Method of catalytic conversion of ketoacids and their hydroprocessing in hydrocarbons
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an improved catalytic conversion of ketoacids, including to methods of increasing the molecular weight of ketoacids, comprising a stage of preparation of the reaction mixture in the reactor, containing, at least, one ketoacid, water and a base. Then, a base-catalyzed condensation reaction is carried out in the reaction mixture at a temperature of, at least, 65°C. The invention also relates to a method of producing hydrocarbons with high yield, involving astage of increasing the molecular weight of ketoacid, a stage of hydrodeoxygenating this reaction product, and also optionally a stage of isomerization.
EFFECT: high molecular weight compounds produced by the method of the present invention are suitable for use as components of fuels and base oil or chemicals, or as raw materials for their production.
14 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of bas oil for lubricants. Base oil for lubricants is produced at first stage whereat stock oil containing normal paraffins C20 or higher is subjected to isomerisation so that content of normal paraffins C20 or higher makes 6-20 wt % of total mass of hydrocarbons C20 or higher in produced reaction product. Lubing oil fraction including hydrocarbons C20 or higher is separated at second stage from first stage reaction products. Lubing oil fraction produced at second stage is separated at third stage to dewaxed oil and paraffin by dewaxing by solvent. Note here that dewaxed oil is used as base oil or subjected to purification by solvent and/or to hydrofining to produce base oil for lubricants.
EFFECT: higher thermal-viscosity properties of base oil.
10 cl, 4 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a hydrodeoxygenation method and catalyst for producing high-quality diesel and petroleum fuel from material which contains oxygen-containing components obtained from renewable organic materials. The method of producing hydrocarbon fuel from renewable biological organic material comprises the following steps: a) forming starting material by combining hydrocarbon fossil fuel with a renewable organic material, where content of the of the renewable organic material is 1-35 vol. %; b) mixing the starting material from step (a) with a hydrogen-rich gas and feeding the combined stream to the hydrodeoxygenation step by contacting said combined stream with a hydrodeoxygenation catalyst, where the hydrodeoxygenation catalyst is a supported Mo catalyst, having Mo content of 0.1-20 wt %, wherein the support is selected from aluminium oxide, silicon dioxide, titanium dioxide and combinations thereof, and said support has a bimodal porous structure with pores having diameter greater than 50 nm, which make up at least 2 vol. % of the total pore volume.
EFFECT: reduced coking susceptibility due to low local partial pressure of hydrogen.
14 cl, 4 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a lubricant base oil composition containing: (a) mineral oil-derived base oil having content of saturated compounds higher than 90 wt %, sulphur content below 0.03 wt % and viscosity index between 80 and 150, and (b) a paraffin base oil component having viscosity at 100°C from 7 to 30 cSt (from 7 to 30 mm2/s), where component (b) is an isomerised residual product obtained during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and has percentage ratio of secondary methylene carbon atoms, lying four or more carbon atoms from the terminal group and the branching, to isopropyl carbon atoms, found using a 13C-NMR technique, less than 8.2; wherein the base oil mixture has clouding point below 0°C and kinematic viscosity at 100°C higher than 12.0 cSt. The invention also relates to a method of producing a lubricating base oil mixture.
EFFECT: lubricating oil mixture has high viscosity index and high content of saturated compounds with a low pour point.
9 cl, 1 dwg, 5 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to integrated method of obtaining Diesel fuel or additives to fuel from biological material by obtaining paraffins in Fischer-Tropsch reaction, on one hand, and by catalytic hydrodeoxygenation of oils and fats of biological origin, on the other hand. Integrated method of obtaining Diesel fuel from biological material includes the following stages: a) obtaining first flow of hydrocarbons, containing C5-C100 + hydrocarbons, by means of catalytic cracking/isomerisation of Fischer-Tropsch paraffins of biological origin in order to increase fraction of C11-C20 paraffin hydrocarbons of Diesel fuel, b) obtaining second flow of hydrocarbons containing mainly C15-C18 hydrocarbons by means of catalytic hydrodeoxygenation of biological hydrocarbons, c) mixing said first and second flows of hydrocarbons, d) fractionation of obtained mixed flow of hydrocarbons, and e) separation of middle-distillate fraction, including C11-C20 hydrocarbons, for application as Diesel fuel. Invention also relates to application of lignocellulose material for obtaining Diesel fuel exclusively from bio-renewable resources, to method of narrowing distribution by hydrocarbon chain length of Dieasel fuel, obtained in Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Invention provides high-quality middle-distillate fraction from various biological sources. Invention also relates to installation for obtaining fuel from biological material.
