkyl groups, separated by at least one oxygen atom; linear or branched C1-C20 alkyl groups, separated by at least one sulphur atom; branched C3-C20 alkyl groups, separated by at least one silicon atom; C2-C20 alkenyl groups; Ar denotes identical or different arylene or heteroarylene radicals selected from: substituted or unsubstituted thienyl-2,5-diiyl, substituted or unsubstituted phenyl-1,4-diiyl, substituted or unsubstituted 1,3-oxazole-2,5-diiyl, substituted fluorene-4,4'-diiyl, substituted cyclopentadithiophene-2,7-diiyl; Q denotes a radical from said series for Ar; X denotes at least one radical selected from said series for Ar and/or a radical selected from: 2,1,3-benzothiodiazole-4,7-diiyl, anthracene-9,10-diiyl, 1,3,4-oxadiazole-2,5-diiyl, 1-phenyl-2-pyrazoline-3,5-diiyl, perylene-3,10-diiyl; L equals 1 or 3 or 7; n is an integer from 2 to 4; m is an integer from 1 to 3; k is an integer from 1 to 3.
EFFECT: high efficiency and simple technique of producing flexible polymer solar cells.
8 cl, 7 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for metrological determination of the internal quantum efficiency of a semiconductor photodiode based on the current-voltage characteristic thereof. The oxide biasing method is the known method of calibrating photodiodes. The efficiency of collecting charges for photocurrent generated in a p+ region needs to be determined in order to describe silicon p+nn+photodiodes. The primary reason for losses in the frontal region is the high rate of electron-hole recombination. This effect is intensified by the presence of positively charged ions which result in a surface electric field. The oxide biasing method is widely used to determine the extent of this effect on the internal quantum efficiency of a diode. The advantage of this method is direct measurement of saturation photocurrent and calculating internal quantum efficiency therefrom. However, this method has a shortcoming which lies in the degradation of the working surface of the semiconductor under the effect of a high negative voltage applied to the surface. The aim of this invention is to provide a method of determining quantum efficiency of a photodiode, which is based on comparing experimentally measured current-voltage characteristics thereof with theoretically calculated characteristics. This aim is achieved by recording to current-voltage characteristics of a photodiode at two different power values of incident laser radiation for which only the ratio is known. Said characteristics are then compared using a developed calculation procedure.
EFFECT: simple calibration procedure while maintaining accuracy characteristics of the photodiode.
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to optoelectronic devices. The semiconductor photoelectric generator has a transparent protective coating on a working surface on which radiation is incident and photoconverter sections optically connected by a transparent sealant with the protective coating. The photoconverter sections are inclined towards the working surface at an angle φ=5-50°. Flat mirror reflectors are mounted between the photoconverter sections with an angle of inclination towards the working surface of the generator of ψ=5-50°. The mirror reflectors and the photoconverter sections are in form of a periodic saw-tooth corner structure. The photoconverter sections have a double-sided working surface and the mirror reflectors have a double-sided reflecting surface.
EFFECT: high illumination and electric power per unit surface area of the photoconverters.
6 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: electronic engineering; semiconductor lasers for data recording, reading, and processing.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method designed to generate coherent electromagnetic radiation and width of its spectral line for mentioned lasers includes introduction of metal or superconductor nanoparticles in its system of hyperfine semiconductor layers and excitation of electrical dipole vibrations using electrons of mentioned nanoparticles.
EFFECT: greatly reduced dimensions of lasers.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: computer vision engineering; photodetectors, thermal imagers, infrared radiometers, and various sensors of computerized control devices.
SUBSTANCE: novelty in proposed device is that resistive photosensors are made of heteroepitaxial layers of different forbidden gap. Circuit set up of compensating charge capacitor connected to its potential recovery switch is connected to each integrating capacitor and through series-connected compensation addressing switch and feedback switch, to circuit transferring charge portion from charge compensating capacitor to integrating capacitor. Connected to each amplifier integrating capacitor is comparator whose output is connected to gate electrode of feedback switch and to complementing input of counter-register each of whose bits is connected to array of memory locations controlled by circuit affording exchange of addresses between counters and memory, data write and read buses of data on their transfer from counter to memory and vice versa. Memory locations are connected to counter-register bits. Device has memory readout addressing circuit and multiplexed readout buses for transferring digital data to digital outputs.
EFFECT: enhanced sensitivity and dynamic range.
17 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed invention is concerned with devices and apparatuses incorporating functional components forming planar set wherein functional components are addressing through first electrode grid with flat strip electrodes contacting one end of functional components and through second electrode grid they are contacting similar electrodes positioned perpendicular to electrodes of first electrode grid and brought in contact with opposite end of functional component. In this way, so-called matrix-addressed device is formed. Proposed optoelectronic device has functional medium in the form of active material possessing optoelectronic properties and inserted in the form of solid layer between first and second electrode grids EG1 and EG2, each incorporating parallel strip electrodes 1 and 2. Electrodes 2 of second electrode grid EG2 are positioned at certain angle to electrodes 1 of first electrode grid EG1; functional components 5 are formed in three-dimensional areas of active material 3 corresponding to relative superposition of electrodes 1 of first electrode grid EG1 and electrodes 2 of second electrode grid EG2 contacting active material 3 to organize set of matrix-addressed functional components. These functional components correspond to optically active pixels 5 of display or pixels 5 of photodetector. Electrodes 1 and 2 are disposed in each of electrode grids EG1 and EG2 in the form of dense parallel configuration and are insulated from each other by means of thin film 6 whose thickness amounts only to a fraction of electrode width. As a result, either display characterized in high surface brightness and high resolving power or photodetector of high-sensitivity and high-resolving power can be produced.
