Biodegradable film and laminate
SUBSTANCE: biodegradable film comprises PHA and PLA, wherein the PLA content is 1-95 wt %, where PHA is PHB or PHV or a copolymer or a mixture of PHB and PHV, wherein PHB is P(3HB-co-4HB) polymerized with 3HB and 4HB, and the molar percentage of 4HB is in a range of 5 to 85%. The biodegradable film further comprises a cellulose fibre. The invention also relates to biodegradable laminate that contains PBAT or PBS or a mixture thereof and the said biodegradable film.
EFFECT: laminates are characterized by a stronger biodegradability in a medium containing microorganisms and are characterized by a good shelf life and good strength, rapid adaptation, and flexibility.
20 cl, 12 tbl
FIELD: textiles, paper.
SUBSTANCE: invention comprises a flat-shaped textile product and reinforcing material. At that, the flat-shaped textile product, which is already reinforced, is reinforced by the hydrodynamic method. Reinforcement is made in the form of reinforcing fibers with a diameter of 0.1-1 mm or 10-400 tex, and the Young's modulus is at least 5 GPa.
EFFECT: invention enables to create base layers with improved properties for use as base layers for coated roofing and waterproofing materials.
41 cl, 6 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: textile, paper.
SUBSTANCE: velour needle-punched nonwoven fabric is produced by laying of fabric, which may not be previously fastened together, onto a brush-like sewing base and needle-punching of nonwoven material on this base. Nonwoven fabric according to this invention differs by the fact that the nonwoven material includes a spinneret nonwoven material with threads, which include multicomponent threads, having at least one high-melting component and at least one thermally activated soft component.
EFFECT: proper mechanical properties and harmlessness for environment and safety, which makes it possible for use as textile lining in residential houses and especially in commercial objects.
FIELD: textile, paper.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns composite material for napkin and method of the material obtainment. Method of material forming involves hydraulic interweaving of staple fiber with non-woven canvas formed by continuous elementary threads to form composite material. Average fiber length of the staple fiber is approximately 0.3 to 25 mm, and at least part of the staple fiber is synthetic. The composite material forms first and second surfaces, where the first surface and includes mainly staple fiber and the second surface includes mainly continuous elementary thread. Additionally, at least part of the staple fiber protrudes from the second surface, and at least 90 wt % of the staple fiber is synthetic.
EFFECT: enhanced softness and absorbing capacity of material.
24 cl, 2 ex, 5 tbl, 3 dwg
FIELD: textile, paper.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of production of nonwoven material and to material obtained by said method. Method of material formation includes providing nonwoven linen which contains thermoplastic fibres, tangling said nonwoven linen with absorbing staple fibres with creating composite material. Said composite material forms first surface and second surface. Further method includes wearing said first surface of said composite material by contact of said first surface of said composite material with abrasive particles. Wearing takes place by contact of said first surface of said composite material with roller rotating in clockwise direction or in counterclockwise direction.
EFFECT: in improvement of final product strength and softness, as well as in improvement of absorbing property for wide use.
19 cl, 3 ex, 7 tbl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: filter is made of nonwoven fabric and/or injected filter structures or sheets, i.e. produced after processing the synthetic artificial fibres. At first fibres are processed with antibacterial compounds and sliced to monothreads. Natural, artificial, synthetic, metal fibres or their mixtures are used. Web and felt are formed from these threads. Required number of nonwoven fabric layers is connected, thereafter processed, sliced and rolled.
EFFECT: extended application of aforesaid filters, improved wetting and filtering ability ensured.
31 cl, 16 dwg, 11 ex
FIELD: production of non-woven composite laminate.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with a non-woven laminate, which is not exposed to a final fastening by a binding agent, and with production of the non-woven laminate. The laminate includes, at least, one mat of the non-woven fabric containing a staple glass fiber previously fastened by a resin, and at least one layer of a non-woven fabric made out of synthetic fibers. Layers of a synthetic non-woven fabric and the previously fastened mat of the non-woven fabric containing glass-fibers are joint together by sewing across so, that a part of filaments of the upper layer of the synthetic non-woven fabric passes through the mat of the non-woven fabric containing glass-fibers possibly through a laying in the base layer of the synthetic non-woven fabric. The synthetic fibers are subjected to thermal shrinkage and the laminate does not contain a binding agent. The non-woven laminate is produced strong, flexible and well delaminating. It may be used as the roll roofing materials in processes of welding and cast molding.
EFFECT: the invention ensures, that produced non-woven laminate is strong, flexible and well delaminating and may be used as the roll roofing materials.
39 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: non-woven polymer nanofibrous material is obtained from a moulding solution based on polyhydroxybutyrate, the composition of which contains nanocrystalline silicon in a quantity of 0.1-1.5 wt %, and a technological additive, which represents salt of tetrabutylammonium iodide, dissolved in a mixture of chloroform and formic acid in the concentration of 1 g/l.