EFFECT: obtaining high-quality Diesel fuel from resources, which have entirely biological origin.
37 cl, 2 tbl, 2 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: liquid fuel composition contains: (a) 50-90 vol. % C1-C4 alcohol; (b) 10-50 vol. % naphtha produced by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, having research octane number (RON), measured according to ASTM D2699, and motor octane number (MON), measured according to ASTM D2700, each equal to at most 60; and optionally (c) up to 10 vol. % C3-C6 hydrocarbons. The present invention also discloses a method of producing a liquid fuel composition and a method of operating an internal combustion engine.
EFFECT: RON and MON values of the liquid fuel composition are sufficiently high, composition is characterised by low content of benzene, sulphur, lead or virtually does not contain sulphur and lead.
10 cl, 6 tbl, 20 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to method (10) involving the creation of hydrocarbon raw material flow (14) with opacity temperature, flow loss point and cold filter plugging point (CFPP); extraction at least of some hydrocarbon raw material flow as raw material (14) for hydrotreatment; raw material (14) for hydrotreatment does not contain hydrocarbons from hydroisomerisation zone with continuous liquid phase; mixing of raw material (14) for hydrotreatment with hydrogen (16); at that, hydrogen is contained in the form available for constant flow rate in the hydroisomerisation zone with continuous liquid phase; direction of raw material (14) mixed with hydrogen for hydrotreatment to hydroisomerisation zone (12) with continuous liquid phase; and implementation of reaction of raw material (14) for hydrotreatment in hydroisomerisation zone (12) with continuous liquid phase using at least one hydroisomerisation catalyst under hydroisomerisation conditions under which outlet flow (18) having at least one of the following characteristics is formed: opacity temperature, flow loss point and CFPP value below the corresponding characteristics of hydrocarbon raw material flow (14).
EFFECT: improvement of characteristics of cold flow of hydrocarbon flows.
10 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for synthesis of branched olefins, said method involving dehydrogenation of an isoparaffin composition containing 0.5% or less quaternary aliphatic carbon atoms on a suitable catalyst. Said isoparaffin composition is obtained via hydroisomerisation a paraffin composition and contains paraffin containing 7-18 carbon atoms. Said paraffins, at least some of their molecules, are branched, where content of branched paraffins in the isoparaffin composition is equal to at least 50% of the weight of the isoparaffin composition. The average number of branches per paraffin molecule is between 0.5 and 2.5 and the branches include methyl and optional ethyl branches. Said branched olefins contain 0.5% or less quaternary aliphatic carbon atoms. Said paraffin composition is obtained using Fischer-Tropsch method. The invention also relates to methods of producing a branched alkyl aromatic hydrocarbon and branched alkylaryl sulphonates including the method described above.
EFFECT: high versatility and cost effectiveness of the method.
7 cl, 19 ex
FIELD: oil and gas production.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to procedure for decrease of setting point of waxy raw stock containing fraction with boiling point of 450°C. The procedure consists in dilution of said raw stock with solvent containing aliphatic ketone and aromatic compound where volume ratio of ketone and aromatic compound is below 0.7:1, in cooling this mixture to temperature when paraffin settles, in physical removal of paraffin out of oil base and in regeneration of oil product with setting point lower, than that of waxy raw stock. Also, waxy raw stock is produced out of Fisher-Tropsch reaction products.
EFFECT: high output of clear and high viscous crude oil.
