Method and device for laser cutting of materials
SUBSTANCE: pulsed laser radiation (1) is focused alternately on the front and back side of the object (5), which is moved along the predetermined processing path. When processing the front side, the laser radiation is directed by the mirror (3) and focused with the focusing system (4) on the front side of the object. When processing the back side of the object, the laser beam is directed to the opposite side by means of the mirror (2) and the mirrors (7, 8) and focused with the focusing system (6). The process parameters are set to achieve the maximum cutting speed, and the laser radiation is modulated to provide an optimum process at any given speed. If necessary, the cutting cycle of the front and back sides of the object is repeated until a through cut is obtained. The device comprises a laser (1), a frequency-pulse laser modulator, a two-coordinate table, on which the processing object is fixed (5), optical systems for focusing the laser beam on the front and back sides of the object (4, 6), a telescoping mirror (2) directing laser radiation by the mirrors (3 and 7, 8) into the beam focusing systems (4 and 6) on the front or back sides of the object (5). The device uses a copper vapour laser with a telescopic unstable resonator, the output mirror of which is made in the form of a meniscus with enlightened sides with a central mirror region.
EFFECT: providing high-performance cutting of various non-metallic materials, including sapphire, ceramics, and glass, along a specified trajectory with optimal control of the cutting parameters.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine for production of polar plates by laser cutting. This machine comprises bed, laser cutting assembly, cutting manipulator to drive laser cutting assembly, control system and at least one strip feeder. Strip feeder comprises manipulator for gripping, means for strip feeding to preset length and strip release means. Cutting and gripping manipulators are arranged at the bed. Means for strip feeding to preset length is arranged between gripping manipulator and strip release means. Control system is connected with cutting manipulator, gripping manipulator and means for strip feeding to preset length.
EFFECT: production of plates for lithium-ion storage batteries and super capacitors by laser technology, higher quality of plates.
10 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: first, masks of absorbing material are applied on substrate surface at the points of recesses or holed thereon. Then, substrate is irradiated with the train of laser nano- and subnanosecond-long pulses, pulse length being smaller than the time of substrate heating wavelength by half the spacing between adjacent masks. Temperature at locations of said masks is brought to the substrate material sublimation level.
EFFECT: laser micro processing and profiling or drilling of plates and diamonds and other translucent dielectrics.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a laser beam focusing head for laser cutting, a method and an apparatus for laser cutting of a metal component. The focusing head comprises a collimating lens (13) and a focusing lens (14). The collimating lens (13) and the focusing lens (14) are made of ZnS and have peripheral thickness of at least 5 mm. A deflecting mirror (15) operating at an inclination angle (α) from 40° to 50° is placed between the collimating lens (13) and the focusing lens (14) on the path of the laser beam. The laser cutting apparatus comprises a solid-state laser device (SL) emitting a laser beam with wavelength of 1.06 mcm to 1.10 mcm and power of 0.1 kW to 25 kW, said focusing head and a conveying fibre (CF) connecting the solid-state laser device (SL) and the focusing head.
EFFECT: invention provides a stable focusing position of a laser beam during cutting.
13 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: film is placed in a liquid medium which is transparent for laser radiation, having a refraction index of not less than 1.5 and pulses are focused by an optical system with a lens with a numerical aperture of not less than 0.33 or the film is placed behind a plate made of material which is transparent for laser radiation, having a refraction index of not less than 1.5 and pulses are focused by an optical system with a lens with a numerical aperture of not less than 0.5. The film is placed at a distance from the lens which is greater than the focal distance of said system during paraxial approximation. Said film is placed in a focal constriction with overlapping of the film and a hole is formed in said film. The energy of the ultra-short laser radiation pulse is set based on a condition of providing energy density of the laser radiation which is higher than the breakdown threshold of the material of the film in the region of the focal constriction.
EFFECT: device enables to form a hole with a diameter of up to 5 mcm in a film with thickness of up to 100 mcm using a single ultra-short laser radiation pulse.
