Reversible plates of refiner with low energy consumption
FIELD: machine engineering.
SUBSTANCE: lignocellulosic material grinding system comprises a bi-directional segment of the rotor plate with the grinding region of the first rotor plate with at least one grinding zone in the first radial range of the distances between the inner and outer edges of the segment of the rotor plate and the bidirectional segment of the stator plate with the grinding region of the segment of the first stator plate with at least one grinding zone in the second radial range of distances between the inner and outer edges of the segments of the stator plate. The grinding zone of the segment of the first rotor and stator plates contains each series of alternating blades and grooves. The width of the grooves of the first rotor plate is at least 50% greater than the width of the grooves of the first stator plate. The segment of the rotor plate comprises a grinding zone of the second rotor plate in the third radial range of distances between the inner and outer edges of the segment of the rotor plate. The third radial range of distances is located closer to the outer edge of the segment of the rotor plate than the first radial range of distances. The segment of the stator plate also includes the grinding zone of the segment of the second stator plate in the fourth radial distance range between the inner and outer edges of the segment of the stator plate. The third and fourth radial ranges of distances overlap and the grinding region of the segment of the second rotor plate has at least one grinding zone, comprising a series of alternating blades and grooves where the grooves have a groove width of the second rotor plate and the grinding region of the segment of the second stator plate has, at least one grinding zone comprising a series of alternating blades and grooves, where the grooves have a groove width of the second stator plate. The width of the grooves of the second rotor plate is substantially equal to the width of the grooves of the second stator plate. The bi-directional assembly of the refiner plate for the refiner disk contains a rotor and stator plate, each of which has a patterned and reverse side. The figured sides of the rotor and stator plates are opposite to each other. Each of the rotor and stator plates comprises, in accordance with the above described segments, rotor and stator plates with grinding regions.
EFFECT: grinding system and bi-directional assembly provide the possibility of changing the direction of rotation of the refiner plates while maintaining an acceptable wear time.
26 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: flat sample of round shape is loaded with elastic punch in round rigid matrix in several stages, at each of which the intensity of the stress and the intensity of deformations is determines, and the diagram of actual stresses is made.
EFFECT: accuracy and reliability of the test is increased by determining the deformations and stresses in a wide range of plastic deformations directly based on the experimental data.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metal forming and may be used for production of metal tiles. Metal tile sheet represents shaped metal sheet with flutes arranged in trapezoidal patter and crosswise stiffness folds. Note here that crosswise stiffness folds are arranged at angle to short side of shaped sheet to make relief maps in the form of parallelograms with definite angles at vertices.
EFFECT: better sealing of sheets in inclined conjugation line, sufficient water repellant properties at minimum inclination of water drainage surface.
2 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metal forming and may be used in stamping. In stamping, cause of elastic recoil is defined. Versions of proposed method allow forecasting area of stamped article wherein elastic recoil originates by numerical analysis performed with the help of device and data carrier with program for this analysis written thereon.
EFFECT: higher quality and efficiency.
11 cl, 17 dwg, 10 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metal forming, particularly, to defining parameters of bending sections, e.g. rolled stock, welded beams. Bending and contracting forces are applied to section wall. In allowing for section wall axial contraction, relative bending force and resilience curvature are decreased to three times compared with simple flexure. In applying bending force to section flange displacing neutral stress and strain axis from section flange, relative bending force and resilience curvature are increased to 2.5 times compared with simple flexure without allowance fro contact strains. In applying bending force to section flange displacing neutral stress and strain axis toward section flange, relative bending force and resilience curvature are increased by 15% compared with simple flexure without allowance fro contact strains.
EFFECT: higher quality of bending.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metal forming, particularly, shaping. Proposed device comprises chain of blocks with multiple blocks with passage provided therein and shaped to peripheral shape of target cross-section of metal strip, and several rotary assemblies, each furnished with endless guide for displacement of said chain of blocks. Note here that said blocks allow contact between passages and displacement in synchronism with shaped metal strip in shaping zone while section of endless guide surface in shaping zone features required arc length and radius of virtual shaping roller.
EFFECT: higher quality of end products.