13 cl, 1 ex, 2 tbl
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to catalysts intended to open naphthene rings. There described is catalyst for opening naphthene rings, which includes platinum component, ruthenic component and modifying component, and they are all dispersed on a substrate from high-melting non-organic oxide, and is characterised by the fact that at least 50% of platinum and ruthenic components is present in the form of particles, where on particle surface there is concentration of ruthenium, which is higher than that in the centre of particles. There also described is method for obtaining acyclic paraffins from cyclic ones, which involves contact of flow of raw material containing cyclic paraffins with the catalyst containing platinum component, ruthenic component and modifying component, and they are all dispersed on a substrate from high-melting non-organic oxide, in conditions of opening the ring in order to prevent at least some part of cyclic paraffins to acyclic paraffins; at that, catalyst is characterised by the fact that at least 50% of platinum and ruthenic components is in the form of particles, where on particle surface there is concentration of ruthenium, which is higher than that in the centre of particles.
EFFECT: increased synergism of Pt/Ru catalysts.
10 cl, 8 ex, 6 tbl, 2 dwg
FIELD: petroleum chemistry, chemical technology.
SUBSTANCE: method involves carrying out the following stages: a) hydrocracking/hydroisomerization of raw prepared in Fischer-Tropsch process wherein the weight ratio of compounds comprising at least 60 and more carbon atoms and compounds comprising at least 30 carbon atoms in the product prepared in Fischer-Tropsch process is at least 0.4, and wherein at least 30 weight % of compounds in raw prepared in Fischer-Tropsch process have at least 30 carbon atoms, and b) isolation of product from the stage a) representing paraffin raffinate product showing the boiling point 10 weight % between 200-450°C and the boiling out point 90 weight % between 400-650°C.
EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness of process and quality of end product.
10 cl, 4 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of producing liquid hydrocarbon mixtures is carried out via hydroconversion of lignocellulose biomass in a solvent medium in the presence of a dispersed catalyst precursor. The method includes drying the biomass; grinding the biomass; preparing a paste from the ground biomass, solvent and dispersed catalyst precursor; hydroconversion of the prepared paste; separating the obtained products in a system of separators; the method is characterised by that the solvent used is an organic solvent having viscosity of 0.5-2.5 Pa·s at 60-90°C, which contains 2-5.5 wt % sulphur and 5-25 wt % polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and/or derivatives thereof, and grinding of the biomass and preparation of said paste is carried out via dispersion with mechanical activation of the biomass in a solvent medium containing a catalyst precursor, wherein the prepared paste is first heated in an inert atmosphere to temperature of 330-380°C and pressure of 0.2-0.5 MPa until removal of the basic amount of oxygen in the biomass in the form of CO, CO2 and H2O, followed by hydroconversion.
EFFECT: high output of liquid products of hydroconversion of the biomass, higher conversion of the biomass and simpler process.
10 cl, 10 tbl, 2 dwg, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of processing tall oil resin. The method of processing tall oil resin, which contains sterol alcohols, and, possibly, wood alcohols of fatty acids and resin acids, the source of which is tall oil, is characterised by the fact that, at least, a part of the fatty acids and resin acids is released from sterol ethers and ethers of wood alcohols and converted into lower alkyl ethers; alkyl ethers, obtained in he said way, are extracted by evaporation from resin, then condensed, with the further hydration of the obtained condensate. The product, obtained by the claimed method and the application of the method for fuel production are also claimed.
EFFECT: application of tall oil resin, which usually represents a waste product, for obtaining fuel or a fuel component.
17 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: claimed invention relates to a method of obtaining olefins, including a) steam cracking of an ethane-including raw material in the zone of cracking and under conditions of cracking with obtaining a flow discharged from the zone of cracking, which includes, at least, olefins and hydrogen; b) conversion of the oxygenated raw material in the zone of conversion of oxygenate to olefins in the presence of a catalyst with obtaining a flow, consisting of, at least, olefins and hydrogen, discharged from the oxygenate-to-olefins (OTO) flow; c) combination of, at least, a part of the flow, discharged from the zone of cracking and a part of the flow, discharged from the OTO zone with obtaining a combined output flow; and d) separation of hydrogen from the combined output flow, with the formation of, at least, a part of the oxygenated raw material due to the supply of hydrogen, obtained at stage d), and the raw material, containing carbon oxide and/or carbon dioxide, into the zone of oxygenates synthesis and obtaining oxygenates. The invention also relates to a combined system for the claimed method realisation.
