Check of precious stones
FIELD: measuring equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device contains a vacuum nozzle for extracting precious stones from a plurality of precious stones; a conveying mechanism for conveying the nozzle and the precious stone held to one or more measuring places; a measuring system comprising a plurality of measuring devices mounted near one or more measuring places and configured to measure one or more precious stone properties. At least one of the plurality of measuring devices is located in proximity to at least one of mentioned measuring places with the ability to measure at least one of mentioned precious stone properties which is held by the nozzle. The conveying mechanism is configured to sequentially deliver the precious stone held by the nozzle to a plurality of measuring devices receiving the precious stone at controlled times and in controlled places. The device comprises a control system operatively associated with a vacuum nozzle and with a measuring system and configured to provide a precious stone approach to a single or each measuring place in a time known to the measuring system and a positive pressure application system for separating the precious stone from the nozzle in the drop zone. A method for sorting precious stones, a method for studying precious stones and a nozzle for holding a precious stone are also proposed.
EFFECT: fast, reliable and efficient process of sorting stones.
36 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: apparatus (10) for examination, evaluation and classification of precious stones has an object table (11) on which a precious stone can be placed. The object table is enclosed in a housing (15) which is impervious to light. At least one light source (14) placed in the housing is adapted to project incident light onto the precious stone. A device is provided for turning and tilting the object table so as to vary the orientation of the precious stone relative the incident light. A digital camera (16) is placed in the housing, neighbouring a certain or each light source and adapted to record images of the precious stone, provided by reflection and/or refraction of the incident light. There is also a means of processing information for calibrating and analysing images, said means being programmed by a set of commands for colour calibration of images and subsequent analysis of the colour-corrected images by segmentation and constructing histograms.
EFFECT: improved device.
6 cl, 15 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: inside a diamond, in the region free from optically impermeable irregularities, an image is formed, which consists of a given number of optically permeable elements of micrometre or submicrometer size, which are clusters of N-V centres which fluoresce in exciting radiation, wherein formation of clusters of N-V centres is carried out by performing the following operations: treating the diamond with working optical radiation focused in the focal region lying in the region of the assumed region where the cluster of N-V centres is located, while feeding working ultrashort radiation pulses which enable to form a cluster of vacancies in said focal region and which provide integral fluence in said focal region lower than threshold fluence, where there is local conversion of the diamond to graphite or another non-diamond form of carbon; annealing at least said assumed regions where clusters of N-V centres are located, which provide in said regions drift of the formed vacancies and formation of N-V centres, grouped into clusters in the same regions as the clusters of vacancies; controlling the formed image elements based on detection of fluorescence of N-V centres by exposing at least regions where image elements are located to exciting optical radiation, which enables to excite N-V centres and form a digital and/or a three-dimensional model of the formed image. Images formed in diamond crystals from clusters of N-V centres are visible to the naked eye, by a magnifying glass and any optical or electronic microscope.
EFFECT: image from a cluster of N-V centres is inside the crystal, cannot be removed by polishing and is therefore a reliable diamond signature and reliable recording of information without destroying or damaging the crystal itself.
46 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves recording optical density spectra of diamond crystals in the infrared range using a spectrometer. Absorption bands are determined after recording optical density spectra. Natural or artificial origin of colour is determined from the set and relative intensity of absorption bands in the 1360-7000 cm-1 range.
EFFECT: determining signs of artificial radiation exposure, as well as signs of artificial radiation exposure and subsequent annealing of diamond crystals.
SUBSTANCE: method of determining the position of at least one inclusion in a diamond involves providing material containing a chalcogenide of a group 16 element; raising temperature of the material to 100-400°C in order to achieve molten state; placing the diamond inside the material and establishing illumination wavelength used to illuminate the diamond so as ensure that the refraction index of the material is in the range of 0.1 times the refraction index of the diamond when the material and the diamond are in a defined temperature range. The diamond in the material is then illuminated and the illuminated diamond is then imaged to obtain images of the diamond and the position of at least one inclusion is determined based on the images of at least one inclusion in the diamond images.
EFFECT: high accuracy of determining value of a precious stone.
