Method for obtaining nanosized fisher-tropsh synthesis catalyst and method of fisher-tropsh synthesis with its application
SUBSTANCE: method for obtaining a nanosized catalyst of the three-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis comprising catalytically active iron nanoparticles involves dissolving the precursors - iron and potassium salts, in water, introducing the resulting solution into molten paraffin at a rate of 20-60 ml/h, forming the catalyst in situ directly in the reaction zone during the heat treatment of the catalyst components in an inert gas stream at a temperature higher than the decomposition temperature of the catalyst precursors and cooling for 1-6 hours in an inert current gas. The heat treatment time is not more than 15 minutes. The ratio of the catalyst components is, wt %: Fe - 0.5-1.0, K - 0.01-0.02, paraffin - the rest. Three-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis method includes obtaining aliphatic hydrocarbons from carbon oxide and hydrogen in the three-phase flowing slurry-reactor at an elevated temperature and a pressure in the presence of nanosized catalyst with a particle size of 0.7 to 4 nm, obtained in this way, when the molar ratio of carbon monoxide and hydrogen of 1:(0.5-3), a temperature of 240-400°C, a pressure of 20-30 ATM with the load on gas from 2 to 20 nl/hCatc⋅.
EFFECT: when using the proposed composition and method of preparing a Fe-containing catalyst, a sharp increase in its activity is observed, as a result of which high process values can be achieved in smaller reactors, lower iron and potassium content in the catalyst, and a reduction in the heat treatment time, preventing of coarsening and agglomeration of the catalyst particles, higher catalyst productivity, higher selectivity for the formation of hydrocarbons.
2 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: regeneration includes oxidation of deactivated catalyst by supply of air into reactor zone at rate 500-2000 h-1, heating to temperature 200-270°C at heating rate 1-3°C/min and exposure at said temperature in air flow for 1-5 h. Further reduction is carried out by supply of hydrogen-containing gas at oxidation temperature with volume rate 1000-5000 h-1, heating to temperature 300-600°C at rate 1-5°C/min and exposure at heating temperature in flow of hydrogen-containing gas for 1-5 h. Method includes carrying out additional stage of deactivated catalyst reduction with hydrogen-containing gas before redox regeneration. Hydrogen-containing gas of the similar composition with hydrogen content from 20 to 100 vol % is used in reduction.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of regeneration and increase of catalyst service duration in comparison with other methods known in technology.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to producing hydrocarbons and, optionally, oxygenates of hydrocarbons. The process includes contacting a synthesis gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide and N-containing contaminants selected from the group consisting of HCN, NH3, NO, RxNH3-x, where R is an organic group and x is 1, 2 or 3, with R being the same or different when x is 2 or 3, R1-CN, where R1 is an organic group, and heterocyclic compounds containing at least one nitrogen atom as a ring member of a heterocyclic ring of the heterocyclic compound, with the N-containing contaminants constituting, in total, at least 100 vppb but less than 1000000 vppb of the synthesis gas, at a temperature of at least 180°C and a pressure of at least 10 bar(a), with a particulate supported Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst which comprises a catalyst support, Co in catalytically active form supported on the catalyst support, and a dopant selected from the group consisting of platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), ruthenium (Ru), rhenium (Re) and a mixture of two or more thereof at a dopant level expressed by formula 1: , where w is expressed as g Ru/g Co; and w<0,019 g Ru/g Co; x is expressed as g Pd/g Co; y is expressed as g Pt/g Co; z is expressed as g Re/g Co; and z<0,005 g Re/g Co; and 0<a<1, to obtain hydrocarbons and, optionally, oxygenates of hydrocarbons, by means of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reaction of the hydrogen with the carbon monoxide. The invention also relates to the use the said catalyst to produce hydrocarbons.
EFFECT: in process for producing hydrocarbons by means of the above method, high levels of nitrogen contaminants can be tolerated while maintaining good catalyst activity and low catalyst CH4 selectivity.
