Switching unit of rotary switches for ion transport system
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: system to control ion engines has two power control devices, four ion motors and two switching units . One switching unit of switches is connected to two power control devices and with two of four ion motors. Another switching unit is connected to said two power control devices and with other two ion engines. Each switching unit has first and second switching states which may be selected to enable power supply by any device of power supply control to any ion engine from the first to fourth ones. Each switching unit has a hollow shaft made rotatable and driven by a stepper motor. The ion engine comprises a discharge anode, a discharge cathode, an electrode of a discharge maintenance device, a discharge heater, a neutralizer cathode, a neutralizer heater, screen, accelerator and moderator grids.
EFFECT: improved reliability of the switching means.
15 cl, 17 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: offered invention relates to electric propulsions, in particular to their systems for storage and supply of working body (iodine). In the iodine storage and supply system containing a cylindrical vessel fitted with a heater with iodine which is interconnected with the electric propulsion through the pipeline with the valve, in the bottom of the cylindrical vessel from the pipeline a porous washer is installed which contacts with crystal iodine and the cylindrical vessel from the side, opposite to the pipeline, contains the flange and the piston spring-loaded with reference to the flange, contacting from another side with crystal iodine, meanwhile the heater is fitted with electric insulation contacting from outside with the vessel bottom from the pipeline side. Note that in the iodine supply system the piston is implemented as composite one as an external barrel contacting with the cylinder of the vessel and of the internal barrel inserted into it, meanwhile the bottoms of the barrels are facing toward opposite sides and between its bottoms the spring is installed.
EFFECT: invention is aimed at providing stable iodine supply at any arrangement of the cylindrical vessel in conditions of gravity and microgravity.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a plasma jet engine based on Hall effect. The engine includes an annular outlet duct enveloping the major axis, which has an open downward end and is restricted with an internal wall and an external wall, a cathode, a magnetic circuit for creation of a magnetic field in the duct, and a pipeline for supply of gas capable of ionisation to the duct. An anode located in an upstream end of the duct also serves as a distributor providing flow of gas capable of ionisation along concentric trajectory about the major axis. The distributor together with internal and external walls restricts in an upward direction an annular output cavity that projects into the ionisation zone of the duct and an annular intermediate cavity. Outlet openings attach the intermediate cavity to an outlet cavity.
EFFECT: use of the invention allows eliminating twisting about the engine axis of an ion flux at the outlet of the outlet duct.
17 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electric rocket engines. Proposed engine comprises electromagnet, magnetic core with poles, anode and neutralizer cathode rigidly coupled with magnetic core and circular discharge chamber secured at the flange spring-loaded relative to magnetic core, while flange with circular discharge chamber secured thereat is coupled with the rod. Opposite end of said rod is connected with magnetic core. Note here that said rod is made of material with creep rate equal to linear rate of discharge chamber wall erosion.
EFFECT: continuous recovery of discharge chamber geometry, longer life, keeping high operating performances.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electric rocket engines. Electric low-power rocket engine is proposed as a long-term spacecraft correcting engine with application of solid fuel instead of gaseous component as a high-density metal converted into plasma clot under electric discharge.
EFFECT: low-power electrical rocket engine.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to space engineering and may be used for spacecraft correction by means of electric propulsion plasma engines (EPPE). EPPE are selected for switching on, required time of EPPE operation is selected, used and unused electrodes of the engines are selected and connected to the power supply sources by means of contactors, the power supply sources are switched on and off for EPPE start-up and operation within the required period, high-ohmic resistive network if formed for discharge of electric charge from EPPE electrodes to the spacecraft frame, two modes are formed for commutation of the engine electric circuits, the main and reserve power supply sources with capacitive filters are connected to electrodes of non-operating EPPE, electric circuits of the selected EPPE remain connected to the used power supply sources, electric circuits of the other EPPE are switched off from the used power supply sources and still left connected to the unused power supply sources, the used power supply sources are switched on and off in compliance with the defined algorithm.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing reliability of spacecraft correction system.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power industry. An ion engine containing a housing, and a gas discharge chamber and an ion-optic system and a cathode-neutraliser installed on the housing, which are rigidly fixed on the outer surface of the housing, with that, the housing of the ion engine has a toroid shape, with that, the cathode-neutraliser is installed on the central axis of the housing, electrodes of the ion-optic system and the gas discharge chamber has an annular shape, with that, their internal surfaces are rigidly fixed along the perimeter on the internal surface of the housing of the ion engine.