28 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves recording optical density spectra of precious stones in the infrared range using a spectrometer fitted with a microscope working in reflection mode, performed as follows: the analysed cut precious stone or article with a precious stone is fixed in a holder with the platform up and perpendicular to the optical axis of microscope objective; the position of the sample is then chosen with focusing on the internal volume in the bottom part of pavilion such that the signal on the detector of the spectrometer is maximum, and spectrum of light passing through the sample and reflected from its surface is recorded. The background spectrum used can be the spectrum of the light reflected from a metallic mirror or spectrum of light reflected from the platform when focusing on the platform, or spectrum of light in transmission mode. The optical density spectrum from which the precious stone is analysed is calculated.
EFFECT: method is characterised by high rapidness and can be realised on standard infrared spectrometers fitted with microscopes.
SUBSTANCE: digital images of a precious stone are obtained when said stone is illuminated by a light source in the visible region and luminescent when the image is exposed to UV radiation. The obtained digital images undergo mathematical processing to obtain a graphical presentation of the distribution bar chart of pixels on the mutual relationship of components R, G and B, used to form the pixels, and a digital code based on coefficients of a polynomial which approximates the bar chart.
EFFECT: reliable inspection of precious stones, possibility of establishing natural or artificial nature of a crystal, possibility of distinguishing a precious stone from a fake stone, and a simple and more efficient process of separation during benefaction of raw material.
SUBSTANCE: method involves exposing crystals to electromagnetic radiation in the infrared range, recording values of optical density of the crystals in the infrared range, calculating absorption coefficients of absorption systems or determining concentration of defects of the crystalline structure. After recording optical density values in an arbitrary direction, the position of the maximum of the absorption band is determined in the 1350-1390 cm-1 range. The obtained data are then statistically processed and compared with standard values of concentration of defects of the crystalline structure, absorption coefficients and the position of the maximum of the absorption band in the said range.
EFFECT: high reliability of identifying a diamond source.
SUBSTANCE: diamond is put into a holder. The diamond is examined at a defined angle to obtain an image. A second measurement is taken in order to obtain two sets of data. The two sets of data are calculated on a computer. The said second set of data can be obtained by measuring depth or by changing viewing direction.
EFFECT: more accurate localisation.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of embedding trade marks or identification marks into monocrystalline diamond material, obtained through chemical gas-phase deposition, involves preparation of a diamond substrate and initial gas, dissociation of the initial gas, which provides the process of homoepitaxial growth of diamond, and to put trade marks or identification marks into synthetic diamond material at least one dopant chemical element selected from a group comprising nitrogen, boron and silicon is introduced into the synthesis process in a controlled manner in form of defect centres which upon excitation emit radiation with characteristic wavelength and in such concentration such that the trade mark or identification mark, under normal observation conditions, should not be easily seen or should not affect the perceived quality of the diamond material, but should be seen or become seen when illuminated with light with wavelength of the excited defect centres, the value of which is less than the said characteristic wavelength of radiation emitted by the defect centres, and visible under observation conditions where the said illumination is not visible to the observer.
EFFECT: invention simplifies determination of synthetic nature of diamond material.
52 cl, 4 ex, 19 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to apparatus and methods of marking valuables, mainly precious stones, particularly cut diamonds, and can be used for subsequent identification of data of the valuables. Mark 1 is made in form of an image, which is optically visualised in diffraction-reflection light, made on the polished surface 3 of the valuable object 2. The structure of the image is formed by a modified area of the surface layer of the object 2 with optical properties in the said area, which is functionally the image of mark 1, altered from the initial properties. The modified area is made in form of microlines 8, spatially formed according to type of the reflection grating, which is functionally an apparatus for increasing contrast of visual perception of the image of marker 1 in at least one of the colour hues of the spectrum of incident radiation. The structure of microlines of the modified area includes at least one impurity additive, which is selected from a group which includes noble metals or boron, ion-implanted into atomic lattices of the initial material of the object without breaking interatomic bonds of these lattices and, therefore, without changing quality of the polished surface of the object, but with change of the complex refractive index of this material. According to the method of making mark 1, before modification, a technological layer (TL) of material, which is removed after modification, is deposited on surface 3. A structure is formed in the technological layer according to type of the line grating. The corresponding area of the surface layer is modified by exposing this area to an ion beam through a mask with an image of mark 1 and the spatial structure formed in the technological layer, that way creating process conditions implantation of modifier ions into the modified area of the surface layer of the material of object 2 without breaking bonds in the atomic lattices of this material and, therefore, without changing initial quality of polishing the surface layer, but with change of its initial optical properties. The modifier used is impurity additives, selected from a group which includes noble metals or boron, ions of which alter the complex refractive index of the modified layer.