11 cl, 11 tbl, 24 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes feeding reaction water from a typical hydrocarbon synthesis process into a countercurrent stripping column from the top and feeding a hydrocarbon-containing gas from the bottom into the countercurrent stripping column in a direction opposite to that of the reaction water, removing purified water from the bottom of the countercurrent stripping column; wherein the obtained steam-gas mixture from the output at the top of the countercurrent stripping column is fed to a standard process of producing synthesis gas; wherein the countercurrent stripping column has a nozzle whose fractionation capacity is equivalent to at least two to three equilibrium thermodynamic stages, and the hydrocarbon-containing gas is formed from a mixture of convertible gas and at least part of a hydrogen-containing waste gas generated from hydrocarbon synthesis waste gases. Furthermore, the countercurrent stripping column is fitted with a reboiler which heats the countercurrent stripping column from the bottom. The reaction water and the hydrocarbon-containing gas are fed at pressure of 1-5 MPa, wherein the obtained steam-gas mixture from the output at the top of the countercurrent stripping column is further superheated to eliminate droplets of a liquid carried from the column.
EFFECT: use of the present method improves efficiency of purifying reaction water while simultaneously broadening recycling capabilities for products used in water purification, and recycling reaction water hydrocarbons when producing synthesis gas.
4 cl, 1 ex, 2 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for obtaining hydrocarbon products, which involves the following stages: (a) provision of synthesis gas containing hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide; (b) reaction of conversion of synthesis gas to an oxygenate mixture containing methanol and dimethyl ester, in presence of one or more catalysts, which simultaneously catalyse the reaction of conversion of hydrogen and carbon monoxide to oxygenates, at pressure of at least 4 MPa; (c) extraction from stage (b) of an oxygenate mixture containing quantities of methanol, dimethyl ester, carbon dioxide and water together with non-reacted synthesis gas, introduction of the whole amount of the oxygenate mixture without any additional treatment to a stage of catalytic conversion of oxygenates (d); (d) reaction of oxygenate mixture in presence of a catalyst, which is active in conversion of oxygenates to higher hydrocarbons; (e) extraction of the outlet flow from stage (d) and separation of the outlet flow into tail gas containing carbon dioxide occurring from synthesis gas and carbon dioxide formed at stage (b), liquid hydrocarbon phase containing the higher hydrocarbons obtained at stage (d) and liquid water phase where the pressure used at stages (c)-(e) is mainly the same as that used at stage (b); besides, some part of tail gas obtained at stage (e) is recirculated to stage (d), and the rest part of tail gas is discharged.
EFFECT: this method is a method in which there is no recirculation of non-reacted synthesis gas to a synthesis stage of oxygenates and without any cooling of a conversion reaction of dimethyl ester to higher hydrocarbons.
6 cl, 2 ex, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: described is a method of preparing a catalyst of converting synthesis-gas into hydrocarbons from particles of aluminium oxide or oxyhydroxide and a water solution, containing urea and cations Co2+, which includes successive stages of intensive mixing at a temperature higher than 80°C suspended in the water solution particles of aluminium oxide or oxyhydroxide, shaped as circular cylinders, and the separation of the catalyst granules from the suspension, containing a highly disperse oxyhydroxo compound Co-Al.
EFFECT: increase of the catalyst activity and selectivity.
6 cl, 1 tbl, 1 dwg, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of obtaining catalyst for Fischer-Topsch synthesis, containing catalytically active iron nanoparticles, includes mixing iron salt solution with copolymer of polystyrene and divinylbenzene with ratio 1:2, swelling for 3 days, drying and thermal treatment at temperature to 250-400°C in inert atmosphere by IR-radiation or thermal treatment in inert gas flow. Method of obtaining aliphatic hydrocarbons from carbon oxide and hydrogen with application of claimed catalyst is performed in flow reactor with stationary catalyst layer with molar ratio of carbon oxide and hydrogen 1:(0.5-3) at temperature 240-400°C and pressure 1-50 atm with loading on catalyst 1000 h-1.
