Method for producing moulded solid fuel
SUBSTANCE: invention describes a method for producing moulded solid fuel, comprising: a pulverization stage for pulverizing low-grade coal; a stirring stage for mixing the pulverized low-grade coal and the oil solvent to form a slurry; a dewatering stage for heating and dewatering the slurry to form an anhydrous slurry; a stage for separating solid and liquid phases to separate the oil solvent from the dehydrated slurry to form a precipitate; a drying stage for heating the precipitate to further separate the oil solvent from the precipitate to produce powdered coal of enhanced quality; and a moulding stage for compression moulding the powdered coal of improved quality by means of a moulding device without adding and/or mixing with a bonding material, in which at the stage of forming the moulding device on the surface, a cooling substance is pulverized to cool the surface and thus the surface temperature of the moulding device is maintained at 100°C or below.
EFFECT: producing moulded solid fuel from low-grade coal, having high strength.
6 cl, 4 ex, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of obtaining high-quality coke by application of borate on red-hot coke after discharge from coke furnaces with temperature 1050±50°C, with its extinguishing being carried out with water solution of borates with content of borates 3-10 g/dm3 in form of solution or pulp in quencher car under quenching tower for 90-120 sec, with tetraborate sodium pentahydrate, borax decahydrate, disodium octaborate tetrahydrate being used as borates.
EFFECT: increased quality of blast furnace coke by parameter of hot strength after reaction with CO2 and reduction of its reaction ability.
1 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of preparation of free-burning coal with the content of volatile substances not exceeding 16% whereat the said coal is heated to 200-395°C to destruct heat-sensitive coal lumps to be cooled and classified thereafter. Anthracite and/or hard coal are used as the free-burning coal. Heated coal is cooled at an ambient temperature.
EFFECT: stabilised grain size, simplified process, higher calorific value.
5 cl, 1 dwg, 4 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to microwave-gradient activation of coal fuel with the help of protective coat. This is performed by bringing microwave effects to coal fuel to activate coal particle. Note here that coal lump surface is coated with protective film to arrest the escape of volatiles during the microwave activation. Note here that pressure inside coal lump is over 10 atm and does not factures nor crack in the film. Protective film availability allows arresting the escape of volatiles and to sustain temperature approximating to 700°C without film fracture and crack formation.
EFFECT: higher completeness of combustion, lower rate of boiler inner surface slagging.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of activating coal particles in a vertical axially symmetrical annular chamber by batchwise loading of the area under the hearth with size-fractioned particles, heating, removing moisture and volatile substances, as well as cooling with organised ascending-descending annular circulatory movement of particles with heated and cooled flue gases and steam, fed from the side of the roof cover by axial vertically descending streams, removal during activation and release into the furnace of a heat-producing apparatus of gaseous activation products, batchwise unloading of activated cooled particles from the area under the hearth, characterised by that circulation of particles in the ascending-descending annular stream is carried out by axial vertically descending streams of heated flue gases at the first, then a mixture of heated flue gases and steam and at the end cooled flue gases, fed into the annular chamber. The volume of the loaded portions of coal particles Vy=(0.1-0.7)VK the volume of the annular chamber, m3; the speed of the medium in the ascending branch of the circulation annular stream wn=(0.1-0.6)w0 the speed of the axial vertically descending stream of flue gases and steam, m/s; and content of oxygen in the fed axial vertically descending streams maintained at O2=(0.04-0.16).
EFFECT: maximum removal of volatile substances from coal particles with minimum burning of coke residue, providing maximum sorption activity of the obtained product.
1 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to recycling wood-plant wastes and peat and can be used in producing ecologically clean biofuels in form of active briquettes and granules (pellets) for industrial and domestic needs. The solid biofuel based on wood-plant components and/or peat additionally contains a combustion catalyst, with the following ratio of components, wt %: combustion catalyst 0.001-10; crushed wood-plant component and/or peat 100. The wood-plant components used are wood shavings, wood chips, bark, straw, chaff, seed husks, mill cake, stalks and leaves, waste paper, and the combustion catalyst is in form of inorganic derivatives of group I-II and VI-VIII metals.
EFFECT: obtaining ecologically clean biofuel.