EFFECT: design of an efficient method of marking precious stones.
5 cl, 1 ex,7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining industry and can be used at formation and stabilisation of ore quality at a stage of mining operations. The method involves determination of coordinates of a bucket of a mining unit, content of a useful component in the mined rock in the bucket of the mining unit as a conditional mathematical expectation of content of the useful component at an excavation point, which is determined as per results of preliminary testing of a network of wells in vicinity of the excavation point with determined coordinates, loading of the transport vehicle and its addressing to unloading sites considering content of the useful component in the transported mined rock. Depending on position of the mining unit in relation to location zones of technological sorts of the mined rock in a working face, a possibility is established and a task is created for predominant excavation of a certain technological sort at loading of the transport vehicle, in compliance with which positioning of the bucket of the extraction unit is performed in the working face at excavation; besides, mining-out of the rocks of the working face is started from an outline between technological types of the mined rock, the position of which and location zone of technological types is specified by geophysical methods during excavation as per the analysis data of the mined rock in the bucket of the mining unit.
EFFECT: improving parameters of quality and excavation of technological sorts of ores and mined rock for ore sorting.
SUBSTANCE: proposed sorter passes the flow of product particles through the concentrator onto tapered scattering plate which feeds the product in the form of a uniform, circular monolayer to collimator comprising a product inner and outer guides to create a circular flow of products directed vertically. There is a unit of detectors in the said flow of products comprising an upper detector and optical unit (33). A rotary beam-splitting mirror is fitted below the said optical unit to scan the product in the circular zone of registration. The product passing through the registration zone is bombarded by the source, and the signal from the reflected or passed light is then measured by the detector of unit of detectors and optics. The classified product is removed from the flow by a rejecter in response to the control signal of the pickup incorporated with the aforesaid unit of detectors and optics. The classified product comes into the bin towards one side of the separating plate, the remaining products being directed free into the said bin.
EFFECT: higher quality of products sorting in flow.
18 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sorting of particles, particularly, to process for qualification of ACS for inspection and sorting of particles by feed of preset amount of granular particles to processed flow. Besides, it relates to production and qualification of granular particles that have at least one property, magnitude or range of magnitudes approximating to those of appropriate properties of known undesirable particles. Proposed method comprises the steps that follow. Produced are multiple particles that feature identical shape and size distribution. Conformal surface ply is formed on said particles to get granular particles with coating to impart at least one property with magnitude or range of magnitudes approximating to those of undesirable particles. Multiple granular particles are added to processed flow including multiple particles subjected to processing by inspection and sorting ACS. Said ACS is programmed for selective removal from processed flow of granular particles that feature the preset properties of the range of said properties. Granular particles detected and removed from ACS processing flow are memorised.
EFFECT: better stability and reliability, lower costs, improved testing and calibration.
19 cl, 5 ex, 6 tbl, 7 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to measurement equipment and can be used for automatic determination of metal concentration in ore. According to the method before control of grade of ore, ore passes through conveyor without metal impurities. For heating, area thermal source is used, which width does not exceed conveyor width. After time τspec when heating is finished, measured is average value of temperature based on heated surface of ore without metal T1av. Based on these measurements, formed is calibration curve. Then ore containing metal is continuously supplied to conveyor and heated. After time τspec average value of temperature Tavi is measured on each i frame. Value Tavi-T1av is determined based on calibration curve. Using value (Tavi-T1av), determined is percentage of metal in ore. Besides, a device for implementation of the above method is proposed.
EFFECT: improving reliability of determination of metal concentration in ore.