EFFECT: simplicity of instrumentation, reduction of time for catalyst preparation, reduction of energy consumption, high output of C5+ hydrocarbons, increase of reaction turnover rate.
6 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing a methanation process catalyst, which includes impregnating a support based on active aluminium oxide in the form of granules in a solution containing nickel nitrate, followed by drying at temperature of 100°C-120°C and calcining the impregnated support at temperature of 450°C-500°C, wherein a modification additive - an organic acid with concentration of 0.5-20.0 wt % - is added to the nickel nitrate solution, and the finished catalyst contains NiO monocrystallites with mean sampling size in the range of 2-3 nm, with concentration of NiO of 12.0-25.0 wt % and γ-Al2O3 - the balance.
EFFECT: high reliability and activity, low cost and faster implementation of the method.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 13 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of treating an active Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and an apparatus for preparing and treating said catalyst. The method of treating an active catalyst includes loading a mixture of particles of an active Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and molten wax, which is at a temperature T1 and which sets at a lower temperature T2 lying between 70°C and 140°C, where T2<T1, into a plurality of moulds; at least partial immersion of the moulds into a cooling liquid to cool the organic substance to a temperature T3, where T3≤T2, to obtain cast products in form of candles with a volume of less than 140 ml but more than 2 ml each, having an organic substance matrix in which particles of the active catalyst are dispersed such that the catalyst particles are coated with wax; removing the cast products from the moulds; loading the mixture into moulds, immersing the moulds into a cooling liquid and removing the cast products form the mould in a casting machine. The apparatus includes equipment for preparing or regenerating the catalyst, including a reservoir for applying a coating onto the catalyst; a transportation means for transferring the mixture of particles of the active catalyst and molten organic substance from the reservoir for applying a coating onto the catalyst; a casting machine for producing cast products in form of candles which includes a plurality of moulds into which the transportation means can unload the mixture of particles of the active catalyst and molten organic substance, and a cooling bath capable of holding a cooling liquid into which the moulds can be immersed at least partially.
EFFECT: method and apparatus enables to safely and easily move a catalyst from the production site to the point of use without losing activity.
18 cl, 3 dwg, 3 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of synthesis of hydrocarbons from synthesis-gas mixture. Invention deals with method for optimisation of functioning of zone of hydrocarbon synthesis from raw material, which contains synthesis-gas, in which catalyst, containing cobalt, is present, with claimed method including the following stages: a) determination of theoretic value of partial pressure of carbon monoxide in reaction zone, b) regulation of partial CO pressure, determined at stage a), to value, higher or equal 4 bars, c) determination of new value of theoretic value of partial CO pressure CO in reaction zone.
EFFECT: optimisation of device operation, improvement of catalyst stability.
21 cl, 2 tbl, 14 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a catalyst for producing isoparaffin-rich synthetic oil from CO and H2, and a method of producing said catalyst. The catalyst is a granular porous composite material containing a spatial heat-conducting mesh if aluminium metal and Raney cobalt and a linking component containing zeolite in H form. In the composite material, the fraction of macropores in the open porosity of the catalyst granules is 55-79% and the fraction of mesopores with size of 70-500 Е in the open porosity of the catalyst granules is 7-20%. The method of producing the catalyst includes mixing powder of the linking component, peptising the obtained mixture with a solution of nitric acid to obtain a linking component in form of a homogeneous gel, mixing the homogeneous gel with fine Raney cobalt powder, aluminium metal powder and a liquid phase to obtain a homogeneous paste, extruding the obtained paste to obtain granules and calcining the obtained granules. One of the powders of the linking component used is zeolite in H form.
EFFECT: improved mass transfer of reactants into the catalyst granules and high content of isoparaffins in the obtained oil.
