System and method of management and optimisation of hydrothermal process of heavy oil and bitumen refinement
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: system contains a fluid flow route formed to continuously deliver the process stream along this route in the direction of flow. The flow route includes a reactor, a reactor configured to receive a process stream with water at an inlet temperature in the range of about 60 to 200°C, a reactor including one or more pressure pipes defining the total cross-sectional dimension of the flow inside pipes across the flow. The total length of one or more pressure pipes is at least 30 times more than total cross-sectional dimension of the flow inside the pipes, a reactor configured to supply heat to the process flow passing therethrough so as to gradually increase the flow temperature at the reactor inlet to the outlet temperature T(max)1 in the range of about 260-400°C at the reactor outlet. At that reactor is arranged to maintain a pressure in the process stream sufficient to provide a single-phase flow of the process stream at T(max)1, the controller is configured to selectively control the flow rate of the process stream through the reactor in order to maintain the total contact time of the process stream of feedstock in the reactor within an interval of about 1 to 25 minutes. Said flow rate, said lengths of the pressure pipes and said heat supply ensure minimization or prevention of coke formation.
EFFECT: use of the proposed invention enables maximizing the efficiency and degree of refiniment at the highest temperatures, minimizing adverse reactions of coke formation.
36 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises tar cleaning reactor with mixer, condenser and vessel for dried acid tar. Proposed reactor comprises cover with inlet for loading acid tar and water and electric heater. Said mixer is equipped with electric drive. This device incorporates extra pipeline with shutoff valve and accessories, drying chamber with electric heater with perforated plate and frame composed by four interconnected struts. Note here that said reactor is connected with drying chamber. Said drying chamber is connected with condenser via pipelines with shutoff valve and accessories. Drying chamber is mounted at said frame to inclined position. Invention relates also to process to be implemented at above described plant.
EFFECT: simplified process, higher quality of purification.
12 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemistry. Proposed method comprises multistage separation, cleaning of separation gases from hydrogen sulphide by catalytic oxidation of air by oxygen with further extraction of liquid oxidation products, sulfur and organic sulfur compounds, from reaction gases and feeding of purified gas to end separator for stripping. Liquid oxidation products in amount of 0.1-3.5 kg/t of oil are fed for stripping while prepared oil in amount of 2-10 l per 1 m3 of reaction gases are directed for flushing.
EFFECT: higher quality of purification and yield, environmental protection.
1 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of desalinating a gas condensate on a unit for washing the gas condensate with fresh water, involving feeding fresh or low-mineralised water for mixing with the gas condensate, wherein a demulsifying agent is added beforehand in a pipeline. The process is carried out in a turbulent apparatus with a diffuser-confusor design, wherein the prepared gas condensate at 30°C is fed into the input channel of the first section of a tubular turbulent apparatus with a diffuser-confusor design with volume rate of 22-25 m3/h. Further, 1-1.5 wt % washing water is fed into the first section of the mixing apparatus coaxially through a perforated pipe with a closed end.
EFFECT: simple design of the mixing apparatus, low metal consumption, reduced pressure drop and low water consumption.
4 dwg, 3 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of removing contaminants from a stream of synthetic wax obtained from a Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The method involves two separated steps. Formation and growth of particles which contain a contaminant. The said particles have size which is sufficient for their easy removal. The said formation and growth is stimulated by treating the said stream of wax with an aqueous fluid medium which possibly contains an acid; and removal of a certain number of particles from the stream of synthetic wax using one or more particle removal operations. The aqueous fluid medium is mixed with the stream of wax such that, water content ranges from 0.25 to 2 wt % of the weight of the stream of wax, and acid content ranges from 0.005 to 0.5 wt % of the weight of the stream of wax. Temperature of the wax mixed with the aqueous fluid medium is kept at 160°C and the stream of wax with the aqueous fluid medium are kept at high temperature for at least one minute.
EFFECT: efficient removal of contaminants from streams of hydrocarbons.
15 cl, 2 ex, 1 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of processing hydrocarbon paraffins involves hydrothermal processing metal-oxygenate components contained in hydrocarbons obtained using Fischer-Tropsch method at temperature above 100°C, where hydrothermal processing is carried out with water at temperature ranging from 100°C to 400°C, and hydrothermal processing is carried out after passing the first filtration zone at pressure 0.1-10 MPa for 1-60 minutes, where water is added in order to carry out hydrothermal processing, as well as a method of processing hydrocarbon paraffins, which involves chemical processing metal-oxygenate components contained in the hydrocarbon paraffins obtained using the Fischer-Tropsch method with one or more chemical processing reagents selected from organic acids and anhydrides, carried out in a single liquid phase in order to modify metal oxygenates.
