Separating load-gripping mechanism of convergent type of movement
FIELD: wood processing industry.
SUBSTANCE: separating load-gripping mechanism of the ascending type of motion includes a ballistic-type load-holding mechanism, held by an aerostat, which is divided into two working units by means of four side winches for processing a vertically standing tree. The separating load-gripping mechanism comprises a ball-retaining upper and lower independent ball elements retained by the balloon at the edge of which the gripping and shearing mechanisms are disposed. Each of the beam elements is held on a balloon by two personal electric cargo ropes and acts as a manipulator, the frontal guidance of which on the tree trunk is performed due to the balloon displacement by means of a ground winch and pull-pull ropes. At the point of guidance, both beam elements are parallel to each other and perpendicular to the tree trunk.
EFFECT: work is carried out related to pruning branches and branches from vertically standing trees, keeping the trunk at its cut and taking it out of the forest canopy and moving it with a balloon to the unloading point.
5 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to forestry and can be used for planning events for landscaping urban areas. The method comprises making a catalogue of tree species of the surveyed urban settlement with known environmental conditions and the corresponding area of the reference site. The measurements are performed by technical means: a digital camera; a digital videospectrometer; an altimeter; a counter of set of parameters that determine the amount of oxygen-producing biomass of each species of plants: cross-sectional area of the crown S, m2; the density of the crown as average weighted spatial frequency Fav [1/m] of function of the signal of its image I (x, y), colourity of the crown as the average weighted wavelength χav [nm] of spectral brightness coefficient, the average height h [m] of plantations of this species relative to the number of healthy Ni trees to their total number N of this species, the rating of the measured parameters relating to their values for the reference sites, ranking the indicators in descending order of their importance in the volume of the producing phytomass, calculation of function of ranking score Ri as average weighted sum of the relative indicators of each type of the species: where: ω1, ω2, ω3, ω4, ω5 are weight coefficients of significance, making of the final table of rankings the types of species.
EFFECT: method enables to ensure the resistance of urban landscaping to technogenic loads.
4 dwg, 3 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technologies of forestry and logging industry. The method comprises measuring the length and diameters of the trunks in the bark along the length of the trunks and in butt sections. 100 trees non-doted in shape are taken, in which the length of the trunks is measured, as well as the diameters in the bark in the butt, the trunk diameters in the bark starting from the butt sections to the tops of the trees, and the trunk diameters at half the length of the trunk. According to the results of all measurements the relative lengths (h/H) and the relative diameters of the trunks in the bark corresponding to them are determined. On the aggregate of the data obtained the absolute dimensions of tree trunks are determined. Taking into account the coefficients on the bark and technological diameter of the trunk the variable diameters of the trunks without bark are determined at breast height, followed by determining the variable cross-sectional area of trunks without bark on the trunk length and the volume of tree trunks without bark.
EFFECT: technology enables to improve the accuracy of determining the technological dimensions of trees and timber volume.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of engineering biology and bioindication of environment. The method comprises taking leaves from the accounting trees. And for measurement each leaf is placed in front with the side facing the top of the shoot. From each leaf from the left and right sides the parameters of the width of left and right halves of the leaf are measured, mm, the length of the nerve of the second order, the second leaf from the bottom, mm, the distance between the bases of the first and the second nerves of the second order, mm, the distance between the ends of these nerves, mm, the angle between the main nerve and the second from the leaf base with the nerve of the second order, degrees. The accounting trees are taken at least three birches, from each birch at least five leaves of different sizes are taken from the side of each local evaluated area, and all at least 15 leaves are taken as the population of separate independent individuals. Next, a table of all the measurements is made without their averaging, the resulting sample is subjected by statistical modelling to factor analysis by detection of binary relations between the 10 factors, and all 100 biotechnical regularities are identified in the software environment by the formula of the form: where y is component or dependent quantitative factor (10 parameters on five indicators from two halves of the leaf); x is explanatory variable or influencing factor (the same 10 parameters on each leaf); a1-a8 are the model parameters obtained by identification on specific measurement data.
EFFECT: method enables to improve the accuracy of indication of the local environment quality surrounding the birch leaves, as well as to simplify and improve the performance of measurements of the parameters of the leaves.
