Contact lenses containing water-soluble polymers or copolymers of n-(2-hydroxyalkyl)methacrylamide
SUBSTANCE: ophthalmic article is made of hydrogel as a cross-linked polymer matrix and contains at least one water-soluble, non-reactive hydrophilic polymer containing less than 20 mole % of anionic repeating units and repeating units derived from a compound of formula I where R1 is hydrogen or methyl; R2 is H or C1-4 alkyl substituted by at least one hydroxyl group; R3 is C1-4 alkyl substituted by at least one hydroxyl group. The water-soluble hydrophilic polymer has a polymerization degree of 100 to 100,000, and is free of end hydrophobic polymer units. Method for ophthalmic article wettability improvement includes ophthalmic article contacting with a solution containing at least one of the above water-soluble nonreactive hydrophilic polymer, under conditions sufficient for inclusion of an effective lubricant quantity of hydrophilic polymer into the ophthalmic article. The ophthalmic solution contains from 10 m. p. and to 10 wt % of at least one water-soluble, nonreactive hydrophilic polymer.
EFFECT: invention allows to increase the wettability of an ophthalmic article without surface treatment.
29 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: this flat lens is made from blank is made from high-temperature plastic straining of plate produced from Al2O3 crystal Z-cut. Mirror axis of said plate is aligned with that of male die with working surface described by 4th degree polynomial y = ΣKakxk, where y, x are coordinates of cross-section with centre at mirror axis, ak are factors describing the focal length and lens depth at k = 1…4. Flat lens inlet and outlet surfaces are planes perpendicular to mirror axis of the blank and lens. Flat lens outlet surface and blank have common point at lens mirror axis. Outlet surface is defined by required depth of the flat lens.
EFFECT: lens for parallel light beam directed perpendicular to part inlet surface.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to transparent silicone hydrogels. What is presented is silicone hydrogel prepared by polymerisation of mixture of monomers containing (a) 30-98 wt % of at least one silicone (meth)acrylamide monomer and (b) 1-50 wt % of at least one non-silicone (meth)acrylamide monomer containing two or more hydroxyl groups in its molecule; wherein weight percentage is calculated from a total amount of monomer and polymer components in the monomer mixture, and a total amount of monomers (a) and (b) makes 90 wt % or more in relation to the total amount of the monomer and polymer components in the monomer mixture. There are also presented a medical device, an ophthalmic lens and a contact lens made of the above silicone hydrogel.
EFFECT: presented silicone hydrogel has the high content of acrylamide monomer and the excellent balance of humidity, elasticity, wetting ability and transparency, and is applicable to produce lenses having the excellent characteristics.
19 cl, 4 tbl, 27 ex
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a laser beam focusing head for laser cutting, a method and an apparatus for laser cutting of a metal component. The focusing head comprises a collimating lens (13) and a focusing lens (14). The collimating lens (13) and the focusing lens (14) are made of ZnS and have peripheral thickness of at least 5 mm. A deflecting mirror (15) operating at an inclination angle (α) from 40° to 50° is placed between the collimating lens (13) and the focusing lens (14) on the path of the laser beam. The laser cutting apparatus comprises a solid-state laser device (SL) emitting a laser beam with wavelength of 1.06 mcm to 1.10 mcm and power of 0.1 kW to 25 kW, said focusing head and a conveying fibre (CF) connecting the solid-state laser device (SL) and the focusing head.
EFFECT: invention provides a stable focusing position of a laser beam during cutting.
13 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of optical nanotechnologies, optical instrument-making, rocket, space, laser optics, quantum and optical nanoelectronics, useful for display, television and medical technology. The optical coating is a thin layer (100 nm or less) coating based on carbon nanotubes with the magnitude of inhomogeneities on the nanometer level. For application of carbon nanotubes on the substrate a slot CO2-laser is used with the laser beam controlled in power. The optical element consists of the coating based on carbon nanotubes and a hygroscopic substrate. The substrates of KBr, NaCl, KCl are used for providing functioning of this optical coating up to the middle infrared region of the spectrum. The coating is able to function in the infrared regions of the spectrum.
EFFECT: increased moisture resistance of the coating.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of forming a transparent doped layer containing zinc oxide on a polymer substrate for optoelectronic devices and a transparent doped layer. The method includes contacting a polymer substrate with at least one precursor containing a dopant and zinc, and exposing to ultraviolet light during chemical vapour deposition to decompose at least one precursor and deposit a layer on the polymer substrate. The polymer substrate is selected from a group consisting of fluoropolymer resins, polyesters, polyacrylates, polyamides, polyimides and polycarbonates. The contacting step is carried out at pressure approximately equal to atmospheric pressure.