EFFECT: use of given methods prevents clogging of catalyst layers with metal-containing particles.
20 cl, 13 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: oil-and-gas production.
SUBSTANCE: invention related to a method of calcium content decrease in fluid hydrocarbon medium, which includes contacting of mentioned above fluid hydrocarbon medium with a sequestrant, represented with a carboxylic acid for calcium containing separating complex formation, b. contacting of mentioned above fluid hydrocarbon medium with water medium for emulsion formation, in which after the mentioned above emulsion separation, at least part of the mentioned separated calcium containing complex stays in the water medium, and contacting the mentioned water medium with water soluble or water dispersing polymer, with I formula for the calcium disposals inhibition on surfaces, contacting with the mentioned above water medium, where the polymer has: (I) formula, where E - is a repeating fragment, which remains after non-saturated ethylene type compound polymerization, R1 is a hydrogen atom or the lowest (C1-C6)- alkyl or carbonyl, Q - is O or NH, R2 - is the lowest (C1-C6)-alkyl, hydroxy - substituted the lowest (C1-C6)-alkyl, the lowest (C1-C6)-alkyl sulfonic acid -(Et-O)-n, -(iPr-O)-n or -(Pr-O-)n, where n - is a variable from around 1 up to 100, and R3 - is a hydrogen atom or XZ, where X - is anion radical, selected form a group, consisting from SO3, PO3 or COO, Z - is hydrogen atom or atoms or any other water soluble cationic fragment, which serves is a balance in X anion radical valence; F - when presented, is a repeating fragment with a II: formula, where X and Z are the sane as in I formula, R4 - is a hydrogen atom or (C1-C6) the lowest alkyl, R5 - is hydroxy - substituted alkyl or alkylene, which has from 1 to 6 atoms, and XZ can or can not to be presented, c and d - are positive whole numbers, e is not-negative number, and j is equal to 0 or 1.
EFFECT: calcium disposal decrease on a surfaces contacting with water phase water in oil separated emulsion.
21 cl, 7 ex, 7 tbl
FIELD: oil-and-gas production.
SUBSTANCE: invention related to method of diesel fuel refinery and aimed to increase quality of a typical and off-quality fuel by decontamination it out from harmful impurities. Invention consists diesel fuel decontamination method, which includes dosed mixing of row fuel with water, solution cavity treatment and its separation on the fuel and deposits and water in a precipitation tank, before dosed mixing with a row fuel water to be saturated with iron ions till solution get yellow-brown colour with pH>6, solution cavity treatment executed by supersonic sound during its CO2 barbotage with temperature 75-80°C and overburden relatively to solution pressure >0.2 gatm, after that solution treated with light photons with energy 60-70 kkal/mole, passed through magnetic field and forwarded to tank.
EFFECT: invention is also related to diesel fuel decontamination equipment.
13 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: claimed invention relates to method of reaction mixture processing, obtained by Fischer-Tropsh process (F-T), which includes synthesis-gas, Fischer-Tropsh hydrocarbons, oxygenates and catalyst particles, claimed method being characterised by including: (a) modification of metal-oxygenate components, contained in reaction mixture, obtained by Fischer-Tropsh process, in hydrothermal reaction zone and (b) influencing with subjected to filtration adsorbent on reaction mixture obtained by Fischer-Tropsh process, in hydrothermal reaction zone, subjected to filtration adsorbent being added into hydrothermal reaction zone.
EFFECT: application of given method allows to reduce formation of depositions on technological equipment.
10 cl, 3 ex, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention includes the primary methanol separation on the hydrophilic ultrafine or superfine fiber up to the residual methanol concentration no more than 250 mg/l of the liquid hydrocarbons, extraction of the methanol from liquid hydrocarbons with water, separation of the water solution of methanol from liquid hydrocarbons, removal of the purified hydrocarbons and water solution of methanol, if necessary the removal of the residual water solution of methanol from liquid hydrocarbons with sorption and following desorption and/or catalytical conversion obtaining hydrocarbons and water.
EFFECT: decrease of the energy consumption and efficiency increase in the process of liquid hydrocarbons purification from water methanol solution.