7 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to low-inertia robot for laser cutting of flat sheets. Robot comprises support appliance (15) for laser cutting head (14) displacing in axes X and Y. Said support appliance is provided with two sliding units (5, 6) actuated by independent drives (7, 8). They serve for their displacement in axis Y to vary their mutual spacing while bars (9, 10) intended for swivelling said sliding units (5, 6) with laser cutting head (14).
EFFECT: higher quality of cutting.
4 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technology of making complex holes using a laser beam, particularly a through hole for film cooling of a turbine component. At the first step, the internal part (7) of the hole (1) is made from the surface (12) to the opposite internal surface (13) of the substrate (4) using a laser (22) located in a first angular position (1) and simultaneously making a diffuser (10) part. The diffuser (10) residue (16, 18, 28) is removed at the next second and third steps. At the second step, the angular position of the laser (22) is changed to a position (II), different from angular position (I), and the laser is moved to the angular position (II) until the lateral side (17a) of the diffuser (10) is open and part of the volume (18) of the residue (16, 18, 28) remains. At the third step the angular position of the laser is changed from the angular position (II) at the second step so as to remove said residue (18). The angle in the angular positions (I, II, III) is defined as the angle between the middle line of the laser beam (25) and the surface (12) around the film cooling hole (1).
EFFECT: using a laser in three different angular positions relative to the processed substrate significantly simplifies the making of complex holes in the substrate.
13 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to laser cutting of fragile non-metallic materials, glass in particular, and can be used for cutting of large-sized flat and 3D-shape articles. Proposed method comprises controlled through heat crushing by focused laser beam in curvilinear path. Cutting is performed by oval laser beam, its oval axes lengths being adjusted in cutting. This beam cuts off machining allowance by stopping the cutting process and is diverted back through 50-80 mm to cut the separated allowance off. Then, laser beam is returned to main cut stop point to make it displace in cutting path. Proposed device comprises laser, focusing system, coolant feeder, focusing lens, lens drive, article holder composed by suction cups arranged at adjustable-length holders and ball-and-socket joints. The latter ensure parallelism of suction cup surfaces and article surface. Lens drive is composed of six-axis robot-manipulator. Laser optical fibre end is secured to manipulator output link, laser being equipped with collimator and lens.
EFFECT: automated cutting, higher quality of cutting and articles, accelerated processing.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building and instrument making and can be used in production of cylindrical involute gears with inner and outer rims. Proposed method consists in cutting the gear rim by laser beam at NC machine tool at positioning of said beam in X and Y axes in path set by control program. Note here that the blank is pre-tempered and cooled while it is laser-quenched at cutting the rim.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of cutting and hardness of gears.
1 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to laser cutting of parts (3) at variable cutting speed (v) along cutting line (L1, L2). Proposed system comprises moving head (10) for laser beam positioning the laser beam (5) on part (3), user's interface (45) to set cutting line (L1, L2) and to set required laser beam (5) path precision (ΔB) and device (20) to control displacement of laser beam head (10) along said lines (L1, L2) in compliance with set of processing parameters (LL, DF, D0, ΔB, DS, DD, PG). First subset (G1) is composed of parameters (LL, DF, D0, ΔB, DS, DD, PG) and comprises solely one parameter (LL) or more of them (LL) that influences laser beam power available for cutting. Second subset (G2) is composed of parameters (DF, D0, ΔB, DS, DD, PG) and comprises parameters that do not influence laser beam power available for cutting. At least one parameter of said second subset can be controlled by device (20) subjected to at least one variable control parameter (S20, S21, S22, S23, S24, S25, S26, S27) subject to processing head recorded speeds (vg1, vg2).
EFFECT: uniform cut surfaces at high cutting speed.
15 cl, 10 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: at least one laser is used to make through opening with inner symmetric part and asymmetric diffuser with cross-section departing from that of said inner part. Laser angular position relative to substrate is varied only five times. At second angular position polyhedron is removed, in particular, polyhedron with five surface while at third angular position polyhedron with five surfaces is removed.
EFFECT: ruled out damaging of opening side surface by laser beam.
