Method of determination of wall maximum humification localization for analysis of protection against compound building wall excessive moistening

FIELD: measuring equipment.

SUBSTANCE: one measures the wall temperature, where the wall outside surface temperature is measured in the capacity of the wall temperature, the interior wall temperature and the temperature among the material layers that form the wall. One also measures the integral outside air temperature for the period with the negative average monthly temperature and the indoor temperature. After that, one draws the polygonal line of the temperature variation across the wall thickness. Afterwards, one compares the temperature value on the boundaries in each of the wall layers with the temperature in maximum humification localization for every wall material layer by virtue of the construction of a temperature curve diagram across the material layer thickness and the temperature graph in maximum humification localization across the material layer thickness. This graph is a horizontal line of a constant temperature across the wall thickness. And if the line of the temperature in maximum humification localization intercrosses the temperature variation across the wall thickness line, then one verifies that the maximum humification localization of the wall material layer passes against the wall through the crossing point of the above-mentioned lines. If there is no maximum humification localization in two neighbouring layers and, at the same time, the maximum humification line in wall material outer layer lies higher than temperature variation line in this layer, the line of the temperature in maximum humification localization in the inner layer lies below the temperature variation line in the inner layer, then one verifies that the wall maximum humification localization centres around the joint of the two layers of this wall. And if the maximum humification localization is not determined in accordance with the two above-stated versions, then one verifies that it is placed along the outer surface of the wall outer layer.

EFFECT: simplification of the analysis of protection against excessive moistening.

4 dwg



Same patents:

FIELD: instrumentation.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to prediction of final actual physical strength of concrete. This method comprises conductimetric measurement of specific electric resistance and temperature of mortars in their hardening in real time and evaluation of actual mechanical compression strength of preset type of concretes. The following process parameters are controlled: start of motor hardening and concrete specimen strength at 28-day age. Duration of measurements makes 100-125 min from mortar filling into container pickup till termination of hardening induction period. In said range parallel measurements of specific electric resistances of mortar specimens are performed for calibration and design minimum compositions. Correlation dependence between specific electric resistance and actual mechanical strength of concrete of preset type at design age is set. Results of analysis of variation in specific electric resistance in said range are used for control over of early hardening of said motor of preset concrete type to evaluate actual mechanical compression resistance of concrete.

EFFECT: higher quality of evaluation.

5 dwg, 6 tbl

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises the preliminary moistening of concrete sample and its subsequent heating, in which the thermal emission is carried out in case of discharging of 700 mm Hg and temperature of 80-300°C.

EFFECT: increase of the efficiency and acceleration of analysis.

1 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: study the interaction of fibreglass with cement stone within the specified time. Previously, the fibreglass is glued on the plastic plate, put into the mould to prepare cement samples and filled with cement slurry. Plastic plate with the glued fibreglass is put in such a way that the fibreglass is in contact with the cement slurry. After solidification the cement specimens are removed from the mould and the fibre is separated from the plate. Then, the fibre is investigated by means of X-ray spectrum analysis and electron microscopy. Method allows to determine the element composition, structure of interaction products of fibre with cement stone. Besides, the resistance of fibreglass compared with the diameter of fibreglass after test with the diameter of raw fibre is evaluated.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to compare the use of fibreglasses of various compositions as reinforcing materials.

7 dwg

FIELD: testing technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, in particular to determining the parameters of deformation of concrete under conditions of cyclic loading to a level not exceeding the tensile strength of concrete to compression Rb and extension Rbt. Essence: securing a test concrete sample in the form of a prism in the jaws of the test stand is carried out using a centring device which provides a central application of load during loading. The force and deformation of the prism in time is registered by using the dynamometer and the strain-gauge station. The multiple static or dynamic loading is performed by rotating and short-term changing the diameter of the axis in the place of junction of the lever and the compensating element.

EFFECT: simplification of the test method, expanding the functional capabilities of the experimental determination of the static-dynamic characteristics of concrete under conditions of cyclic loading, which consists in alternating application of static and dynamic loads on the sample.

4 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method is realised by fixation of an experimental concrete sample in the form of a prism in clamps of a test bench using an alignment device, providing for central application of stretching load in process of loading, and registration of a force and deformations of the sample in time using a dynamometer and a strain gauge station during loading executed via a lever system in two stages: at the first stage - stepped static loading of the sample to the specified level by means of laying of piece weights onto a load platform, at the second one - instant or stepped dynamic additional loading or unloading by means of short-term variation of the axis diameter in the point of force transfer from the lever to the compensating element, setting, if necessary, the value of movements in the elastic element.