EFFECT: invention allows considerable increase of vibration strength of electrodes, stability of inter-electrode gaps, as well as increase of efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: cathode (1) and two electrically isolated anodes (2, 3) form accelerator channel of eroding pulse plasma accelerator (EPPA). Dielectric blocks of ablating material are installed between the first anode (2) and cathode (1). EPPA comprises transporter for dielectric blocks, butt end insulator (4), electric discharge initiator with electrodes (7). Power supply system includes two capacitive energy storage units (9, 10), current leads connecting capacitive energy storage units with discharge electrodes and power supply unit (8) for electric discharge initiator. The first anode (2) id placed in the accelerator channel from the side of butt end insulator (4). The second anode (3) is placed from the side of the accelerator channel output. The first energy storage unit (9) is coupled between the second anode (3) and cathode (1). The second energy storage unit (10) is coupled to anodes (2, 3). The second energy storage unit (10) is coupled to the first anode (2) through control current lead made as a rod (11). The control current lead is placed from the side of butt end insulator (4) and isolated electrically from the accelerator channel. The rod (11) functioning as the control current lead is placed between the first anode (2) and cathode (1) and oriented orthogonally in regards to the anode surface and opposite surface of the cathode. The rod (11) is connected to the second capacitive energy storage unit (10) so that passing-through electric current IT is directed equally in regards to charging current IP between the first anode (2) and cathode (1).
EFFECT: simplified EPPA design, improved reliability and increased operational life, improved controllability and stability of characteristics of the generated plasma flow due to synchronisation of processes of evaporation and acceleration of working medium.
13 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: plasma accelerator is designed to generate traction when moving space objects and for producing composite powders, sputtering and processing materials. Sections of the anode of the accelerator are made from flat pipes with outlets for feeding a working medium through the anode. The pipes are arranged with the width in a radial plane with a gap between each other and are directed along an axis. The outlets are directed an angle of less than 90° to the axis of the accelerator. The working surface of the anode is formed by ends of the outlets with openings. The bases of the pipes are hermetically connected to a collector. The collector and the inlet of the working medium are mounted on a current lead. The distance from the face of the cathode to the outlets is greater than half the diameter of the anode. A neutral shield is mounted outside the anode.
EFFECT: high efficiency of the accelerator.
6 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: motors and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: metal or metalloids nanoparticles plasmajet comprises installed in series the combustion chamber, one input of which is used for entry of solid nanoparticles from metal or metalloid as fuel, and another input - for entry of a fuel oxidant - water vapour or oxygen, which being mixed in the camera burn, chemical ionisation oxydation reactions occurs, that results to heat effect, high temperatures and formation of heated plasma containing liquid oxides of metals or metalloids, the device for plasma cooling down to the temperature below the melting point of obtained oxides and formation in the heated plasma of solid dust negatively charged oxides of metals or metalloids, electrostatic or electromagnetic booster device, accelerating by electrostatic or electromagnetic field the heated plasma discharged from the cooling device and forms a high-speed flow of heated dust plasma with high-speed negatively charged oxides of metals or metalloids, which is discharged into outer environment and forms jet propulsion of the motor. The metal can be any from the series - aluminium, beryllium, zirconium, iron, titanium, metalloid - from the series - boron, silicon.
EFFECT: increase of specific impulse of the motor propulsion at the expense of complementary use of thermal energy of chemical ionisation reactions and the mass of heavier negatively charged oxides of metals or metalloids of dustlike plasma.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: set of inventions relates to ionic engine for spacecraft and to its preparation. Said engine (1) comprises ionisation chamber (2) with high-frequency generator (4) of ionising electromagnetic field. System (7) of the charge carriers acceleration comprises shielding and accelerating grates (8) and (9), respectively. Ionic engine is equipped with neutraliser (14). High voltages for system (7) and, probably, neutraliser (14) are produced by first means (12) and taken off from circuit of generator (4). High-frequency power is supplied with the help of capacitors or inductors. Optionally, means (22) and (23) can be used for voltage rectification and smoothing.