13 cl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: metal-dielectric structure and method of its manufacturing are related to electronic industry and electronic engineering and may be used both in modern energy-saving systems and components being an integral part of modern processors, in particular for development of microsized and nanosized electromechanical systems. The metal-dielectric structure consists of dielectric and conducting layers made as an assembly of capillaries filled with metals to the required length, at that conducting layers are etched on selective basis at different butt ends and metalised. The conducting layers are represented by two different types of electroconductive materials etched on selective basis at different butt ends, at that the conductive layers may be made of semiconductor materials, conducting glass, carbon nanoparticles and nanotubes while the dielectric layers may be made of optical and electron-tube glass, polymer materials. In cross-section the dielectric and conducting layers may be made as concentric circles. The manufacturing method for the above metal-dielectric structure includes assembly, overstretching, stacking to the unit, at that upon multiple overstretching vacuum filling with conducting materials is performed, and butt ends are etched on selective basis with different chemical composites and then they are metalised.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing capacitance and breakdown voltage for capacitors.
5 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to pressure sensitive adhesives, suitable for use on a wide variety of substrates, including both high surface energy and low surface energy substrates. Pressure sensitive adhesives comprise an acrylate polymer and surface-modified nanoparticles. The surface-modified nanoparticles comprise a nanoparticle comprising a silica surface and surface modifying groups, covalently bonded to the silica surface of the nanoparticle. At least one surface modifying group is a polymeric silane surface modifying group. At least one surface modifying group is a non-polymeric silane surface modifying group.
EFFECT: disclosure also provides a method of preparing pressure sensitive adhesives, including exposing them to UVA and UVC radiation.
21 cl, 2 dwg, 12 tbl
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to pharmaceutical industry, namely to selenium nanocomposites of natural hepatotrophic galactose-containing polysaccharide matrixes, representing water-soluble orange-red powders containing zerovalent selenium (Se0) nanoparticles sized 1-100 nm in the quantitative content of 0.5 - 60 wt %, possessing antioxidant activity for treating and preventing redox-related pathologies, particularly for treating toxic liver damage, to a method for producing and to an antioxidant agent containing the above nanocomposites.
EFFECT: invention provides the targeted agent delivery to liver cells, as well as higher agent accessibility and lower toxic action of selenium.
7 cl, 11 ex, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method is implemented as follows: preparing a mixture 1 by adding 0.5M aqueous solution of selenious acid 250 mcl in PEG 400 8 ml, mixing thoroughly in a magnetic mixture at min. 750 rpm with pH of the given mixture 7.55; that is followed by preparing a mixture 2 by adding 0.5M aqueous solution of hydrazine hydrochloride 250 mcl in PEG 400 8 ml, mixing thoroughly in a magnetic mixture at min. 750 rpm with pH of the given mixture 0.68. The mixture 1 is added to the mixture 2 by mixing thoroughly drop by drop. The prepared solution is dialysed against distilled water with removing PEG 400 and hydrazine hydrochloride; the surplus water is distilled off in a rotary evaporator at 60 rpm and 70°C. The prepared solution is added with a low-molecular compound specified in a group of: gentamicin, hexamethylene tetramine, methionine, cephalexin, indole-3-carbinol; pH is reduced to 7.2-7.4. The components are mixed in an amount to provide their content in the agent, wt %: biologically active low-molecular compound 0.001-5.0; selenium 0.0001-1.0; water up to 100.
EFFECT: simplifying the technology.
2 tbl, 3 ex, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine and describes a method for producing glucosamine sulphate nanocapsules by non-solvent addition, wherein glucosamine sulphate is added in small amounts to a carrageenan suspension used as a nanocapsule shell in butanol, containing E472c preparation 0.01 g as a surfactant; the produced mixture is agitated and added with the non-solvent hexane 6 ml, filtered, washed in hexane and dried.