EFFECT: simplified methodology and increased validity and reliability of test results.

5 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: test equipment.

SUBSTANCE: method relates to test methods of porous water-saturated bodies. It provides for production of a series of concrete specimens, saturation of specimens with water, measurement of specimens, determination of their initial volume, their frosting/defrosting to specified temperatures and recording of deformation. In addition, long-term strength limit of each specimen is determined by a non-destructive method under tension conditions. After defrosting, relative residual deformation of specimens is determined and energy dissipated in unit volume of each specimen is determined during its frosting/defrosting. Then, they are loaded under conditions of uniaxial compression to an extreme load meeting short-term strength limit; energy dissipated in unit volume of the specimen is determined during its compression to an extreme load, and as per the obtained results, grade is calculated as per freeze resistance of each specimen. Grade of concrete as to freeze resistance is determined as an arithmetic mean for grades of specimens.

EFFECT: increasing flexibility, reducing labour intensity and enlarging the number of hardware.

1 tbl

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: previously prepared samples with various quantity of a filler in a highly dispersed condition for a dry construction mix are placed into a hollow part of metal washers, placed on a metal plate, are compacted by any available method under permanent load of up to 5 MPa per 1 cm2 of sample surface for 10-15 seconds, then marks are applied on the surface of each sample in the form of drops of a solution of various concentration, wetting angles of samples are measured θ, a curve of dependence is built cosθ-1=f(1/σl), where σl - surface tension of the liquid, they determine the angle of inclination of this functional dependence a for each sample of different composition, the curve of dependence a is built on quantity of mix components, and by the point of break of the curve of dependence they define the optimal content of a modifier in the tested object.

EFFECT: reduced number of tests and higher accuracy of mixture composition selection.

2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: test equipment.

SUBSTANCE: at the first stage they determine process mode of manufacturing of ceramic items providing for required operability reserve. Using the produced operability reserve and knowing the suggested time, during which ceramic items must preserve strength parameters, they assess the permissible rated speed of produced reserves consumption. At the second stage, modelling conditions of real operation by means of reproduction of accelerated cyclic variations of temperature with simultaneous impact of possible mechanical factors, they determine actual speed of consumption of the same reserves. Received results of rated permissible speed and actual speed produced for imitation of operation conditions are compared, and results are produced, making it possible to judge on ceramic items.

EFFECT: possibility to determine durability of ceramic items with regard to certain conditions of use.

3 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of tests of cement plastering compounds for tensile strength under static loading. Substance: the value of the limit tensile strength is defined by testing steel beams with applied plastering compound according to the scheme of the double-point bend with smooth loading by small steps and fixation of the loading step corresponding to the moment of cracking, and the value of the limit tensile strength is calculated using the formula.

EFFECT: simplified technology for testing, exclusion of the necessity to apply strain metering facilities, higher accuracy of detection of limit tensile strength and completion of tests on plaster layers with specifically small thickness from several mm to 2-3 cm.

1 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method involves measurement of hardening concrete temperature at given time moments and calculation of concrete strength over three days for hardening in standard conditions by the formula: where R, % is concrete strength gained in time τ, days, Kt is temperature factor depending on concrete hardening temperature and three-day strength.

EFFECT: reduced labour consumption of monitoring.

1 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the quantitative and qualitative measurement of water as shown by an inner sphere of complex compounds (CCs) and can find application in coordination chemistry and pharmacy. What is presented is a method for measuring water in the solid CC, wherein water molecules in the inner sphere of the solid CC are identified by a sample dehydration temperature of 150-165°C on thermal curves - thermograms drawn within the temperature range of 20-1,000°C at a sample heating rate of 10 degrees/min, as well as by hydroxocomplex formation as a result of the alkalimetric titration of the CC solutions pre-dehydrated at a temperature of 120°C for 8 hours by detecting an endpoint respective to pH within the range of 4.87-4.95 on the differential titration curve; further, the quantitative content of water in the inner sphere of the solid CC is determined for the solid CC samples dehydrated by drying up at a temperature of 120°C for 8 hours as shown by specific areas of the thermogravigrams in the graphic system "Quantity of Removed Water, mmole - Dehydratation Temperature, °C".

EFFECT: achieving the higher information value and reliability, as well as simplifying the analysis.