EFFECT: simplified design, lower costs, reliable operation and minimized control costs.
12 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: space engineering; ground tests and operation in space of plasma jet engines and electric jet engine plants.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes performance of shortened endurance tests which are part of total service life; in conducting these tests, erosion of discharge chamber (δt), change in thrust at the beginning (Fo) and in the course (ft) of shortened endurance tests are measured, regressive analysis for determination of approximating dependences is performed in form of monotonic function of erosion of discharge chamber and thrust versus time of operation; prediction of behavior of thrust is performed by definite dependence Ft=f(Fo, t), at the beginning of shortened tests and in the course of conducting these tests erosion areas (So, St) are additionally determined; approximating dependence of erosion area versus time St=f(t) and functional dependence of thrust versus erosion area F=f(k,S) are determined by regressive analysis, where k is proportionality factor between thrust and erosion area which are taken into account in prediction of thrust behavior during total service life; thrust is determined by dependence Ft=f(Fo, k,.St, So)
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of prediction of parameters of stationary plasma jet engine.
FIELD: jet engine plants.
SUBSTANCE: reactive thrust is created by means of energy source of long-duration operation, for example, nuclear and energy converter containing energy radiators, steam generator, pump, pipe line, nozzle, bottle with heat conducting gas-tight walls and converter of pulse escaping from vaporous working medium nozzle which is mounted in bottle cavity behind nozzle outlet symmetrically relative to its axial line 0-0. Pulse converter is made in form of turbine with two rotors of similar power at opposite direction of rotation which are mounted on coaxial shafts; each shaft is connected with electric current generator; generators have similar power and are interconnected by means of mechanical linkage consisting of three gear wheels at gear ratio equal to unit of working medium pulse acting on rocket engine components. Proposed engine ensured protracted creation of thrust and generation of electric energy and artificial gravity due to constant acceleration excluding transmission of reaction torque to spacecraft due to equal loading of both rotors revolving in opposite directions.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and reliability.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: space engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises short-term service life testing, measuring liner sizes of the erosion profiles of the walls of discharging chamber, predicting new erosion profiles, measuring the area of erosion, determining dependence between the measurements of thrust and total area of erosion, and determining proportionality coefficient between the thrust and total erosion area.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of predicting.
FIELD: plasma technologies.
SUBSTANCE: device has two electrodes, dielectric blocks, made of special material, discharge channel with open end portion, walls of which are formed by surfaces of electrodes and dielectric blocks, energy accumulator, current feeds, connecting electrodes to energy accumulator, which together with electrodes and accumulator form an external electric circuit, isolator, mounted between electrodes near end portion of discharge channel, opposite to open end portion, and charge initiation device. Characteristics of external electrical circuit of accelerator are selected from condition : 2≤C/L, where C - electric capacity of external electric circuit in micro-farads, and L - inductiveness of external electric circuit in nh, value of which satisfies the condition: L≤100 nh. Plasma acceleration method includes ignition of charge in discharge channel of plasma accelerator in pulse feed of discharge voltage from energy accumulator to electrodes of plasma accelerator. In discharge channel of accelerator quasi-periodic pulse discharges are ignited and maintained with value of discharge voltage U no less than 1000 volts and above-mentioned characteristics of accelerator electric circuit.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
2 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: electric arc-jet engine units, plasma accelerators, and generator units.
SUBSTANCE: converter cells are divided into two groups. All cells limit discharge current under short-circuit conditions. In addition, cells of one group regulate discharge voltage and those of other group stabilize cathode heater current; operation thresholds with respect to discharge current are different for all cells so that only one cell may be run in limiting mode at a time.
EFFECT: reduced input current ripples and noise, input filter mass, and maximal power requirement of device.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: jet engines.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electric jet engines employing for operation electronic detonation type of discharge. Proposed engine consists of anode and cathode with discharge gap between which movable surface is installed with directed and controlled displacement and contact with source of liquid or gel-like working medium. Movable surface can be made in form of curvilinear surface, for instance, cylinder, or plane, for instance, disk, with drive providing speed of rotation proportional to frequency of supply of discharge pulses. Discharge gap is essentially generatrix of curvilinear surface or zone on plane between anode and cathode. Invention makes it possible to create impulse plasma engine self-eliminating defects of surface of working medium in zone of discharge gap and self-recovery of serviceability under different unfavorable factors in process of impulse discharges.