4 cl, 23 dwg, 8 tbl
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to engineering biology and comparative environmental bioindication. The method involves collecting leaves from registered birch trees and measurements of each leaf collected. During measurement, each leaf is placed with the side turned towards the spring top. For measurement, a calliper compass and a ruler are used. Leaves are sampled from each birch from at least two birch groves growing under conditions different in terms of air pollution with hanging shortened springs orientation by cardinal point with the help of a compass. The width of sample leaves collected is measured on the left and on the right with leaf halves. One additionally measures (to the left and to the right from the leaf halves) the length of the second order vein which is the second from the base. Then statistic modelling is performed based on the measurement data. Comparative indication of the ecological condition of the environment round the birch groves is performed based on the obtained statistical indicators.
EFFECT: technology allows to increase measurement accuracy for quality evaluation of ambient air pollution.
5 cl, 13 tbl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental monitoring of areas with grass cover. The method comprises allocation on the small river or its tributary visually on the map or in-situ of the site of floodplain meadow with grass cover. The marking on the allocated site along the flow of the small river or its tributary is carried out in characteristic places of at least three cross-sections in the transverse direction. The marking along each cross-section is carried out of at least three test sites on each side of the small river or its tributary. On each test site a frame is placed with the inner sides of least 0.50×0.50 m. Then, flush with the surface of the soil the aerial parts of certain plants or their portions are cut in the form of several plants of the same species present at the test site. Then, the cut portions of the plants are laid in separate piles on the species of grass. After cutting all the blades of grass from all the test site the piles of grass are immediately weighed on a portable scale. After weighing the piles of grass are thrown away. Weighting procedure with throwing the weighted plants is repeated at each test site on the allocated area. Then the total weight of freshly cut grass is calculated by species of grass. At each separate test site the weight of the sample of the freshly cut grass is calculated as the sum of the weights of separate piles by species of grass. The total weight of the plant species is calculated as the sum of all the piles of cut grass on species from all test sites. Then, on the certain species of plants for all test sites the rank scale of the grass species is made on the freshly cut mass. The ranks are arranged with increase in the total weight on the site. Assessment of the species composition of the grass cover is carried out by statistical modelling by identifying the mathematical models of mass change of cut grass on the site and on a separate test site depending on the rank of species of grass and herbaceous plants.
EFFECT: technology enables to increase the accuracy of accounting of the presence of species of grass and herbaceous plants, with simultaneous simplifying the evaluation process of species composition.
8 tbl, 3 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to engineering biology and environment indication. The method comprises selection of accounting birch trees. On each accounting tree relative to the cardinal points on the lower part of the crown the test branches are selected with leaf fluctuating asymmetry. Along the perimeter of the birch forest at least 10 accounting birch trees are selected. Then, on each accounting tree on the four cardinal points the selected test branches with leaf fluctuating asymmetry are marked by label. The height from the point of the label location to the soil surface is measured, and the distance from the label location to the boundaries of birch forest is measured. Additionally, the distance from the boundary of the birch forest to the trunk of each accounting birch is measured. The circumference of the trunk of accounting birch is measured. Further, according to the results of the measurements obtained, the statistical modelling is carried out with the definition of the correlation coefficient of the obtained statistical models on the measured parameters. According to the correlation coefficient the ecological assessment of the status of the territory is carried out.
EFFECT: technology enables to expand the functional capabilities of assessment of the ecological state of the territory through the use of proxy indicators, as well as to improve the accuracy of indication of the quality of the local environment surrounding the birch leaves.
3 cl, 11 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: woodworking industry.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises a breakdown of plantations to sites, forming the technology corridors. The breakdown of plantations is carried out to sites geometrically equal to the work area of the timber harvesting machine for selection cutting of trees on the bands on both sides of the technological corridors. Determining of trees intended for cutting is carried out in automated manner in real-time by obtaining stereoscopic image of the area from the stereo-pair of cameras mounted on the timber harvesting machine. First, the number of trees in the work area of the timber harvesting machine is determined by analysing a stereoscopic image of the space in front of the timber harvesting machine by the method of stereoscopic parallax. Then, the calculation of taxation indices is carried out - the diameter, shape coefficient and the height of the trunk of each tree in the timber harvesting machine work area. Then by the solver based on fuzzy logic based on the data obtained the trees are detected in the timber harvesting machine work area for probable destination for cutting. The tree having maximum probability of destination for cutting is displayed on the operator's monitor of the timber harvesting machine.