6 cl, 7 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: contactless sensor to measure electric charge of mineral moving particles comprises a sensitive electrode with inner channel of variable cross-section, high-quality isolator and grounded electrode, which upper part is made as a truncated pyramid with inner surface of the pyramid side faces inclined towards the sensor vertical axis selected in the range of 30-55 degrees.
EFFECT: reducing a number of parasitic actions of the actuating mechanism, whereby share of the associated minerals is reduced in the concentrate, improving condition of the concentrate without additional time and power costs.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method exploits the device for sorting out of separate structures 3.1 of loose materials 3 at conveyor 1 and controlled discharging fractionator 2. Sorting out criterion represents the distribution of structure 3.1 over height and the propagation of light from source 4. Light band 4.1 is projected across loose material conveyance direction onto conveyor plane 1 while structures 3.1 are displaced under light band 4.1. Light first part 4.1.1 is reflected by said structure. Light second part 4.1.2 enters the structure at inlet point 3.1.1 to get dissipated and to exit at point 3.1.2. Broadening B of light band due to dissipation is detected by chamber 9. Coherent areas are identified in buffered lines BZ. Measured magnitudes are analysed and converted into attribute symbols. Depending on preset parameters of sorting out aforesaid discharging fractionator 2 is actuated.
EFFECT: perfected method.
9 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method and sorting device for sorting potato products transported in the form of a product flow through a detection zone in which the products with defects are found in the product flow and removed from the product flow. Onto the said products in the detection zone the light beam is directed having a wavelength of 350-450 nm, and the intensity of light emitted by the products in the detection band from 460 nm to 600 nm is measured, at that the product is qualified as a product having defects and is removed from the product flow, if the said intensity is lower than the predetermined value. In addition, the invention relates to a method and device for detecting the presence of solanine in potato products, based on fluorescence.
EFFECT: proposed invention enables to provide accurate sorting of potato products, including detecting defects existing there.
25 cl, 12 dwg
SUBSTANCE: X-ray luminescent separator comprises material conveyor, X-ray radiation excitation pulsed source, photoreceiver to register luminescence, setter of luminescence signal intensity threshold magnitudes and separation parameter thresholds, synchronisation unit and luminescence signal digital processor. Besides, it comprises actuator and receivers of dressed minerals and tail product. Additionally, is comprises X-ray radiation excitation pulsed source and photoreceiver equipped with means of filtration of spectral band of material luminescence maximum intensity. Note here that luminescence signal digital processor allows simultaneous real time processing of two luminescence signals.
EFFECT: higher selectivity of extraction of minerals, plus classification of the minerals by types.
8 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to shelling and sorting of various grain. Proposed device comprises housing, inclined flute with grain paths, means to feed grain to said flute, optical detectors including grain illuminators and control system. Control system units are connected to central processor. Besides it comprises grain particles rejection means. Rejected grain discharge hole is arranged under aforesaid means to force rejections into container. Intake flute is arranged at lower section of aforesaid flute with its lower end located above cleaned grain intake container. Detectors are composed of video cameras built around matrix with charge link. One of said cameras is arranged perpendicular to inclined flute while second one is inclined thereto. Means to feed grain to flute is composed of trough connected via crank gear with motor. Inclined flute and trough have triangular guides secured thereat. Grain rejection device is composed of crank gear engaged with motor and provided with piston-type striker.
EFFECT: higher quality and efficiency.
FIELD: test engineering.
SUBSTANCE: for rapid analysis of grain amount and separation of grain to batches based on one or more amounts of grain parameters the optically dense grain layer is fed continuously through on-line measurement zone, the amount of grain is analysed according to irradiating light on the grain layer, and the light is reflected from the amount of grain, passing through on-line measurement zone, and the light reflected from the amount of grain for providing the spectrum of the amount of grain is recorded, the spectrum is converted into the parameter value of grain or each parameter value of grain, and the grain is separated to batches by sorting the grain amount based on the parameter value of grain or each parameter value of grain. The grain is separated on-line, i.e. during operation of the device, on the basis of the parameter value of grain or each parameter value of grain.
EFFECT: providing analysis and separation of grain to obtain uniform batches of grain on the basis of its specific parameter.
31 cl, 12 dwg