EFFECT: enhanced volumetric efficiency of pixels in active material amounting to that close to unity and, hence, enhanced resolving power.
9 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: said utility invention relates to thermal photoreceivers for the detection of monochromatic radiation in the far infrared (IR) range and determining the angle of arrival of that radiation. The development may be used in spectrometric and astronomical instruments, special purpose equipment, and communication equipment. The metallic bolometer contains a non-transparent metallic film on an optical heat-insulating substrate placed in a vacuum container with a transparent window. A dielectric layer of a certain thickness is applied on the film surface. The film surface facing the window has a corrugated section illuminated with the radiation being detected; the section length is equal to the propagation length of the surface electromagnetic wave excited in the film. The corrugation period is calculated using a certain formula.
EFFECT: invention provides increase of device selectivity and increase of long-wavelength limit of operating range.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to optoelectronics and interferometry and intended for measurement of spatial distribution of light intensity in interference field formed by counter luminous fluxes. Quadrature photo-receiving device contains photodetector including four interferentially sensitive photoelectric element, two of which are reference ones. Difference of optical distances from the first photoelectric element to the plane that is perpendicular to measured luminous flux and that limits optically distant surface of photodetector for the first photoelectric element and from i-photoelectric element to this plane is calculated from the proposed formula, signals from odd photoelectric elements of photodetector being supplied to appropriate inlets of the first differential amplifier, and signals from even photoelectric elements of photodetector to appropriate inlets of the second differential amplifier.
EFFECT: increase in ratio signal/noise of quadrature photodetector, reduction of interference caused by permanent component of luminous flux (rather than by interferential component), reduction of interference caused by interferential component of luminous flux on lengths of waves that are different from length of registered radiation wave.
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to remote transfer and conversion of super-high-frequency energy into DC electrical power. The proposed method consists in fitting an aluminium foil enclosure on over the entire surface of the vehicle airframe skin. The super-high-frequency converter is made in a material representing a mix of two chemical solid-state components with grain size not over 30 to 50 microns, taken in equal proportion but different atomic numbers, and forming, when combined, a dipole solid-state matrix. Note that the said bi-component mix is applied uniformly onto the said skin enclosure, the like poles of the dipole matrix being combined and connected to appropriate terminals of the vehicle flight control components.
EFFECT: higher efficiency power supply.
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to remote transfer and conversion of super-high-frequency energy into DC electrical power. The device incorporates an aluminium foil enclosure on over the entire surface of the vehicle airframe dielectric skin. The super-high-frequency converter is made in a material representing a mix of two chemical solid-state components with grain size not over 30 to 50 microns, taken in equal proportion but different atomic numbers, and forming, when combined, a dipole solid-state matrix. Note that the said bi-component mix is applied uniformly onto the said skin enclosure, the like poles of the dipole matrix being combined and connected to appropriate terminals of the vehicle flight control components.
EFFECT: higher efficiency power supply.
FIELD: physics, semiconductors.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of semiconductor equipment and electronics. Method for measurement of photoferromagnetic effect in magnetic semiconductors consists in measurement of electromotive force that occurs in the secondary winding of transformer, which is wound on adjacent section of core from magnetic semiconductor in the form of doubled ring. The primary winding of transformer represents two coils wound on nonadjacent sides of doubled ring symmetrically relative to plane of symmetry that separates core in two rings. As a result of unbalance, in sinusoidal signals of magnetic flows directed and same in value that penetrate the secondary winding that are serially and antiphase-connected to outlet of generator, due to illumination of strictly half of core on one side from mentioned plane of symmetry, in this winding electromotive force occurs that is proportional to variation of magnetic permeability under light effect.
EFFECT: provision of possibility to perform measurements of photoferromagnetic effect amplitude in more sensitive scales of metering instruments.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to energy converters of electromagnetic waves and can be used to obtain electrical energy. Converter of electromagnetic emissions contains N>1, where N - is an integer, regions with similar conductivity and one region with opposite conductivity with the formation of N of separate p-n junctions. The first electrode fits closely to each of the N regions with similar conductivity, and the second electrode - to the specified region with opposite conductivity. Converter according to the invention is capable to convert not only the usual frequency bands of electromagnetic waves (optical range), but also the wider operational frequencies bands of electromagnetic waves with operational provisions of the converter any time of the day. Converter on the invention is also characterised by high power and efficiency with simultaneous guarantee of high accuracy and stability of the output characteristic, capable of working even in conditions of significant temperature falls.
EFFECT: obtaining a converter with high power and efficiency with simultaneous guarantee of high accuracy and stability of the output characteristic, capable of working even in conditions of significant temperature falls.
17 cl, 21 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: receiver generates the electric signal proportional to energy of an electromagnetic wave, and is intended for registration of electromagnetic emission, and also can be used for electric power generation. The receiver consists of a working environment with free charged particles and where the standing electromagnetic wave actuates, and also the electrodes located definitely in the working environment or on its surface. Such construction of the receiver allows to reduce noise and to eliminate restrictions on length of a wave of registered emanation, to expand a high bound of a temperature range of operation, and also to expand an arsenal of the means intended for registration of electromagnetic emission.
EFFECT: possibility to reduce noise and to eliminate restrictions on length of a wave of registered emission, to expand high bound of a temperature range of operation, and also to expand an arsenal of the means intended for registration of electromagnetic emission.