EFFECT: enhanced functional capabilities and reduction of complexity of the process of selecting trees for cutting.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to forestry and can be used for clearing the area of new felling for forest cultures. The method comprises raking forest residues with a working body of the pick-up, moving them to the place of burning or shipment and/or processing into fuel chips, while moving the pick-up raking the forest residues the aerial parts of stumps in its path of movement is ground into chips, mixing it together with forest residues.
EFFECT: method provides improvement of performance of works on clearing the felling area, reduction of energy costs for their implementation, improvement of quality of preparing the felling area for forest restoration, reduction of the degree of destruction of topsoil.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of logging and can be used in shortwood logging and procuring fire wood chips. The method of carrying out logging operations by multiple-function logging machine consisting of a self-propelled chassis with a manipulator mounted on it with a harvester head, a feeder of forest residues, a grinding device, a body-collector and a wood chip-duct, comprising cutting tree, delimbing, crosscut on assortments, feeding the forest residues to the grinding device, grinding the forest residues into chips and its concentration in the body-collector. Simultaneously with delimbing and crosscut on assortments the forest residues are accumulated on the collector of forest residues in front of the grinding device, then they are fed for grinding in two stages. The first stage comprises overturning a pack of the forest residues toward the grinding device, and the second - forced feeding it for grinding to the grinder.
EFFECT: invention enables to reduce the cost of time and energy to collection and feeding of forest residues to the grinding device.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises collection of firewood and felling residues, loading them on vehicles, transportation on roads and unloading at boiler facility. Firewood and felling residues are loaded on the vehicle in layers. The first layer is formed, creating a solid flooring of firewood, and then a layer of felling residues is loaded on it. The further loading is performed by alternating layers of firewood and felling residues.
EFFECT: method enables to simplify the process of removing the firewood and felling residues, to reduce the relative consumption of energy and time for transportation of felling residues, to increase the trip load.
FIELD: timber industry, forestry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to manipulator-type loggers, namely, to their slewing circles. In proposed slewing circuit with inclined design leveling device turntable is mounted on frame of self-propelled chassis for tilting forward and backward under action of hydraulic cylinders which are installed in X-like manner, viewing from side, and are hinge-connected to leveling device. Front and rear surfaces of leveling device in contact with frame are made to the same radius of turning as inner surfaces of frame. Stops are rigidly installed on upper surface of frame before and after leveling device. Rear surface of front stop and front surface of rear stop form angles of 90o plus angle of tilting of leveling device with upper horizontal surface of frame. Proposed design of slewing circle makes it possible to tilt turntable forward and backward, and X-shape arrangement of hydraulic cylinders provides reduction of height of device and contact of leveling device and frame over surface improves reliability.
EFFECT: reduced height of device, improved reliability in operation.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: forestry, in particular, ecological monitoring of territories with young plants and underbrush, in particular, evaluation of ecological consequences of environment pollution.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing penetration into wood of young tree and vegetative parts thereof or young branches and tree roots by means of spring-loaded rod with flat end surface by repeatedly applying permanent force thereto; upon each action in the form of strike, measuring increase in depth of penetration of rod; judging properties of woody plant by number of strikes sufficient for penetration of rod to predetermined depth. Tests are performed during growing period and properties of woody plant are evaluated on the basis of set of measurements taken in the course of season growing and development of woody plant. Method may be used for process monitoring in the course of growth and development of forest plantations.
EFFECT: simplified testing of wood of woody plant during growing period under field conditions.
5 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: agriculture and forestry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves creating system of drain regulating forest strips from first row of undersized brushes and 2-3 rows of trees on water catchment area (slope); forming forest strips of combined structure: in lower part of up to 0.3-0.5 m of dense structure, in middle part of from 0.3-0.5 m up to 2 m of blow-through structure, and in upper part above 2 m of openwork or dense structure.