16 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: profiled sheet comprises longitudinal corrugations that repeat along the width of a metal sheet and are made of triangular shape with flat sections of identical width between them. Flat sections made by longitudinal corrugations comprises cross corrugations made at the angle to the axis of the flat section. Cross corrugations are made with periodical pitch at the angle to each other in the form of ledges of extended rectangular shape with rounded angles, and the opposite contours of the sheet are made as repeating each other.
EFFECT: increased stiffness of the sheet.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: device consists of bed plate, of two supports mounted on bed plate and of replaceable puncheons. The bed plate rotates around its axis, is installed in a case and performs vertical travels. The case travels in horizontal plane. The supports are mounted on the bed plate, they converge and rock to centre of the bed plate and back under control. A bracket-shaped frame is rigidly tied with the case. A beam rotating around axis of the bed plate in mounted on the frame. The beam has slots, wherein there are installed lengthwise or two cross puncheons. The puncheons are equipped with shank ends corresponding to slots.
EFFECT: simplification of design avoiding usage of additional mechanisms for hoisting, turn and overturn of treated panel; control over dimension of bend section; upgraded quality of parts.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to metal forming, particularly to bending of sheet materials having structures that promote bending. Sheet of material has multiple structures that promote bending, which are configured and arranged so that the bending is carried out along the bending line. Structures that promote bending have arched return parts stretched from the opposite ends backwards along structure that promotes bending in direction towards other return part, and each return part has length and radius of curvature that reduce stress concentrations. Length of arched return part exceeds double thickness of sheet. Side distance, for which the structures promoting bending are shaped from the bending line, is minimised by small radiuses of arches, which join return parts with remaining parts of structures that promote bending. The method is also described for shaping of structure from sheet of material, so that it resists cyclic load, as well as method to increase resistance of structure fatigue developed by bending of material sheet along bending line, having multiple structures that promote bending.
EFFECT: quality improves as a result of better configuration and improved resistance to fatigue.
32 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: steel cylindrical shell contains two surfaces made of corrugated sheet, bump of which are mutually perpendicular, herewith bumps of one of cylindrical surfaces are directed lengthwise of cylinder generatrix and vertexes of corrugation, crimps of both surfaces are contact to each other. Additionally ratio of shells parametres are received experimentally.
EFFECT: reduced metal consumption and increases rigidity of shells.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: bending press contains, at least, one consisting of two parts, bending tool, which is in active joint, at least with one element creating effort, and at least, one coupling bolt, used for force transfer, operating between parts of bending tool and element creating effort. Bending tool with element creating effort and coupling bolt is located crosswise the longitudinal axis of steel sheet, at least, at one transversing longitudinal axis load-carrying member with ability of its shift and fixation.
EFFECT: there are improved bended tubes and process reliability.
11 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metallurgy, namely to methods of straightening of high-tensile titanium alloys. The method of straightening of the metal stock material, subjected to precipitation strengthening, selected from titanium based, nickel based, aluminium based or iron based alloys, includes heating to the temperature of straightening from 0.3 Tm up to temperature 25°F below the ageing temperatures of alloy, the stretching with the applying of pulling stress at least 20% of yield stress and neither equal nor more than the alloy yield stress. Meanwhile the stock material deviates from a straight line no more than by 0.125 inches (3.175 mm) per any 5 ft of length (152.4 cm) or per shorter length. Then the stock material is cooled with the simultaneous application of pulling stress.
EFFECT: after straightening the stock material conserves high durability characteristics.
21 cl, 9 dwg, 2 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: metallurgy industry.
SUBSTANCE: method of heat treatment of products made of a titanium alloy VT16 comprises hardening by heating to the temperature of 790-830°C, exposure and cooling in water. After hardening the product is heated to the temperature of (0.5-0.6)tcm, where tcm is the aging temperature of the alloy, °C, cooling is carried out to a temperature of -10°C with simultaneous exposure of the gas flow and acoustic field with the sound pressure level of 140-160 dB and subsequent aging is carried out at a temperature of 560°C for 3 hours with air cooling.
EFFECT: reduction of the titanium alloy VT16 aging time in the aging process, while maintaining the high level of strength and plasticity.
SUBSTANCE: this process comprises placing the billet inside the mould, its electrical heating therein along with billet expansion and cooling in said mould. Note here that said expansion is carried out to strains exceeding the article material yield point. Billet material structural state thus obtained allows a notable increase in entire set of mechanical properties, e.g. elastic limit, yield point and breaking point.