EFFECT: invention provides simplifying and accelerating the process of nanoencapsulation in carrageenan and higher weight yield.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of obtaining nanocomposite coatings and can be used in creation of optic microelectronic devices and materials with increased corrosion resistance and wear resistance. Method of obtaining two-phase nanocomposite coating, consisting of titanium carbide nanoclusters, distributed in amorphous hydrocarbon matrix, on products from hard alloys, includes application of adhesive titanium or chromium sublayer, magnetron sputtering of titanium target in gas mixture of acetylene and argon under pressure 0.01-1 Pa and precipitation of dispersed particles of target and carbon-containing radicals on product surface in combination with bombardment of surface with ions, accelerated by bias voltage, with product surface being subjected to purification with argon ions from plasma, generated by electronic beam, before application of adhesive sublayer, and gas mixture being activated in the process of coating application by impact with beam of electrons with energy 100 eV.
EFFECT: invention is aimed at increase of coating adhesion and micro-hardness of obtained products, as well as at provision of high efficiency of application of acetylene in the process of coating application.
1 ex, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: catalyst contains carrier from porous zeolite KL and binding agent and catalytically active substance - platinum. Carrier additionally contains tin tetrachloride pentahydrate nanopowder, and as binding agent - mixture of gibbsite and rutile powders in equal proportions, with particle size of each not exceeding 40 mcm. Ratio of ingredients is in the following range, wt %: platinum - 0.3-0.8, mixture of gibbsite and rutile powders - 25-70, zeolite KL - 29.12-74.69, tin tetrachloride pentahydrate - 0.01-0.08. Claimed catalyst is characterised by high activity in reactions of aromatisation of synthetic hydrocarbons.
EFFECT: invention also relates to method of obtaining such catalyst.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of nanotechnology, in particular to plant growing, and deals with method of obtaining nanocapsules of 6-aminobenzylpurine. Method is characterised by the fact that 6-aminobenzylpurine is used as core and sodium alginate is used as envelope of nanocapsules, obtained by addition of E472c as surfactant to sodium alginate in butanol, portioned addition of 6-aminobenzylpurine into suspension of sodium alginate in butanol and further drop-by-drop introduction of precipitating agent-petroleum ether after formation of separate solid phase in suspension.
EFFECT: simplification and acceleration of process of obtaining nanoparticles and increased output by weight.
SUBSTANCE: method includes crushing and fractioning of initial material, delignification of initial raw material by alkaline hydration and alkaline pulping with further washings. After that, two-stage acidic hydrolysis with intermediate neutralisation and three washings is performed. Then, three-stage bleaching with hydrogen peroxide H2O2 with three washings is carried out. In second washing finely dispersed ozone is supplied. Obtained product is additionally subjected to homogenisation and drying. Invention makes it possible to obtain final product with virtually absolute absence of lignin, with high organoleptic and physical and chemical properties from lignin-containing initial material.
EFFECT: method does not require application of expensive equipment, does not involve application of highly toxic reagents, includes simple technological operations, is characterised by production scalability.
3 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention describes a method for producing Sel-Plex nanocapsules possessing the supramolecular properties by non-solvent addition, characterised by the fact that Sel-Plex is dissolved in dimethyl sulphoxide; the prepared mixture is dispersed in xanthum gum solution used as a nanocapsule shell, in butanol, in the presence of E472c preparation while stirring at 1000 cycles per second; the mixture is added with the precipitator benzol, filtered and dried at room temperature.
EFFECT: simplifying and accelerating the process of nanoencapsulation and ensuring higher weight yield.
4 ex, 12 dwg
SUBSTANCE: apparatus for producing a catalyst comprises a reservoir designed for preparing an aqueous mixed solution containing Mo compound, V compound and Nb compound, a dryer designed to spray-dry the aqueous mixed solution and a pipe for connecting the reservoir with the dryer such that the aqueous mixed solution can be fed from the reservoir into the dryer. In the apparatus, a heater designed to heat the aqueous mixed solution is mounted in the reservoir and/or the pipe, and a filter designed to filter the aqueous mixed solution is installed in the pipe. The apparatus and methods of producing a catalyst provide uniform supply of the prepared aqueous mixed solution into the dryer.
EFFECT: catalyst is then used in a method of producing an unsaturated acid or unsaturated nitrile.
20 cl, 6 dwg, 7 ex