EFFECT: increased efficiency by providing regulated snow deposition, prevention of soil from freezing-through, increased snow stocking in field, improved water-permeability of soil and reduced drainage and erosion.
1 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: forestry, in particular, planting material for creating forest crops of foliate kinds of plants in remote areas with the use of aircrafts.
SUBSTANCE: planting materials are woody cuttings with several internodes. Cuttings have upper horizontal cut above bud and lower cut formed over internode, at acute angle thereto. Tape of fabric is attached to upper end of cutting and weight is attached to lower end of cutting.
EFFECT: reduced labor intensity for performing of reclamation works due to reduced number of operation for preparing of planting material for planting, and improved survival of cuttings.
1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting light stocking and bunching bundles; skidding said bundles onto floating base by means of cable, with bush cutter continuously moving and upper pulley being mounted on bush cutter and winch being positioned on floating base. Cutting and bunching procedures are provided while floating base continuously moves.
EFFECT: improved quality of cleaning of basin beds, increased efficiency and reduced expenses for performing such works.
FIELD: forestry, in particular, methods used on forest stock plots of forest lands in guard zones of aerial electric lines.
SUBSTANCE: method involves during laying out of novel aerial electric lines or clearing of cut-through of existing aerial electric lines, providing clearing works or forest isolating cut-through works on forest border adjoining thereto; carrying out reforming cuttings while changing spatial structure of plantations and enhancing suppressing effect of undergrowth to provide for inhibiting of growth of principal kinds of forest woods; organizing short-stemmed systems on borders adjoining to cut-through areas by cutting rotation, during which forest stand is felled at age not exceeding undergrowth rehabilitation maturity age. Because of short cutting rotations, forest in short-stemmed systems does not reach height hazardous for normal employment of aerial electric lines.
EFFECT: increased efficiency by eliminating probability of falling trees onto aerial electric line wires in forests of any kind with minimal allowable width of cut-through.
FIELD: nature and forest management, ecology monitoring and environment protection by sequential controlling of changes in shape of stem base part of growing tree.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing lengthwise and crosswise measurement of trunk in sections by means of flexible measuring tape; measuring perimeter of trunk section transverse to trunk length by means of flexible measuring tape; on even portions of stem base part of growing tree, measuring perimeter of section by means of measuring tape at distance of 0.5 m from root collar to height of 2.5-3.0 m. Method may be used for analyzing single growing trees, for example, trees growing in forest strips.
EFFECT: increased precision in analysis of growing tree trunks with low quality of shape in stem base part, and wider range of use.
4 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming areas along drainage channel traces and in mid portions between said traces, with width of areas along drainage channel traces making 0.4-0.6 the distance between drainage channel traces; laying out area borders, with drainage channel traces being taken into account.
EFFECT: reduced labor intensity for forest assessment owing to simplified forming of areas between drainage channel traces.
FIELD: forestry, in particular, afforestation amelioration.
SUBSTANCE: method involves planting parts of plants onto area with restricted volume of nutritive substrate and/or soil; restricting said area with root-retaining material. Volume of nutritive substrate and/or soil may be various and it may be restricted with regard to individual trees and/or continuous rows.
EFFECT: reduced labor intensity of works for care of plantations and cleaning cutting, increased stability and durability of forest ranges.
FIELD: forestry, in particular, utilization of five to seven year-old scrub forest and brush wood.
SUBSTANCE: method involves employing system of machines including brush cutter, branch wood pickup, breakage loader for loading of brush cut by brush cutter and gathered by branch wood pickup, and root-extractor for extracting roots and forming row of gathered wood to be left for molding. Brush cutter performs shuttling motions along longitudinal strips of felling area while turning at felling area boundaries to cut sprouts and form low rows of sprouts at both sides of brush cutter over the entire felling area. Branch wood pickup operates from distal or proximal end of felling area by performing the same shuttling motions along strips perpendicular to sprouts axes while turning at felling area boundaries to form high rows of sprouts. Boom-type loader loads rows of sprouts by means of open-side grapple into machine body for transportation to reprocessing site.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and provision for commercial application of sprouts.