5 tbl, 11 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of determining moisture capacity of solid hygroscopic objects includes placement of analysed objects into a hermetic container and drying until the objects are completely dehydrated. The method also includes measurement of temperature and humidity of an internal medium in the container and final determination of mathematical and graphic dependences of the object water content on equilibrium moisture of the internal medium. In the process of storing objects in the hermetic container drying to complete dehydration of objects is performed by successive introduction of samples of adsorbents and their weighing before placement into the hermetic container and after removal from it until a stable weight of the next sample of the adsorbent is set. After that, into an evaporator, mounted inside the hermetic container, portions of distilled water are successively introduced, and the hermetic container is kept under stationary temperature conditions until equilibrium humidity is set in the hermetic container with mounted in it temperature and humidity sensor. After that, the measured parameters of humidity and weight of portions of introduced distilled water are used to build a graph of dependence of the total moisture content in the analysed objects on equilibrium humidity of the internal medium of the hermetic container with mathematical determination of a value of the total moisture capacity of the analysed objects by known dependences and its dependence on equilibrium humidity in the hermetic container.

EFFECT: elaboration of the method of determining moisture capacity of solid hygroscopic objects, which makes it possible to determine the total moisture capacity of a group of hygroscopic objects.

4 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: device of automated control of multisupporting irrigation machine of front action for precision irrigation comprises pipelines of right and left wings of the machine, mounted on trolleys with electric drive, unit of motion synchronisation with the course with a guide rope and a speed control unit of the machine motion. Along the irrigation channel a contact network is mounted on racks, which interacts with the current collector, which, through the telescopic mechanism is fixed to the trolley moving along the opposite side of the irrigation channel. The output of the current collector is connected to the input of the control panel, which output is connected to the input of the counter of electrical energy, which outputs are connected to the inputs of the microprocessor control unit and the frequency inverter. The inputs of the microprocessor control unit are connected to a timer, a system of course stabilisation, a synchronisation system of trolleys in line, sensors of path, setter of irrigation rate, setter of length of irrigation site, water metre and a pressure gauge mounted on the pipeline, and the outputs of the microprocessor control unit are connected to electric hydraulic shutter, frequency inverter, contactor, devices of trolley synchronising in line and the devices of stabilisation of the course of left and right wings, through a vacuum pump with a pump inlet, which outlet through the electric hydraulic shutter and the flow metre is connected to the pipeline. The microprocessor control unit is connected to the input-output of the interface device. The signal from the output of the frequency inverter is supplied to the electric drive of the left and right-wing of the machine, and the contactor output is connected through the electric motor to the pump inlet. The signal obtained from the humidity gauges mounted on the irrigated area of the field, enters to the irrigation control system through the GLONASS satellite, the signal from the irrigation control system through the GLONASS satellite is transmitted to the input-output of the GLONASS-receiver which output through the unit of signal analysis is connected to the microprocessor control unit, which output is connected to the GLONASS-receiver. The input-output of the microprocessor control unit is electrically connected to a sensor screen, and the output of the frequency inverter is connected to the input of the contactor. The output of the signal analysis unit is connected to the inputs of the irrigation control unit, which outputs are at the extreme driving support trolleys are connected to the input of the device of the course stabilisation and on the intermediate support trolleys are connected to the input of the device of the trolley synchronisation in line, of both right and left wings of the machine.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of irrigation water, fertilisers, electricity, elimination of insufficient irrigation and excessive irrigation.

3 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of measurement of gas moisture content. The method consists in the fact that gas is exposed to compression in a closed measurement chamber, in which an equal-arm yoke is installed, equipped with a measuring float and a counterweight, until pressure, at which gas density becomes equal to density of the measurement float, which is determined by float surfacing and horizontal position of the yoke, the values of temperature and pressure are recorded in the closed measurement chamber at the moment of float surfacing, and using the measured values, they determine the value of moisture content of the investigated gas according to the following ratios: d(g/kg dry air)=[msteam (g)]÷[mdry×10-3 (kg)]=(A×E)÷{[mfloat÷(Plab+ΔPexc)]-(A×E)×10-3} (l), where A=(ρsteam×103)÷(ρdrysteam)=1638.8 - constant (2) ρsteam - water steam density, ρsteam=0.803 g/litre ρdry - dry air density, ρdry=1.293 g/litre E={[ρdry×Vfloat×T0]÷[P0×(T0+tlab)]-mfloat÷(Plab+ΔPexc)} (3), where Vfloat - volume of the float (in litres), mfloat - weight of the float with account of counterweight (in g), T0=273°C, tlab - temperature of the investigated air, °C, P0 - normal atmospheric pressure, P0=760 mm of mercury column, Plab - pressure in the laboratory, mm of mercury column, ΔPexc - value of excessive pressure ΔPexc=(Pchamber-Plab), mm of mercury column. Pchamber - pressure in the measurement chamber at the moment of float surfacing, mm of mercury column.