EFFECT: claimed invention makes it possible to obtain target products by the improved combined method of ethane cracking and OTO technology.
8 cl, 1 dwg, 5 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the catalytic conversion of a renewable raw material - products of the biomass fermentation (ethanol, fusel alcohols) and their mixtures with vegetable oil into an alkane-aromatic fraction C3-C11+, which can be used for obtaining fuel components. The method of obtaining alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons from the products of the biomass processing for obtaining the hydrocarbon fuel components includes passing the products of the biomass processing through a layer of a preliminarily regenerated zeolite ZSM-based catalyst, containing Pd and Zn, in an inert atmosphere at an increased temperature. The method is characterised by the fact that as the catalyst used is the Pd-Zn/ZSM/Al2O3 catalyst of the general formula of 0.6 wt % Pd-1 Zn/Al2O3/ZSM, with the products of the biomass processing, which contain a mixture of organic fermentation products or fusel alcohols, being passed through the catalyst layer at a temperature of 280-500°C and volume rate of 0.3-6 h-1.
EFFECT: extension of the raw material base and method for obtaining alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons.
5 cl, 6 tbl, 26 ex
SUBSTANCE: described is catalyst for single-stage manufacturing of components for jet and Diesel fuels from oil and fat raw material, containing platinum or palladium, fixed on the surface of porous carrier, represented by borate-containing aluminium oxide, with the following component ratio, wt %: Pt or Pd 0,10-0.50; B2O3 5-25; Al2O3 - the remaining part. Catalyst can be prepared by granulation of mixture of aluminium oxide hydrate of pseudoboehmite structure with orthoboric acid with the following drying of granules at 120°C and annealing at 550-700°C for 16 h. Granules are soaked with solutions of hexachloroplatinic acid or palladium chloride, subjected to drying at 120°C and annealing at 500°C. Method of single-stage manufacturing of components for jet and Diesel fuels with improved low-temperature properties from oil and fat raw material in presence of claimed catalyst includes passing mixture of hydrogen and oil and fat raw material through immobile layer of catalyst at temperature 380°C, pressure 4.0 MPa, mass rate of raw material supply 1 h-1 and with volume ratio hydrogen:raw material, equal 1300.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of single-stage manufacturing of components for jet and Diesel fuels with improved low-temperature properties from oil and fat raw material due to simplification of catalyst composition, method of its preparation and reduction of catalyst cost.
3 cl, 4 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of producing pyrolysis oil. A method of producing biomass-derived pyrolysis oil (38) with low metal content includes steps of: filtering a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil (12) with a high-throughput filter unit (20) having throughput of 10 l/m2/h or higher to form biomass-derived pyrolysis oil (22) with low content of solid substances; filtering the biomass-derived pyrolysis oil (22) with low content of solid substances with a fine filter (28) having a pore diameter of 50 mcm or less to form biomass-derived pyrolysis oil (30) with very low content of solid substances; and contacting the biomass-derived pyrolysis oil (30) with very low content of solid substances with an ion-exchange resin to remove metal ions and form biomass-derived pyrolysis oil (38) with low metal content. A version of the method is also disclosed.
EFFECT: total metal content is reduced to concentration of 100 ppm or less.