2 cl, 7 ex, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: recovered medium is mixed with water in the ejector. It is accompanied with high-pressure water supply to ejector pump nozzle in the line connecting high-pressure system and ejector pump inlet. Thereafter mixed water and recovered agents are drained out through the pipeline to the sedimentation tank. Recovered suspension is collected from the tank through the pipeline connecting suspension layers and ejector pump inlet. Optimal performance of the ejector is ensured by observing the suggested ratios of ejector nozzle diameter, ejector diameter and ejector nozzle length.
EFFECT: higher productivity.
4 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing epoxy compounds, which includes adding an oxidant, a water-soluble manganese complex and terminal olefin to obtain a polyphase reaction mixture; reacting the terminal olefin and oxidant in the polyphase reaction mixture comprising at least one organic phase, in the presence of the water-soluble manganese complex; dividing the reaction mixture into at least one organic phase and an aqueous phase and recycling at least a portion of the aqueous phase. The water-soluble manganese complex is a mononuclear particle of general formula (I): [LMnX3]Y, or a binuclear particle of general formula (II): [[LMn(µ-X3)MnL](Y)n, where Mn is manganese; L or each L is independently a polydentate ligand; each X is independently a coordinating particle and each µ-X is independently a bridging coordinating particle, and where Y is a non-coordinating counterion.
EFFECT: efficient use of the catalyst and high end product selectivity of the process.
17 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to reaction equipment for production of polymer materials and can be used for synthesis of butyl resin. Reactor comprises housing with cooling jacket, top and bottom surfaces with product feed and discharge unions, inner hollow barrel with inner space for coolant and product feed and discharge unions, mixer composed of axial pump and scraper, each being provided with its drive. Note here that mixer drive is arranged at reactor top surface while scraper drive is located at its bottom surface. Note also that initial material feed pipes are mounted at reactor top surface in diametrical opposition.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and reliability.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to preparation of shear-sensitive substance solution. Proposed device comprises technological chamber with inlet pipe to feed dry ingredients, immersion leg to feed technological flow, mixer, technological flow discharge valve, first pump communicated with discharge valve, two filters of tangential flow connected in series. Note here that said first filter communicates with said first pump. Last filter is communicated with immersion leg so that the chamber, first pump and two filters make the circulation circuit. Besides it has extra tank connected with extra pump to feed the reagent from the tank to circulation circuit. Proposed method comprises fluid feed to shear-sensitive substance to the solution to produce the suspension, first reagent feed to suspension to change the suspension characteristics or composition and continuous filtration of said suspension via filters. This causes the suspension separation from filtrate flow. Besides, fluid is added to suspension to recover the volume of fluid caught by filtrate flow while second reagent is added to suspension to up solubility of shear-sensitive substance to required threshold.
EFFECT: efficient process.
54 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: reactor for conducting chemical processes consists of a housing and is equipped with at least one raw material feeding device, at least one mixing device, a foam removal device and product removal devices. The gaseous product removal device, the foam removal device and the liquid product removal device are made separately from each other. The reactor is fitted with a partition wall which divides the reactor into two zones. The partition wall is fitted to form a slit-type gap between the bottom of the reactor and the bottom edge of the partition wall, and the top edge of the partition wall is higher than the level of the reaction mixture in the reactor. The mixing device is installed in the first reactor zone. The at least one raw material feeding device is configured to feed raw material into the first reactor zone. The liquid product removal device is configured to output liquid products from the second reactor zone. The foam removal device is configured to remove foam from the second reactor zone.
EFFECT: invention improves the quality of obtained products and efficiency of the reactor.
5 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: described is method of obtaining highly pure melamine due to fast cooling of melamine melt, purified from waste gases of melamine synthesis and containing amelline, ammelide and polycondensates as admixtures, with application of ammonia-containing aqueous solution in conditions, ensuring conversion of larger part of polycondensates into melamine, with obtaining melamine solution, separation of melamine from obtained solution by crystallisation with further processing of mother liquor of crystallisation in conditions, ensuring conversion of at least part of amelline it contains into ammelide and melamine, and non-catalytic high-pressure installation for obtaining melamine with high degree of purity by claimed method.
EFFECT: obtaining melamine with high degree of purity.