EFFECT: reduced operating costs and higher safety of measurements.

FIELD: instrumentation.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in filling measuring vessel of known volume with dry air and weighing it. Then, measuring vessel is filled with air and weighed to record air temperature and pressure using measured magnitudes. Then, air moisture content d is defined by the formula: g/kg dry, where m1 is the weight of measuring vessel with dry air, g; m2 is the weight of measuring vessel with analysed air, g; V is measuring vessel volume, liter; Pap is analysed air barometric pressure, mm Hg; Tat is analysed air temperature, °C; gn is specific weight of steam, g/l (gn = 0.803 g/l); gc is specific weight of dry air, g/l (gc= 1.2928 g/l); P0 is normal pressure, mm Hg (P0=760 mm Hg); T0 is normal temperature °C(T0=273°C).

EFFECT: lower costs, higher precision and reliability.

1 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: in the method to measure relative air humidity based on measurement of difference of oscillation frequencies of resonators - a working and a reference ones with subsequent amplification of an analytic signal and regeneration of film coatings with an inert gas, three piezoquartz resonators are used with internal oscillation frequencies of 13-16 MHz, two of which are working ones with different hydrophilic coatings, properties of which are optimised for operation in a certain range of temperatures, and one is a reference resonator without a film coating, which supports the permanent frequency of oscillations, at the same time the device is equipped with a switch of working resonators.

EFFECT: measurement of relative air humidity in a wide range of temperatures, also in the negative range, higher accuracy of measurements, reduced time of regeneration of film coatings of resonator electrodes.

2 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: portion of controlled fluid is supplied to reservoir 1 through flow control 10 and inlet nozzle 2, which is heated by vapour generation of non-dissolved water. Acoustic waves occur at breakage of the cover with vapour, which are converted by means of acoustic receiver 5 to electric signals, which are supplied through amplifier 7 and counter 8 to indicator 11. Timer 9 controls counter 8 and flow control 10. Reservoir 1 is closed with cover plate 4, inside which cone insert 6 is located.

EFFECT: simpler design and higher measurement accuracy.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves three main stages: sampling of fixed volume of oil product sample the temperature of which is measured; then, fixed chemical reagent volume is added to sample (sulphuric acid) and sample temperature change is measured; level of product water content is determined. First, relationship between oil product water content level and fixed oil product volume temperature increment level is determined at its interaction with fixed chemical reagent volume and calibration charts are built for further determination of oil product water content. Sulphuric acid is used as chemical reagent.

EFFECT: possibility of high-accuracy determination of oil product water content due to recording the parameters determining the oil product water content level; simplifying the set of devices required for implementation of the method.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus for measuring concentration of dropping liquid in a gas stream has a filter unit with a sampling probe. The apparatus also has a gas collection nozzle with a flow regulator and a guide cylinder. The apparatus also has gas metre with a manometer and a thermometer. The apparatus is also fitted with a manual gear-rope drive with a spring-loaded position regulator for the filter unit with the probe and a linear scale on the guide cylinder. The apparatus also has a display for displaying the current gas flow rate and a set of removable probes with a different inner dimension.

EFFECT: high measurement accuracy owing to ensuring isokinetic collection of gas samples and wide range of using the apparatus depending on pressure in the gas pipeline.

1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: amount of liquid which can be absorbed by leather fabric is determined in from moisture content at the moment of shrinkage of samples when joining together in percentages. The difference in moisture content and total volume of the liquid located between molecules and in fibrils is then calculated.

EFFECT: establishing moisture distribution on skin structural levels.

1 dwg, 5 tbl, 9 ex

FIELD: measurement technology.

SUBSTANCE: electric insulating base, electric insulating substrate onto which moisture-sensitive coating is applied on the base of gelatin which has its external layer tanned, two plated electrodes which have contact surface to contact with moisture-sensitive coating on base of gelatin and measuring device connected to outputs of plated electrodes. Two clamping units are introduced into the device additionally. Any clamping unit intends for creating permanent pressure of corresponding plated electrode onto working surface of moisture-sensitive coating on base of gelatin. Layer of gelatin coating has uniform thickness. Contact surface of plated electrodes adjacent the moisture-sensitive gelatin-based coating is made to be oxidized and flat.

EFFECT: prolonged service life; higher stability of operation; increased moisture resistance.

5 cl, 1 dwg