3 cl, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: apparatus for cleaning solid fuel, for example coal, has: an input apparatus for obtaining data on the initial sample of solid fuel associated with one or more characteristics thereof; an apparatus for comparing said data with the required characteristic of the solid fuel and determining the difference; at least one sensor for monitoring pollutants released when processing solid fuel; an apparatus for controlling processing in accordance with a feedback signal received from at least one sensor; a multilayer conveyor belt for moving the solid fuel which is configured to transmit the main part of microwave energy. The first layer of the belt is wear-resistant and the second layer has high heat-resistance. Characteristics of the solid fuel are: moisture, ash and sulphur content or the type of the solid fuel. Pollutants are water, hydrogen, hydrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide gas, liquid sulphur, ash.
EFFECT: controlling solid fuel processing.
21 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in microwave gradient activation of coal in high-gradient microwave field in velocity control mode of microwave field rise. Boundaries of coal lump are arranged in zones of zero or close-to-zero intensities of microwave field. Activation is performed till deep cracks appear in coal lump, which do not lead to its complete destruction. End of activation process stage is appearance of persistent flame of activation volatile hydrocarbons.
EFFECT: quick and effective heating of coals; improving energy use efficiency for coal heating; processing of compound hydrocarbons to easier and more volatile hydrocarbons deep in coal lump prior to the combustion beginning; possibility of controlling the modes of power pumping to various forms of activated volumes of coal, which allows implementing various modes of action on coal.
2 cl, 2 ex, 2 tbl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: ordinary solid fuel for concentration is obtained; one or several characteristics of ordinary solid fuel selected from following: moisture content (BTU/pound), ash content (%,) total sulphur content (%), content of different sulphur forms (%), content of volatile materials (%), content of bound carbon (%), Hardgrove grindabillity index, mass content of trace minerals and reaction of fuel and its components to electromagnetic radiation are measured; the characteristics of the fuel expectable from solid fuel after its concentration are determined. Relying on desired moisture content in solid fuel at least one working parametre of the system and one configuration parametre leading to obtaining of solid concentrated fuel with desired moisture content are selected; the solid fuel is concentrated by the way of its electromagnetic radiation in accordance with at least one aforementioned parametre; the selected parametre is modified in response to data of moisture content in solid fuel during concentration.
EFFECT: obtaining of new family of solid-fuel custom coals being absent in nature.
17 cl, 16 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns method of coal demineralisation. Method includes stages of coal particles suspension receiving in alkaline solution, suspension holding at the temperature from 150 till 250°C at pressure which is enough for boiling avoidance, suspension separation for alkalified coal and spent alkaline leaching agent, receiving of acidified suspension of alkalified coal, acidified suspension is of pH 0.5-1.5, separation of acidified suspension for fraction, containing coal, and essentially liquid fraction, implementation for fraction containing coal washing stage, during which fraction containing coal is mixed with water and polar organic vehicle or with water and organic acid, with mixture formation. Received mixture is heated till temperature from 150 till 280°C at pressure enough for boiling avoidance. Then it is implemented coal extraction from mixture.
EFFECT: demineralised coal allows reduced content of ashes - till 0.01-0.2% wt, and can be used as fuel for gas turbine.
50 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: domestic cookers to be used in tourism, hunting, in homes and working under field conditions.
SUBSTANCE: proposed cooker has body made from combustible material which may be used both as fuel and device for its burning. This body is provided with at least two intersecting vertical slotted passages having common line of intersection inside body which is close to center of its upper base. Length, width and height of vertical slotted passages is dictated by possibility of continuous burning of inner surfaces of body forming vertical slotted passages; burning-out of device accompanied by forming of supports for cooking reservoir.
EFFECT: simplified construction; reduced consumption of labor; avoidance of preparation of fuel.
5 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: wood working industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of deep processing of wood sawdust and leaves without chemical cementing components, characterized by that they are sieved for removal of large-size elements, loaded into a dryer for decrease of humidity down to 10%, crushed until obtaining of a mix of particles with the size less than 15 mm and the volume no more than 0.5-1.0 cm3, formed, pressed at the pressure 120-140 kg/cm2 and the temperature 250-350°C without air access. The invention describes also the briquette obtained by the named method.
EFFECT: obtaining robust briquettes from wood sawdust and leaves, without using the chemical cementing components.
5 cl, 8 ex
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to usage of an extrusion-type briquette (BREX) produced by the method of stiff vacuum extrusion, including coal dressing wastes and, if required, coal siftings, a mineral binder and a concrete stone, as fuel for industrial furnaces and domestic ovens. BREX briquettes are characterised by the fact that size of materials included into a mixture for production of briquettes does not exceed 5 mm.