21 cl, 4 ex, 5 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to assy to be used as a component of reactor or mixer. Said assy comprises at least one disc with working surface. Said disc runs about its shaft. Said assy comprises one or more fluid inlets arranged above disc working surface, at disc center nearby its shaft or within radial distance from disc center. Fluids get mixed or react, or displace, or effect the combination thereof with the help of centrifugal force acting at disc working surface in direction of disc rim. Said assy comprises one or more chambers revolving jointly with the disc to collect fluids in said chambers. Said chambers surround said rim. Said chambers communicate and have one or more collecting tubes to set fluid surface to predefined levels in said collecting chambers. Said collecting tubes communicate with collecting chambers below said disc to force fluid out by gravity.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, simplified servicing.
9 cl, 15 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing acetone cyanohydrin. The method involves step A) of reacting acetone and a strong acid in the presence of a base catalyst in a reactor to obtain a reaction mixture, wherein the reaction mixture circulates, and acetone cyanohydrin is obtained; B) cooling at least 70 wt % of the reaction mixture by flowing in the cooling region of a cooler with dwell time in the cooler of 0.1-2 hours, wherein the cooler contains one cooling element or at least two cooling elements; C) removing at least a portion of the obtained acetone cyanohydrin from the reactor. In terms of the total internal volume of the cooler, the volume of the cooling region of the cooler is larger than the volume of the cooling element or at least two cooling elements of the cooler. The invention also relates to methods of producing an alkyl ester of methacrylic acid and methacrylic acid, which includes as one of the steps, production of acetone cyanohydrin using the disclosed method, as well as an apparatus for producing alkyl esters of methacrylic acid and use thereof.
EFFECT: method increases output of acetone cyanohydrin.
19 cl, 8 dwg, 1 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mixing. Mixing reactor comprises rotary symmetric housing confined at front by face plate and including mixing chamber with separate inlets for, at least, two substances and one outlet. Note here that first substance inlet is made at mixing chamber shaft while second substance inlet is composed of multiple openings made in said face plate in symmetry about mixing chamber shaft. Note here that every opening is complemented with rod to be displaced along said shaft. Mixing reactor differs from known designs in that face plate has channels directed outward from first substance inlet in reactor shaft. Invention relates to production of isocyanate by phosgenation of primary amines whereat they are mixed with phosgene to react therewith in said reactor.
EFFECT: higher quality and rate of mixing of substances with notable different viscosities.
5 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method (versions) and apparatus for esterification of polyester in fused phase. Reaction medium is subjected to esterification in vertical elongated reactor. Reactor represents a tank with fluid inlet and, at least, two separate outlets, one for fluid reaction medium discharge and another one for bypass vapor discharge. Vapor discharge is arranged above fluid discharge while fluid inlet is arranged under fluid discharge. Esterification reactor allows heating reaction medium without mechanical mixing or with mechanical mixing of, at least, 50 percent of said reaction medium.
EFFECT: improved operating characteristics and flexibility compared to reactors with continuous mixing of prior art.
19 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of processing polyethylene terephthalate wastes. The method involves ethanolysis of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), in which material containing PET reacts with ethanol. Ethylene glycol and an aromatic diethyl ester, such as diethyl isophthalate and/or diethyl terephthalate, are separated. PET or a terpolymer containing a terephthalate monomer and ethylene glycol monomers react with ethanol and ethanol, diethyl terephthalate, ethylene glycol and optionally diethyl isophthalate are separated. The separated diethyl components can undergo liquid-phase oxidation to obtain an aromatic carboxylic acid. Acetic acid can also be obtained via liquid-phase oxidation of the separated diethyl components. Aromatic carboxylic acid can be used to obtain polymers. The invention also describes apparatus for processing polyethylene terephthalate wastes. The apparatus includes a reactor, a distillation column operating at atmospheric pressure and a vacuum distillation column.
EFFECT: high efficiency of the method.
29 cl, 1 dwg, 8 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: chemical or physical processes.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises unit with a mixing member, branch pipe for supplying gas phase, and outer circulation circuit that is composed of lines for polymer solution and vapors. The line for polymer solution is additionally provided with the unit with mixing member made of a blade mixer mounted on the shaft. The unit is hollow and defines the passage for supplying gas phase. The outer circuit of circulation may be additionally provided with a condenser mounted in the vapor line and condensate collector connected with the unit with the mixing member. The units with mixing members may be also provided with deflecting baffles mounted on the inner sides of the units with a spaced relation to the blade b = (0.3-3)hm, where hm is the height of the mixer blade. The deflecting baffles are mounted at an angle to the axis of the unit with the mixing member.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
3 cl, 2 dwg