EFFECT: obtained polymeric non-woven composite material has an increased strength and resistance to UV-radiation.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biodegradable polymer composition, which includes polylactic acid, polyglycolic acid and accelerator of ester decomposition from inorganic disperse substance, which accelerates hydrolysis of said polyglycol.
EFFECT: invention ensures fast destruction of biodegradable polymer composition.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 8 ex, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a polymer-based composition which contains a polyester and a cyclic carbodiimide. Disclosed is a polymer-based composition for moulded articles, which contains a polyester (component A), the terminal group of which is modified, and a compound which includes a cyclic structure with only one carbodiimide group, the first and second nitrogen atoms of which are bound together by a binding group in the cyclic structure (component B). The invention also discloses a method of producing said composition and an article moulded therefrom.
EFFECT: disclosed composition has no odour caused by free isocyanate.
26 cl, 1 tbl, 11 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a biodegradable mixed aliphatic-aromatic polyester suitable for an extrusion coating, which contains links formed from at least a dicarboxylic acid and at least a diol, with long-chain branches, and substantially free from gel, characterised by shear viscosity of 800-1600 Pa*s, heat-resistance constant of less than 1.5*10-4, melt strength of 2-4.5 g and ultimate elongation greater than 30. The biodegradable polyester can be obtained by reactive extrusion from a linear polyester precursor containing links formed by dicarboxylic acid and diol and having melt flow index from 5 g/10 min to 30 g/10 min and terminal unsaturation content of 0.1-1% mol/mol. The method is realised by adding peroxides, epoxides and carbodiimides. The invention also relates to a layered article consisting of at least a base and at least a first layer consisting of the polyester disclosed herein, an extensible film, multilayer films and a composition suitable for extrusion coating, which consists of a biodegradable mixed aliphatic-aromatic ester and polylactic acid.
EFFECT: obtaining biodegradable polyesters, having physical and chemical properties which enable to obtain thin films with high melt stability and high transparency.
21 cl, 7 dwg, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a composition for moulding articles and a method of producing said composition. The composition contains 100 pts.wt of a polymer component A, which consists of 5-100 wt % of a lactic acid polymer (component A-α) and 95-0 wt % of thermoplastic resin (component A-β), 0.001-5 of pts.wt of a phosphoric-fatty acid ester (component B), 0.01-5 pts.wt of metal phosphate salt (component C), 0.001-2 pts.wt of at least one antioxidant (component D), 0.001-10 pts.wt of a chain end closing agent (component E) and 0.01-0.3 pts.wt of hydrotalcite. The antioxidant is selected from a group comprising a phosphite-based compound, phosphonite-based compounds, a hindered phenol-based compound and a thioether-based compound. The method of producing the composition involves mixing, at 250-300°C, composition-1, which contains poly-1-lactic acid and a phosphoric-fatty acid ester, and composition-2, which contains poly-d-lactic acid and a phosphoric-fatty acid ester, in the presence of a metal phosphate salt to obtain a stereo-complex lactic acid polymer. Further, component A, which consists of the obtained stereo-complex polymer and a thermoplastic resin, is mixed with the antioxidant and the chain end closing agent.
EFFECT: obtained composition has good thermal stability, especially in humid conditions.
14 cl, 22 tbl, 70 ex
SUBSTANCE: composition contains 1-20 wt % polylactic acid with molecular weight of 50000-110000 and polyethylene terephthalate. The composition is characterised by axial Young's modulus of 1.4 Pa and radial Young's modulus of 2.8 Pa, as well as characteristic viscosity greater than 0.5 dl/g. The method of making a packaging product involves preparing a polymer mixture from polylactic acid and polyethylene terephthalate, mixing thereof, heating, extrusion and blow moulding.
EFFECT: compositions have improved properties, including high strength, flexibility, relative elongation, temperature stability, processability, air permeability and the capacity to form a dead fold.
23 cl, 9 tbl, 4 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: composition contains 68-82 wt % polyolefin, 8-32 wt % polyhydroxybutyrate and 5-10 wt % ketone (co)polymer.
EFFECT: composition has sufficient processability, is not toxic for the body, is environmentally safe and is highly biodegradable in ambient conditions.
1 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: material contains a polymer matrix - polyhydroxybutyrate and filler. The matrix also contains glycerine as a plasticiser and the filler is a surfactant-modified sheet silicate, with the following ratio of components in wt %: sheet silicate 1-5, glycerine 1.3-5 and polyhydroxybutyrate - the rest. Content of the plasticiser in the matrix is not over 5 wt %. The sheet silicate is Na+ - montmorillonite grade clay.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain biodegradable material using a simple method with high modulus of elasticity, strength and deformability.