10 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes producing synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas into methanol, producing a concentrate of aromatic hydrocarbons and water from the methanol in the presence of a catalyst, separating the water, blowing off hydrocarbon residues from the water, separating the formed concentrate of aromatic hydrocarbons and a hydrogen-containing gas, which is at least partially used when producing synthesis gas, to change the ratio H2:CO=1.8-2.3:1 therein. The production of aromatic hydrocarbons from methanol in the presence of a catalyst is carried out in two series-connected aromatic hydrocarbon synthesis reactors - a first low-temperature isothermic aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon synthesis reactor and a second high-temperature adiabatic reactor for synthesis of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons from the aliphatic hydrocarbons formed in the first reactor and subsequent stabilisation in a unit for stabilising the concentrate of aromatic hydrocarbons. At least part of the hydrogen-containing gas is fed into a synthesis gas production unit and used to obtain synthesis gas using an autothermal reforming technique with a pre-reforming or non-catalytic partial oxidation unit using oxygen or oxygen-air mixtures as the oxidising agent to change the ratio according to the relationship (m.f.H2-m.f.CO2)/(m.f.CO+m.f.CO2)≥2, where m.f. is the molar fraction of a component in synthesis gas. The invention also relates to an apparatus.
EFFECT: high efficiency of producing concentrates of aromatic hydrocarbons.
12 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for obtaining hydrocarbon products, which involves the following stages: (a) provision of synthesis gas containing hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide; (b) reaction of conversion of synthesis gas to an oxygenate mixture containing methanol and dimethyl ester, in presence of one or more catalysts, which simultaneously catalyse the reaction of conversion of hydrogen and carbon monoxide to oxygenates, at pressure of at least 4 MPa; (c) extraction from stage (b) of an oxygenate mixture containing quantities of methanol, dimethyl ester, carbon dioxide and water together with non-reacted synthesis gas, introduction of the whole amount of the oxygenate mixture without any additional treatment to a stage of catalytic conversion of oxygenates (d); (d) reaction of oxygenate mixture in presence of a catalyst, which is active in conversion of oxygenates to higher hydrocarbons; (e) extraction of the outlet flow from stage (d) and separation of the outlet flow into tail gas containing carbon dioxide occurring from synthesis gas and carbon dioxide formed at stage (b), liquid hydrocarbon phase containing the higher hydrocarbons obtained at stage (d) and liquid water phase where the pressure used at stages (c)-(e) is mainly the same as that used at stage (b); besides, some part of tail gas obtained at stage (e) is recirculated to stage (d), and the rest part of tail gas is discharged.
EFFECT: this method is a method in which there is no recirculation of non-reacted synthesis gas to a synthesis stage of oxygenates and without any cooling of a conversion reaction of dimethyl ester to higher hydrocarbons.
6 cl, 2 ex, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: claimed invention relates to liquid fuel compositions. Invention deals with liquid fuel composition, containing, at least, one fuel component and from 0.1%(vil.) to 99.5% (vol.) of fraction of distillation of component, which contains, at least, one C4+ compound, derived from water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon. Method includes supply of water and water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon, including C1+O1+ hydrocarbon, in water liquid phase and/or vapour phase; supply of H2; carrying out catalytic reaction in liquid and/or vapour phase between oxygenated hydrocarbon and H2 in presence of deoxygenation catalyst at temperature of deoxygenation and pressure of deoxygenation to obtain oxygenate, which contains C1+O1-3 hydrocarbon in reaction flow; and carrying put catalytic reaction in liquid and/or vapour phase for oxygenate in presence of condensation catalyst at temperature of condensation and pressure of condensation to obtain C4+ compound, where C4+ compound includes representative, selected from the group, consisting of C4+ alcohol, C4+ ketone, C4+ alkane, C4+ alkene, C5+ cycloalkane, C5+ cycloalkene, aryl, condensed aryl and their mixture. Invention also relates to petrol composition, Diesel fuel composition, kerosene composition and methods of obtaining thereof.
EFFECT: improved characteristics of fuel composition, containing component, obtained from biomass.
9 cl, 19 dwg, 14 tbl, 59 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes stage of contact of pyrolysis oil, produced from biomass, with first catalyst of oxygen removal in presence of hydrogen under first, preliminarily set conditions of hydropurification with formation of first effluent stream of pyrolysis oil with low oxygen content. First catalyst of oxygen removal contains neutral catalytic carrier, nickel, cobalt and molybdenum. First catalyst of oxygen removal contains nickel in quantity from 0.1 to 1.5 wt % in terms of oxide. Version of method is also claimed.
EFFECT: extension of assortment of oxygen removal methods.
10 cl, 1 dwg