32 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: testing engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises optical quantum generator, system for focusing the laser beam with the unmovable lens, and movable base for securing the object to be cut. The movable base is made of rotating platform mounted on the driving shaft of the mechanism for discrete control of the speed of rotation. The mechanism is made of an assembly of driven and driving pulleys connected by means of the driving belt. The rotating platform is provided with the model of the object to be cut. The driving belt that connects the driven and driving pulleys is made of a vibration insulation material. The driven shaft of the rotating platform is set in bearings, is provided with a mechanism for control of tension of the driving belt, and is mounted on the traverse gear.
EFFECT: decreased time and reduced power consumption of testing.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: method and apparatus for forming weakening lines in member of automobile lining covering devices with safety cushions in order to create one or more hinged flaps of window for spreading out pneumatic safety cushion when the last is pumped.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of making notch in surface of lining member by means of cutting beam directed from source 12 onto said surface at moving lining member relative to source 12 according to predetermined pattern of notch; tracking cutting result by means of measuring beams irradiated by first pickup 26 and second outer pickup respectively placed in opposite sides relative to lining member 16; combining measuring beam of pickup 26 with cutting beam in such a way that to provide collinear combined segments on surface of lining member and to direct them constantly to the same points of notch pattern; controlling quantity of material removed by means of cutting beam in each point along pattern due to controlling notch cutting process with use of feedback signals generated by first 26 and second 20 pickups. Apparatus for performing the method includes source of cutting beam for making notch on surface of one side of lining member at directing cutting beam to said surface; drive unit imparting mutual relative motion of cutting beam source and lining member according to predetermined pattern; sensor unit for tracking thickness of remained material of lining member; device for combining beams; control unit for tracking process of cutting notch in each point along predetermined pattern and regulating cutting intensity of cutting beam for providing predetermined thickness of material of lining member. Sensor unit includes first inner pickup 26 and second outer pickup 20 arranged at mutually opposite sides of lining member 16 and directed towards each point of lining member to be notched. Inner pickup and cutting beam source are arranged at the same side relative to lining member.
EFFECT: possibility for making weakening lines during one pass at accurate reproducibility regardless of variation of cutting depth, cutting angle, patterns of notch, non-uniformity and color of material, texture of material surface and so on.
41 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: different branches of machine engineering and metallurgy, possibly working products for modifying or preparing topography of article surface or raw materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of relatively moving article and powerful beam in crossing direction in order to act upon several positions on article by means of said beam; at each position moving beam relative to article according to predetermined way; melting material of article and moving it by action of powerful beam for forming recesses or openings; joining article having prepared surface with target part. Product formed by such process has predetermined surface roughness.
EFFECT: possibility for producing article with predetermined surface roughness.
46 cl, 11 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: laser working, namely laser cutting, possibly in machine engineering for effective and high-accuracy manufacture of complex-contour parts from sheet blank.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of measuring mean statistic value of limit bending of blank 7; then fastening and tensioning blank at providing tension stresses determined by relation: σtχ ≤ σe GV, where σt - tension stresses created in blank, MPa; χ - thermal conductivity of blank material, mm2/s; σe - elastic limit of blank material, MPa; G - mean statistic value of limit bending of blank, mm; V - cutting speed, mm/s. Focused laser irradiation 1 with preset focal length and gas flow 6 are fed onto sheet blank 7 through nozzle of cutter 5 for moving blank along predetermined contour. Apparatus includes source of laser irradiation 1, mirror 3, cutter 5, platform 8 with clamp 9 for blank 7. Platform 8 is mounted on coordinate table 11 and it includes threaded guides 10 for tensioning blank; said guides are in the form of screw gages with left- and right-hand threads. Coordinate table is number program controlled by system 12 connected with laser irradiation source 1 and with information-computing system 13 through program module 14 correcting contour of cutting in proportion to deformations created in material.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of laser cutting due to stable position (on the whole surface of sheet blank) of plane of focusing lens of cutter at cutting process, practically constant gap value between nozzle of cutter and blank surface.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: processes and equipment for gas-laser cutting of titanium and its alloys, possibly in different branches of power engineering and machine engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method is realized due to using technological gas being mixture of argon and oxygen and containing 15 -25% of oxygen. In order to cut metal of predetermined thickness, oxygen content in technological gas is determined depending upon cutting speed and quality of metal surface according to technological demands for cutting quality at maximally admissible cutting speed.