EFFECT: application of stiff vacuum extrusion makes it possible to produce BREX briquettes with sufficient strength and optimal dimensions for solid fuel, with minimum consumption of a binder.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the method for obtaining briquetted solid fuel, which can reduce the cost of briquetting at maintaining the strength of briquetted product. Mixed oil that contains heavy oil and oil-solvent, and porous coal having moisture content of 30 to 70 wt %, is mixed so that a suspension is obtained. Suspension is dehydrated by heating so that dehydrated suspension is obtained. Oil-solvent is extracted from dehydrated suspension so that the residue is obtained. The residue is heated, and oil-solvent is extracted in addition from the residue so that modified coal is obtained. Moisture is introduced to modified coal so that wet modified coal with moisture content of 3-10 wt % is obtained. At the stage of moisture introduction, crushed porous coal with moisture content of 30 to 70 wt % is mixed with modified coal. Then, wet modified coal is briquetted under pressure.
EFFECT: reduction of briquetting cost at maintaining the briquette strength.
2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method of recycling solid domestic wastes (SDW) into fuel for furnaces of high-temperature synthesis of a cement clinker, including sorting of initial SDW so that at first such incombustible fractions such as batteries, stones, fragments of glass and faience, then secondary materials are extracted, including ferrous and non-ferrous metals. The remaining mass is previously ground to the fraction of 50-100 mm, dried to humidity of 5-10%, and then ground to the fraction of 8-10 mm. The ground raw materials are heated to 160-200°C and exposed to thermoplastic extrusion to produce fuel pellets.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase physical and mechanical strength of RDF fuel, to eliminate water absorption due to capsulation of granules in process of their manufacturing, to prevent possibility of rotting and self-ignition, to reduce costs during storage and transportation, to reduce energy intensity of its production, to improve environment, also to reduce volume of SDW removed to SDW landfills, to eliminate capital costs for construction of plants for wastes management in connection with usage of equipment of existing cement production facilities.
1 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: technological processes; metallurgy.
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used for recycling of chemical-recovery production wastes. Coal sludges are loaded in molds 1 of transporter 2 and supplied to furnace 3, where they are thermally treated. Briquetting is done without binding agent, and thermal treatment is carried out at the temperature of 330-390 °C for 120-40 minutes.
EFFECT: reduction of prime cost and increase of briquettes mechanical strength.
1 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of production of hard fuel of organic origin, namely, to formation of agglomerated fuel from wastes of carbon-containing materials. The method includes mechanical action on raw material with gradual increase in loading and its volume compression. During mechanical action raw material is grinded until viscous-plastic state is obtained. The device includes loading bin, cylinder-cone frame, auger shaft with transporting and pressing blades and has longitudinal protrusions located along the frame on its inner surface and a row of dies, each of being fixed in the frame at a distance from each other, with an auger shaft passed through the central holes of the latter.
EFFECT: increase in degree of fuel plasticity and strength whatever the original raw material without any hardening agents and additives and higher productivity of device.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method and system for briquetting powder materials, for instance, moisture-containing, bituminous and semi-bituminous coals, without using binding agent. Method (versions) includes stages, at which powder material, probably, is partly dried, and supplied into briquetting device in conditions, when condensed gas is introduced into briquetting device at the time of supply or in conditions, when water vapour is released from powder material during supply. Briquettes are formed in briquetting section of briquetting device, where briquettes are formed from powder material in conditions that lead to condensation of gas component, reducing in that way, pressure growth during briquette formation. Invention also includes system (versions) for briquetting powder materials according to two methods stated above.
EFFECT: reduction of gas inrush during formation of coal dust into briquette.
52 cl, 1 tbl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of recycling solid residue of tyre pyrolysis, which includes enrichment of solid fuel by method of oil agglomeration. As solid fuel used is solid carbon residue of tyre pyrolysis with initial ash content 11.40-11.66%, sulphur content 1.2 wt %, preliminarily crushed to particle coarseness 0.1 mm, with liquid fraction of pyrolysis being used as reagent for enrichment in amount 4.0-6.0% to weight of water, used for enrichment, after which granulation of obtained concentrate and application of water-resistant smell-absorbing coating from petroleum products on the surface of granules.
EFFECT: obtaining moulded fuel from solid residue of automobile tyre pyrolysis with low ash content and sulphur content.
4 tbl, 3 ex