EFFECT: apart from said properties, higher resilience at room and low temperatures.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metal forming and is intended for straightening of rolled sheet in annealing at constant load, primarily, large-size sheets and boards from titanium alloys. Proposed creep annealing comprises setting of batch composed of one or several sheets onto steel heated plate of vacuum straightening plant. Plant inner space is evacuated at simultaneous loading of the batch outer side, heating to annealing temperature is performed as well as holding and cooling. Cooling is executed with intermediate stage at temperature of 220±20°C with holding of 1 to 5 hours.
EFFECT: stable sheet surface shape.
SUBSTANCE: invention relate to metal treatment by pressure and intended for sheet roll stock correction by creep annealing. Mainly the invention can be applied to large-size sheets and slabs made from titanium alloys. A batch consisting of one or several sheet items is mounted onto steel heated stove and vacuum is created in operating environment while, concurrently, outer surface of the batch is evenly loaded. Then it is heated to the temperature of annealing, exposed and forcibly cooled to no more than 15°C when heat field is uneven on the lower surface of batch and creeping velocity is 10-5-10-8 c-1. The device includes frame, housing, heaters and free-running filler, elastic film, vacuuming and cooling system, ceramic stove with heat-resistant steel flat plate being installed on the stove. The thickness of flat plate is within 90 to 200 mm. In addition, heaters are mounted in grooves stretching along the whole length of ceramic stove. The grooves are also divided into stand-alone adjustable zones.
EFFECT: improved accuracy of large-size sheet items correction, items strength and extended lifetime.
5 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: plastic working of metals, namely straightening of sheet metal.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of subjecting steel plate to sign-variable elastoplastic bending in roller type straightening machine. Before realizing such bending plate is subjected to counter-flake treatment. Then actual value of limit yield for given lot of strip steel is determined. Actual value of rigidity factor at straightening for given lot of strip steel is also determined according to diagram n - σt drawn up for strip steel. Actual value of temperature coefficient is determined according to diagram ε - T for strip steel. Gap between rollers is calculated with use of formula given in specification. Sign-variable elastic-plastic bending of plate is realized at temperature of final stage of counter-flake treatment.
EFFECT: improved quality of products made of steel plates according to invention due to increased limit yield of metal.
3 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: metal working, namely cold working of metals.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of mechanically removing insulation of dismounted tubes; cutting tubes by pieces and opening tubes along seam to troughs. Produced troughs are subjected to unbending with use of press and(or) rollers for producing steel sheets to be chopped along their perimeters. Steel sheets are subjected to reverse bending with use of rollers. Then steel sheets are packed and braced by means of package tape.
EFFECT: lowered costs for releasing remaining stresses of steel sheets.
SUBSTANCE: grinding tacking for disk mill comprises the rotor and the stator annular disks with working surfaces provided with circular blade protrusions, the output end of the cutting edge of a single circular protrusion of the rotor disc relates to its peripheral circumferential edge, and the input end crosses with his inner circumferential edge, the centres of curvature of circumferential cutting edges of the single circular protrusions of the rotor and the stator disks are arranged eccentrically, at one side with respect to their aligned centre, and the point of tangency, the centre of curvature of the circumferential cutting edge of the single circular protrusion of the rotor disk and the aligned centre are on the axis of ordinates. According to the invention, the distance between the crossing points of the inner circumferential edge of the rotary disc and the line of extension of the circumferential cutting edge of its single circular blade protrusion with the ordinate axis is equal to the width of inter-blade groove, the radius of curvature of the circumferential cutting edge of the single circular protrusion of the rotor disc is determined from the relation where R is the radius of the peripheral circumferential edge of the rotor disc, r is the radius of its inner circumferential edge, l is the distance of the centre of curvature of the circumferential cutting edge of the single blade projection of the rotor disk from the aligned centre, S is the width of the inter-blade groove. The predominant effect of tangential forces on the pulp semi-finished product contributes to its greater fibrillation, preservation of natural fibre length and reduction of losses in the form of irreversible wastes.
EFFECT: use of the proposed grinding tacking enables to enhance the quality of processing, the performance, to reduce energy consumption.