EFFECT: providing a chemical vapour deposition method for depositing doped zinc oxide films on polymer substrates for use in optoelectronics.
12 cl, 1 tbl, 8 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to a polimerisation-able photochromic isocyanate composition, containing a photochromic compound, to a photochromic mesh optical material and to a method of its obtaining. The polimerisation-able photochromic isocyanate composition includes. wt.p.: an organic photochromic compound 1-15; a polymerisation catalyst 0.01-5, polymerisable compounds 100. The polymerisable compounds contain, wt.p.: diisocyanates and/or oligoisocyanurateisocyanates 60-100, monoisocyanates 0-40. The catalyst is used in an amount of 0.01-5 wt.p. per 100 wt.p. of the polymerisable compounds. Also described is the photochromic mesh optical material - the product, obtained by thermal hardening of the polymerisation-able composition, described above, at least, on one surface of a sheet of a transparent substrate, made of polymethylmethacrylate, polycarbonate, polyethyleneterephthalate, cellulose derivatives, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylchloride, polyvinylidenchloride, polyethers, polyurethanes. Also described is a method of obtaining the photochromic mesh optical material.
EFFECT: obtaining the polymerisation-able photochromic isocyanate composition with high adhesion ability and product based on it with high optical properties, such as transparency, colourlessness, or colouration, and long-term exploitation.
13 cl, 2 tbl, 25 ex
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in optical systems of UV, visible and IR optical, optoelectronic and laser devices. A flat-concave lens is made of a plastically deformed piece part, wherein an integral flat surface is perpendicular to an axis of symmetry of the piece part and formed from an apex of the piece part at x0<H, wherein H is the thickness of the piece part. An output surface of the lens has a profile providing measuring the thickness hy=h0×n0/ny, wherein h0 is the lens thickness in the centre, n0 is an ordinary beam refraction index, while ny is an extraordinary beam refraction index at a distance Y from the lens centre. The piece part is made by the plastic deformation of a parallel-sided plate of a crystal Z-section by the central annular bend. The lens surface is formed by removing an excessive layer of the material from the piece part.
EFFECT: producing the leucosapphire lens forming the flat wavefront of extraordinary beams and transparent within 25,000-2,000 cm-1 for a parallel beam of light perpendicular to the input surface.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to improved method of obtaining workpieces from silver halides and their solid solutions for fibrous infrared lightguides, which includes application on silver halide crystal-core of crystalline shell of crystalline silver halide with refraction index lower than in crystal-core, and thermal processing. Shell on crystal-core is applied by ion-exchange diffusion in ion-exchange source, as the latter taken is finely disperse silver halide powder with coarseness 1-20 mcm, diffusion is carried out at temperature, close to melting temperature of crystal-core in atmosphere of mixture of vapours of halides, included into composition of crystal material and powder, taken in equal ratio under pressure 0.2-0.5 atm.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to reduce optic loss of lightduides, operating in infrared spectrum range.
SUBSTANCE: multilayered coating contains three successive layers with an even thickness: a lower mirror metal radio-reflecting skin-layer of pure aluminium, an intermediate protective thermoregulatory dielectric layer of zirconium dioxide and an upper protective wear-resistant highly strong diamond-like carbon layer.
EFFECT: provision of the operation in extreme conditions of open space due to the application of a thin substrate-envelope from a polymer composite material.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a monocrystal with a garnet-type structure to be used in optical communication and laser processing devices. This monocrystal is described by general formula (Tb3-xScx)(Sc2-yAly)Al3O12-z, where 0<x<0.1; 0≤y≤0.2; 0≤z≤0/.3.
EFFECT: translucent monocrystal that can inhibit cracking at cutting.
5 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: copolymer of conjugated diene compound and non-conjugated olefin includes block-copolymer, with peak area in range 70-110°C, constituting, at least, 60% of peak area in range 40-140°C, and with peak area in range 110-140°C, constituting 20% or less of peak area in range 40-140°C, where areas of peaks are measured by method of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in accordance with JIS K 7121-1987. Also claimed are copolymer-including rubber mixture, cross-linked rubber mixture and tyre.
EFFECT: copolymers possess high fatigue strength, low heat release and sufficient relative elongation at break.