EFFECT: improved quality of cutting as oxygen content of technological gas in preset range completely prevents occurring of type-metal or makes it rare and small.
1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: physics; lasers.
SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to laser technology, particularly to the method of cutting pyrographite using laser, and can be used in instrument making, and mainly in electronics. Laser radiation with central mode TEM00 is focused on the material. The focus of the beam is directed on the surface of the material, while keeping the density of the incident power within the 106-107 W/cm2 range. The work piece is moved at speed ranging from 1 to 3 mm/s. The cutting process parameters are determined by the expression , where K is the coupling factor of parameters, chosen from the condition 7·10-5≤K≤12·10-5; f is the repetition frequency of the laser radiation, τ is the pulse duration of the laser radiation, d is the diameter of the spot of focused laser radiation, and h is the thickness of the work piece. A laser with yttrium aluminium garnet active element, with controlled distribution of power in the section of the beam is used.
EFFECT: high quality of cutting material with a smaller heat affected zone during optimum process modes.
2 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: cutting of sheet materials is realised with the help of cut sheet surface exposure to oxygen jet that flows from supersonic nozzle and laser radiation. Laser radiation is focused so that axis of beam coincides with the nozzle axis, beam focus is located inside the nozzle, and beam diameter on surface of cut plate exceeds output diameter of nozzle. Beam heats the metal to the temperature that is higher than burning temperature but is lower than melt temperature. Thickness of cut sheets is set by condition H/Da≤(0.8-1.2)P/P∞+5, where H is thickness of cut sheet, mm, Da is output diameter of nozzle, mm. Certain selection of cutting parameters, namely value of pressure in nozzle chamber and gap size between output section of nozzle and cut sheet, makes it possible to increase quality of cutting surface. Selection is done based on the following conditions: P/P∞=6.15/(D0/Da-A)-7.7 and δ/Da=1-2, where P is excess gas pressure in chamber, MPa; P∞ is pressure of environment, MPa; A=0.2-0.3; D0 is critical diameter of gas nozzle, mm; Da is output diameter of gas nozzle, mm; δ is gap size between output section of nozzle and sheet surface, mm.
EFFECT: higher quality of cutting surface.
1 ex, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device includes bearing structures interconnected with gear-driven means for processing element relocation and program control system. Bearing structures are made as a support and means for processing element relocation is made as a rotary lever system including at least two levers being interconnected by one end with each other by means of hinge joint. The second end of the first lever is connected by means of hinge joint with support and the second end of the second lever has processing element mounted thereon. Another version includes bearing structures interconnected with gear-driven means for processing element relocation and program control system. To achieve the same technical result bearing structures are made as a support capable to move along guide ways, means for processing element relocation is made as a rotary lever system including at least two levers being interconnected by one end with each other by means of hinge joint. The second end of the first lever is fixed rigidly to the support and the second end of the second lever has processing element mounted thereon.
EFFECT: extension of manufacturing capability and increase of positioning accuracy.
10 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises focusing lens (1), casing (2), branch pipe (3) for laser beam to pass there through at preset aperture angle and nozzle (5) arranged around aforesaid branch pipe and inclined to the lens optical axis to form gas supersonic jets. Branch pipe (3) has annular grooves (4) to make chamber for gas to be distributed between the nozzles. Axes of nozzles (5) intersect the lens axis at the point which makes that of intersection between processed surface and focusing lens axis to exploit entire kinetic power of supersonic jets onto processed surface.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of processing due to increased efficiency of gas mix effects.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to method and device for automatic control of laser cutting or hole drilling process. Method includes measurement of radiation reflected from zone of processing. Minimum value of reflected radiation amplitude is defined, compared to specified amplitude, and control of laser radiation capacity and/or cutting speed are controlled. Device comprises laser with power supply unit, rotary mirror, focusing lens, 2-coordinate table for fixation of processed part, unit of 2-coordinate table control, photodetector of secondary radiation and transformer of secondary radiation signal from photodetector, connected to unit of laser power supply and unit of 2-coordinate table control.
EFFECT: improved quality and capacity of through laser processing of materials.
2 cl, 1 dwg