EFFECT: improved operation reliability of engine.
5 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: plasma power source comprises two ion sources of opposite charge: the hydrogen (fuel) source with positive ions and the oxygen (oxidizing ) source with the negative ions. The both of the sources are arranged at an angle one with respect to the other so that the discharging ion jets are mutually intersected and compensate the chargers. The hydrogen source generates electrons near the bottom which flow to the grid of the oxygen source through the load (lamp or electric motor). The heated oxygen absorbs the electrons inflowing from the hydrogen source thus converting them into electrically negative ions. The current ring from the oxygen grid passes through the ion flows closed in the space over the plasma of the hydrogen source housing to the grid and, then, through the load to the oxygen electrode. The magnetic field is the main factor that separates electron and ion flows of fuel and oxidizer.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.
FIELD: engineering of ion accelerators, possible use, in particular, for processing surfaces in semiconductor engineering or as engine for spacecrafts.
SUBSTANCE: ion accelerator contains ionization chamber, electrode system and magnetic system, while ionization chamber in longitudinal direction has aperture for output of ions and transversely to longitudinal direction is limited by at least one side wall, and a influx aperture positioned at given distance from output aperture, through which through ionization chamber working gas is fed. Electrode system contains at least one cathode and one anode, forming an electrical field in ionization chamber for acceleration of positively charged ions of working gas in direction of output aperture. Magnetic system creates a magnetic field in ionization chamber, which in longitudinal direction has at least one longitudinal portion of first type with higher field component, perpendicular to longitudinal direction, and at least one longitudinal portion of second type with direction of magnetic field, practically parallel to longitudinal direction, adjacent to the previously mentioned longitudinal portion. Distance between oppositely positioned surfaces of walls on longitudinal portion of second type is less, than on longitudinal portion of first type, and shape of wall on second type longitudinal portion in longitudinal direction has monotonously bent convex portion directed towards ionization chamber.
EFFECT: increased efficiency.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: plasma engineering; process plasma sources for ion-plasma treatment of material surfaces.
SUBSTANCE: proposed cathode-compensator that can be used, for instance, in electric-arc jet engines for neutralizing ion beam has hollow holder 1 with face wall 2 and discharge hole 3 at outlet accommodating hollow capsule 4 with face wall 5 and through hole at outlet enclosed by heater and then by heat shields 8; this capsule accommodates thermal emitter 8 that has solid face wall 10 on one end and at least one working medium passage 11; cathode-compensator also has support insulator 16 and working medium supply pipe 17 communicating with hollow capsule 4; solid face wall of thermal emitter 10 is disposed so that clearance L1 is provided between this wall and face wall 5 of capsule 4 with through hole to form cavity between them; working medium passage 11 is formed in thermal emitter 9 at inlet by at least one blind longitudinal hole and at outlet, by at least one longitudinal slot on side surface of thermal emitter; they are intercommunicating through at least one transverse hole. Diameter d1 of through hole in hollow capsule 4 should be better smaller than diameter d2 of axial hole in thermal emitter 9. Insert 19 made of material of low heat conductivity may be installed between hollow capsule 4 and working medium supply pipe 17. Shield 20 may be installed coaxially to hole 3 of hollow holder 1 with clearance L2 allowed between this shield and face wall 5 of hollow capsule 4.
EFFECT: regulated parameters during cathode-compensator turn-on period, enhanced reliability.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: pulsating detonation engines.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to pulsating detonation engines employing magnetohydrodynamic control of flow. Proposed engine contains pipe 12 with open front end 16 and open rear end 18 and fuel-air inlet 20 made in pipe 12 of front end 16. Igniter 24 is located in pipe 12 in place between front end 16 and rear end 18. Flow magnetohydrodynamic control system is arranged between igniter 24 and fuel-air inlet 20 to control detonation in pipe 12 before igniter 24. Flow magnetohydrodynamic control system employs magnetic and electric fields before igniter 24 to dissipate detonation combustion wave 34 propagating forward or at least reduce potential of ignition.
EFFECT: provision of operation of valve control or flow control system at high frequency for pulsating detonation engines, improved reliability.
30 cl, 7 dwg