16 cl, 2 tbl, 6 dwg, 8 ex
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a method of producing block-copolymers which contain a reactive functional group. Described is a method of producing a block-copolymer, involving: a) reaction of an acrylic monomer, having functional groups which are epoxy, acid, anhydride, amine, amide and hydroxy groups, and one or more vinyl monomers in the presence of a free-radical initiator a stable free radical at the first step to obtain a reaction product which contains a residual unreacted acrylic monomer; and b) reaction at the second step of one or more vinyl monomers with the reaction product from the first step to obtain a second block which contains a residual unreacted acrylic monomer. Also described are versions of said method of producing a block-copolymer. Described is a block-copolymer obtained using said methods, containing: a) a first block which contains monomer links of a functionalised acrylic monomer, having functional groups which are epoxy, acid, anhydride, amine, amide and hydroxy groups, and monomer links of a vinyl monomer; and b) a second block which contains monomer links of one or more vinyl monomers and monomer links of a functionalised acrylic monomer, having functional groups which are epoxy, acid, anhydride, amine, amide and hydroxy groups in the first block. Described is a thermoplastic polymer composition which is used to obtain materials with high impact resistance and mechanical strength, which contains: (a) 1-98 wt % of a first thermoplastic, having functional groups selected from a group consisting of amine, amide, imide, carboxyl groups, carbonyl, carbonate ester, anhydride, epoxy, sulpho, sulphonyl, thionyl, sulphydryl, cyano and hydroxy; (b) 0.01-25 wt % of said block-copolymer, which contains a functional group which is capable of reacting with the functional group in the thermoplastic; and (c) 1-98 wt % of a second thermoplastic polymer which is miscible or compatible with the second block of said block-copolymer.
EFFECT: obtaining block-copolymers which can be used as reactive compatibility agents of thermoplastic mixtures of polymers.
31 cl, 10 dwg, 14 tbl, 56 ex
SUBSTANCE: treads and/or subtread for heavy vehicles consists, at least partially, of rubber composition including 80-100 wt % of natural rubber and 0-20 wt % of synthetic polyisoprene rubber. It includes also reinforcing filler containing a) 30-50 wt % of superfine silicon dioxide, and b) technical carbon in amount of 0.75-1.25 wt % defined by equation C=-0.8Si+44.3 where Si is the quantity of fine silicon dioxide. Besides, composition includes silane binder and sulfuric hardening system containing 1.5-3 wt % of free sulfur and 0.9-1.1A wt % of sulphenamide accelerator where A is defined as a function of quantity of sulfur and weight fraction of silicon dioxide of total amount of reinforcing filler.
EFFECT: increased strength of tire.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a polymer composition which forms a "liquid in solid substance" polymer system at room temperature and having the prolonged release effect of a liquid organic compound, and articles made from said composition. The composition contains 0.1-50 pts. wt thermoplastic polymer (A) and 0.1-20 pts. wt block-copolymer (B). Block-copolymer (B) contains a block (b1) having high compatibility with a thermoplastic polymer (A), but low compatibility with a liquid compound (C), and a block (b2) having high compatibility with the liquid compound (C), but low compatibility with thermoplastic polymer (A). Block-copolymer (B) acts like a surfactant by forming a boundary surface between polymer (A) of the matrix and liquid compound (C).
EFFECT: composition enables to hold a liquid compound dispersed therein with high concentration.
28 cl, 5 dwg, 15 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of shrinkable polymer labels, particularly to preparation of a film composition. The composition contains (a) a high-impact polystyrene component (HIPS) with a block-copolymer grafted to the polystyrene, (b) 10-50 wt % general purpose polystyrene (GPPS) and (c) approximately 2-80 wt % styrene block-copolymer. Component (a) contains a grafted rubber component which is a styrene block-copolymer and a rubber-like diene with conjugated double bonds from 1 to 7 wt % of the weight of the HIPS; less than 10 wt % concentration of gel, defined by extraction of the methylethylketone/methanol mixture. The average particle size of the rubber is less than 1 mcm and 0.01 mcm or more. Approximately 40-90 vol % of the rubber particles have diametre approximately less than 0.4 mcm and approximately 10-60 vol % of the rubber particles have diametre of approximately 0.4-2.5 mcm. Most of the rubber particles have a nucleus-shell morphology and said particles are in concentration of 10-70 wt % of the total weight of the polymer composition, and 1-5 wt % of the rubber-like diene of the total weight of the polymer composition.
EFFECT: film made from said composition has ratio of directed length to non-directed length in the direction of the greatest drawing at least equal to 3:1 and enable increase in size by 20% in the direction of less stretching at 110°C.