2 cl, 2 tbl, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: solid resin based on vinylacetate copolymers are obtained through copolymerisation of vinylacetate and one or more ethylene unsaturated monobasic carboxylic acids from a group comprising acrylic, methacrylic and crotonic acid. Copolymerisation is carried out in the presence of one or more mercaptoalkylcarboxylic acids with 2-6-hydrogen atoms. The obtained solid resin based on vinylacetate along with functional carboxyl links also contains terminal carboxyl groups. The solid resin based on vinylacetate copolymers as an additive reduces shrinkage of the polyester resin during solidification, removes internal stress in the resin, minimises formation of microcracks and makes easier adherence to production tolerance.
EFFECT: reduced shrinkage of unsaturated polyester resin.
6 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: proposed is a method of drying or concentrating polymers capable of being biologically destroyed from polyhydroxyalkanoate, polycaprolactone, polymeric lactic acid, poly-glycolic acid, poly-(lacto-glycolic) acid, polymeric succinic acid, or their mixtures, or their copolymers. Polymer contained in solution or biomass, is subjected to microwave radiation for a period of time, sufficient for decreasing the concentration of polar solvent in the above mentioned solution or biomass respectively to 0.0001%-100%. The specified action causes destruction to the polymer from 0 to 25%.
EFFECT: drying of biopolymers without their destruction.
7 cl, 13 dwg, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to polyolefin compositions, suitable for the manufacture of various articles. A polyolefin composition, comprising in percent by weight: 1) and 2): 1) 75-85 wt % propylene homopolymer, having the melting point of 150°C or more, 2) 15-25 wt % ethylene copolymer with one or more C4-C10 α-olefins (α-olefin), containing from 20 to 30% of the said C4-C10 α-olefins (α-olefin); the composition is characterised as follows: - MFR value from 5 to 10 g/10 min. at 230°C, 2.16 kg, - total content of ethylene from 10.5 to 20%, - total content of C4-C10 α-olefins (α-olefin) within the range of 3 to 7.5%, - the ratio (XStot/XSm) of the total fraction soluble in xylene at room temperature to the fraction soluble in xylene at room temperature of the matrix component (1) from 5 to 15 and - the value of the intrinsic viscosity of the total fraction soluble in xylene at room temperature (XSIVtot) of 1.5 dl/g or less. Also claimed are: method for the preparation of polyolefin compositions, films, cast films, injection moulded articles.
EFFECT: polyolefin composition based films exhibit heat sealability, retortability, low haze.
6 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technology of producing polymer film materials with special mechanical properties, which can be used in food and processing industries. The disclosed method is carried out as follows. Granular polyolefin in the form of 70 wt % low-pressure polyethylene and 30 wt % high-pressure linear polyethylene is thoroughly mixed with a granular copolymer which includes propylene (75%) and diene (25%), combined with a superconcentrate PO AK 12 in amount of 1.0% of the total weight of polyolefins and modifier, sliding additive PO AS 12 in amount of 1.0% of the total weight of polyolefins and modifier for 30 minutes and the mixture is molten (version 1a), followed by extrusion of the melt, cooling, orientation and heat setting the film. The diene is dicyclopentadiene or butadiene or 1,4-hexadiene or a diene monomer based on norbonene dethylidene. In versions of the method, the modifier used is also a copolymer (version 1b) of propylene (50%), diene (2%) and ethylene (48%). The amount of the modifier in the material in different experiments is 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 65% of the weight of the polymer composition: polyolefin and modifier. Versions of the method further include addition of a biodegradable additive (version 1c) in amount of 1-5% of the total weight of the polymer composition: polyolfeins, modifier, superconcentrate PO AK 12, sliding additive PO AS 12. The rate of decomposition of the film in natural conditions is determined by an indirect method according to GOST 12020-12. In formulations, the rate of decomposition is in the range of 30-60 days.
EFFECT: providing uniformity of supply and monitoring the shape of articles, obtaining films with a small thickness - 10-15 mcm, capable of retaining up to 80% of bending and twisting deformation, high lustre and quality of the surface (eliminating the "sharkskin" effect), reduced load on the shaft, which improves efficiency and reduces power consumption, low processing temperature; eliminating burning (sticking) on shaping edges, shorter time for holding the materials in the extruder, which allows fast change of operating conditions; low cost of the running meter of the product; self-decomposition of the film material in ambient conditions.
2 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to stiff viscoelastic materials to be used for damping and noise killing in machine building, construction, etc. Proposed material is made of hardened damping graphite-bearing putty. Invention relates also to the method for reduction of structure vibration and noise with application of above described material.
EFFECT: better insulating properties, unlimited shelf life.
9 cl, 1 tbl