10 cl, 3 tbl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves mixing (A) vinyl-cis-polybutadiene and (B) cis-polybutadiene. (A) vinyl-cis-polybutadiene is produced by carrying out stage (1) for adding cis-1,4-polymerisation catalyst, obtained from an organoaluminium compound and a dissolved cobalt compound, to a mixture containing 1,3-butadiene and hydrocarbon organic solvent as main components. Water content is regulated in the interval from 0.1 to 1.0 mol/mol of organoaluminium compound. Cis-1,4-polymerisation of 1,3-butadiene is carried out, and then (2) in the presence of a catalyst obtained from the dissolved cobalt compound, organoaluminium compound, described by general formula A1R3 (where R is an alkyl group containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms, a phenyl group or a cycloalkyl group), and carbon sulphide, in the mixture obtained from polymerisation, 1,3-butadiene is subjected to 1,2-polymerisation. (B) cis-polybutadiene is obtained by adding the above described cis-1,4-polymerisation catalyst. Cis-1,4-polymerisation of 1,3-butadiene is carried out.
EFFECT: rubber composition, which contains the obtained rubber, is meant for making tyre components, particularly the sides, coating of tyre cords, tread base, and large vehicle tyres.
13 cl, 47 ex, 16 tbl
FIELD: medical facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention provides medical container, which is used to fill with blood, drug, and the like. Container is manufactured from film or sheet having at least one high-density polyethylene layer and polymer layer containing polyolefin composition, wherein said polyolefin composition comprises (A) at least one propylene-containing polymer selected from group consisting of (A1) propylene-containing polymer composition in the form of mixture of (A11) propylene polymer and (Q12) elastomeric ethylene-propylene copolymer and (A12) propylene-containing block-copolymer; and (B) ethylene-containing copolymer containing ethylene and at least one α-olefin having 4 or more carbon atoms and characterized by refractory index of xylene-soluble fraction of this polyolefin composition equal to 1.480-1.495; said high-density polyethylene containing 70% or more high-density polyethylene having density 0.950 g/cc or higher, while high-density polyethylene layer being disposed on at least one (inner or outer) side of container.
EFFECT: achieved temperature resistance high enough to enable sterilization at 121°C or higher and manifested excellent clearness, shock strength, elasticity, and resistance to conglomeration.
5 cl, 3 tbl, 14 ex
FIELD: control of stability of size of drops of simple "water-in-oil" emulsions.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method is based on use of two-block or three-block copolymers in emulsion consisting of hydrophilic and hydrophobic blocks.
EFFECT: possibility of retaining stability during extended period of time.
32 cl, 2 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: polymers, chemical technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for synthesis of copolymer used in rubber mixture and cross-linked with sulfur with reduced hysteresis in cross-linked state and comprising two blocks wherein one block consists of polyisoprene and another block consists of styrene-diene elastomer distinct from polyisoprene, and to a rubber mixture for tire protectors. Method for synthesis of copolymer involves co-polymerization of one or some monomers comprising coupled diene distinct from isoprene and by using catalytic system comprising at least one hydrocarbon solvent, metal compound A from the group IIIA, alkaline metal compound B and polymeric initiator C with a bond C-Li that consists of monolithiated polyisoprene designated for formation of polyisoprene block and wherein an average molecular mass Mn1 of indicated polyisoprene block is in the range between 2500 and 20000 g/mole. Method involves to preparing copolymer wherein another block consisting of indicated diene elastomer with an average molecular mass Mn2 between 65000 and 350000 g/mole and the content of trans-1,4-bonds is 70% or above. Invention provides reducing hysteresis of mixtures to limit consumption of fuel and to provide safety of environment.
EFFECT: improved method of synthesis.
22 cl, 5 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: polymer materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to compositions of polymer materials, which can be used to mold cutouts, fibers, tubes, films, and insulating coating on electric cable. Thermoplastic polymer material comprises polyolefin and additive for improving extrusion processing in amounts from 0.001 to 10 wt parts per 100 wt parts material. Additive is block copolymer based on diisocyanates with softening temperature below thermoplastic molding temperature.
EFFECT: improved appearance and mechanic characteristics and reduced price of manufactured products.
4 cl, 8 dwg, 1 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method can be used in ICE operation with addition of steam. In operation, protective coating with nanodisperse modification agent M of friction surfaces is applied on ICE surfaces in direct or indirect contact with combustion products to prevent corrosion and hydrogen brittleness promotion. For coating application, ICE is changed to idling without air wetting, heated at idling to rate temperature. Then, said modifying agent M is added to its crankcase oil, in every cylinder and to fuel to support ICE operation at idling with air wetting for at least 1-1.5 h. Said modifying agent represents minerals of serpentine group: antigorite, lizardite, chrysotile.
EFFECT: prevented corrosion and hydrogen brittleness promotion.